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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 19 August 2015, Vol.63(32), pp.7211-8
    Description: New cembranoids 4-carbomethoxyl-10-epigyrosanoldie E (1), 7-acetylsinumaximol B (2), diepoxycembrene B (6), dihydromanaarenolide I (8), and isosinulaflexiolide K (9), along with 11 known related metabolites, were isolated from cultured soft corals Sinularia sandensis and Sinularia flexibilis. The structures were elucidated by means of infrared, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and the absolute configurations of 1, 4, 9, and 15 were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The absolute configurations of these coral metabolites and comparison with known analogues showed that one hypothesis (that cembrane diterpenes possessing an absolute configuration of an isopropyl group at C1 obtained from Alcyonacean soft corals belong to the α series, whereas analogues isolated from Gorgonacean corals belong to the β series) is not applicable for a small number of cembranoids. An in vitro anti-inflammatory study using LPS-stimulated macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 revealed that compounds 9-14 significantly suppressed the accumulation of pro-inflammatory proteins, iNOS and COX-2. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that cembrane-type compounds with one seven-membered lactone moiety at C-1 are potential anti-inflammatory agents. This is the first culture system in the world that has successfully been used to farm S. sandensis.
    Keywords: Sinularia Flexibilis ; Sinularia Sandensis ; Anti-Inflammatory ; Soft Coral ; Structure−Activity Relationship ; Anthozoa -- Chemistry ; Anti-Inflammatory Agents -- Chemistry ; Diterpenes -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00218561
    E-ISSN: 1520-5118
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron, 07 January 2012, Vol.68(1), pp.244-249
    Description: Seven new diterpenoids, namely, flexibilisolides C–G ( – ), flexibilisin C ( ), and a novel 11,12-secoflexibillin ( ), along with seven known compounds, – , were isolated from the Dongsha Atoll soft coral . The structures of the new metabolites were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the NMR data with those of known analogues. Compounds , , and were shown to exhibit moderate cytotoxic activity against HeLa and B16 cancer cell lines, and compound was found to exhibit more potent cytotoxic activity against SK-Hep1 and B16 cancer cell lines. Moreover, compounds , , , , and – could significantly inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS protein and , , , and could reduce the accumulation of COX-2 protein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Seven new diterpenoids, flexibilisolides C–G ( – ), flexibilisin C ( ), and a novel 11,12-secoflexibillin ( ), along with seven known compounds, – , were isolated from the Dongsha Atoll soft coral . Several compounds have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.
    Keywords: Cytotoxic ; Anti-Inflammatory ; Soft Coral ; Sinularia Flexibilis ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    E-ISSN: 1464-5416
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron, 25 November 2012, Vol.68(47), pp.9694-9700
    Description: Nine new steroids, sclerosteroids A–I ( , , , – ), along with 18 known metabolites ( – , , – ), were isolated from the soft coral These structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of sugar moieties in steroidal glycosides – were determined by HPLC analysis of the -tolylthiocarbamate derivatives of the liberated sugars from hydrolysis of these steroidal giycosides. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were measured in vitro.
    Keywords: Scleronephthya Gracillimum ; Sclerosteroids ; O-Tolylthiocarbamate ; Cytotoxic Activity ; Anti-Inflammatory Activity ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    E-ISSN: 1464-5416
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Marine Biology, 2010, Vol.157(2), pp.351-359
    Description: The genotypic compositions of two populations of the brooding coral, Pocillopora damicornis , were studied by exhaustive sampling of adult colonies on a fine scale in southern Taiwan. In addition, 100 larvae were randomly selected among more than 1,000 brooded larvae collected from a single broodparent within each population. Using 7 polymorphic microsatellite markers, both populations were found to be highly clonal, and 7 clonal lineages were characterized. One clonal lineage (C1) dominated both study areas and comprises 54.9% of all colonies sampled, while any of the other 6 clonal lineages represented no more than 5%. Among the 100 larvae randomly selected for genotyping from each broodparent, the extent of clonal reproduction was high, and only 29 and 6 larvae, respectively, were found to be genotypically different from their broodparent. Among the 35 genotypically distinct larvae, 33 were thought to be derived from sexual reproduction, and 2 were assumed to be clonal propagules that had undergone somatic mutations. Two genotypically identical larvae were also found in one of the 2 sexually derived larva arrays, indicating the possible existence of polyembryony. The high proportions of clonality in both adult colonies and brooded larvae suggest that asexually produced larvae might significantly contribute to the recruitment of local populations. The dense clonal population of P. damicornis in the study area favors the quick recolonization view of clonal propagules after disturbances.
    Keywords: Biology ; Oceanography ; Ecology;
    ISSN: 0025-3162
    E-ISSN: 1432-1793
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, March 2015, Vol.84, pp.173-184
    Description: The phylogeny of Coralliidae is being increasingly studied to elucidate their evolutionary history and species delimitation due to global concerns about their conservation. Previous studies on phylogenetic relationships within Coralliidae have pointed out that the two currently recognized genera are not monophyletic and the Coralliidae should be divided into three genera. In order to provide a comprehensive revision of the taxonomy of Coralliidae, we documented 110 specimens using eight mitochondrial and one nuclear loci to reconstruct their phylogeny. The morphological features of 27 type specimens were also examined. Phylogenetic relationships based on both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed two reciprocally monophyletic clades of Coralliidae. One of the clades was further split into two subclades with respect to sequence variation and observable morphological features. Based on the results of genealogical analyses and distinctive morphological features, the three genera classification of Coralliidae proposed by Gray (1867) was redefined. In this revised taxonomic system, , , and consist of 7, 16 and 14 species, respectively. Our results also showed that the cosmopolitan is a species complex containing a cryptic species.
    Keywords: Coralliidae ; Precious Coral ; Deep-Sea Octocoral ; Corallium ; Hemicorallium ; Pleurocorallium ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron Letters, 2010, Vol.51(44), pp.5764-5766
    Description: A structurally unique symmetric sulfur-containing biscembranoid, namely, thioflexibilolide A ( ), was isolated from the soft coral . The structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound has been found to possess significant anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities.
    Keywords: Soft Coral ; Sinularia Flexibilis ; Thioflexibilolide A ; Anti-Inflammatory Activity ; Neuroprotective Activity ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    E-ISSN: 1873-3581
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2015, Vol.84, p.173(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.09.031 Byline: Tzu-Hsuan Tu, Chang-Feng Dai, Ming-Shiou Jeng Abstract: Display Omitted Article History: Received 14 March 2014; Revised 24 September 2014; Accepted 25 September 2014
    Keywords: Corals ; Phylogeny
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron Letters, 01 May 2013, Vol.54(18), pp.2267-2270
    Description: A novel norcembranoidal diterpene, sinulanorcembranolide A ( ), which was found to possess a new carbon skeleton, was isolated from an octocoral identified as . The structure of was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Sinulanorcembranolide A ( ) was proven to be the first norcembranoidal diterpene with carbon–carbon linages between C-5/13 and C-7/12. A plausible biosynthetic pathway of was proposed.
    Keywords: Sinularia ; Sinulanorcembranolide ; Norcembranoidal Diterpene ; Biosynthetic Pathway ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    E-ISSN: 1873-3581
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Marine Biology, 2014, Vol.161(11), p.2495(13)
    Description: Pleistocene eustatic changes in sea level are often invoked to explain genetic divergence among marine organisms. However, molecular phylogenies have revealed relatively few examples of speciation events dating to the Pleistocene. We present a species-level hypothesis of the timing of evolution for the Pomacentrus coelestis species complex (Pomacentridae), based on the nuclear S7 intron and the mitochondrial Cytb gene, and reconstruct ancestral range distributions across the timetree. Ancestral range reconstruction suggests the complex originated in the Coral Triangle and East Indian Ocean, with subsequent range expansion outward from this region. We suggest that land barriers to dispersal (e.g., Indo-Pacific barrier) may be responsible for the divergence between Indian (P. alleni, P. similis, P. caeruleopunctatus, and P. caeruleus) and Pacific (P. micronesicus, P. auriventris, and P. coelestis) species groups, and subsequent isolation by Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations in certain areas of the Coral Triangle (glacial refugia) may play an important role in the diversification of this species complex. Additionally, our analyses show cryptic lineages within P. micronesicus and highlight the need for comprehensive sampling within and among species to reveal recent speciation events.
    Keywords: Damselfish – Genetic Aspects ; Damselfish – Natural History
    ISSN: 0025-3162
    E-ISSN: 14321793
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Marine biology, 2014, Vol.161(11), pp.2495-2507
    Description: Pleistocene eustatic changes in sea level are often invoked to explain genetic divergence among marine organisms. However, molecular phylogenies have revealed relatively few examples of speciation events dating to the Pleistocene. We present a species-level hypothesis of the timing of evolution for the Pomacentrus coelestis species complex (Pomacentridae), based on the nuclear S7 intron and the mitochondrial Cytb gene, and reconstruct ancestral range distributions across the timetree. Ancestral range reconstruction suggests the complex originated in the Coral Triangle and East Indian Ocean, with subsequent range expansion outward from this region. We suggest that land barriers to dispersal (e.g., Indo-Pacific barrier) may be responsible for the divergence between Indian (P. alleni, P. similis, P. caeruleopunctatus, and P. caeruleus) and Pacific (P. micronesicus, P. auriventris, and P. coelestis) species groups, and subsequent isolation by Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations in certain areas of the Coral Triangle (glacial refugia) may play an important role in the diversification of this species complex. Additionally, our analyses show cryptic lineages within P. micronesicus and highlight the need for comprehensive sampling within and among species to reveal recent speciation events. ; p. 2495-2507.
    Keywords: Corals ; Genetic Variation ; Refuge Habitats ; Introns ; Sea Level ; Phylogeny ; Genes ; Biogeography ; Pomacentridae
    ISSN: 0025-3162
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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