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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Aging Cell, October 2012, Vol.11(5), pp.845-855
    Description: The deleterious reactive carbonyls released upon oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in biological membranes are believed to foster cellular aging. Comparative studies in mammals and birds have shown that the susceptibility to peroxidation of membrane lipids peroxidation index (PI) is negatively correlated with longevity. Long‐living marine molluscs are increasingly studied as longevity models, and the presence of different types of lipids in the membranes of these organisms raises questions on the existence of a PI–longevity relationship. We address this question by comparing the longest living metazoan species, the mud clam (maximum reported longevity = 507 year) to four other sympatric bivalve molluscs greatly differing in longevity (28, 37, 92, and 106 year). We contrasted the acyl and alkenyl chain composition of phospholipids from the mitochondrial membranes of these species. The analysis was reproduced in parallel for a mix of other cell membranes to investigate whether a different PI–longevity relationship would be found. The mitochondrial membrane PI was found to have an exponential decrease with increasing longevity among species and is significantly lower for . The PI of other cell membranes showed a linear decrease with increasing longevity among species and was also significantly lower for . These results clearly demonstrate that the PI also decreases with increasing longevity in marine bivalves and that it decreases faster in the mitochondrial membrane than in other membranes in general. Furthermore, the particularly low PI values for can partly explain this species’ extreme longevity.
    Keywords: Aging ; Arctica Islandica ; Bivalve Aging Model ; Mitochondrial Dna ; Nonmethylene‐Interrupted Fatty Acids ; Lipid Peroxidation ; Peroxidation Index ; Plasmalogens
    ISSN: 1474-9718
    E-ISSN: 1474-9726
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2015, Vol.466, p.76(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2015.02.003 Byline: Daniel Munro, Andre L. Martel, Pierre U. Blier Abstract: To counteract the effects of cold on the pace of membrane bound metabolic processes, winter active ectotherms decrease saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and/or increase highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) esterified to phospholipids. Whereas it has been shown that winter dormant species do not undergo this cold counteracting lipid remodeling, no studies have investigated winter facultative quiescent species. The northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria) enters quiescence conditional to temperature decreasing below 6-7[degrees]C. Previous studies have shown that the species can operate a cold counteracting lipid remodeling with temperatures decreasing from 22 to 8[degrees]C, but there is no evidence that further adjustments are made at lower temperatures during quiescence. This study was designed to precisely investigate if cold counteracting lipid remodeling is further operated by M. mercenaria after entrance into quiescence. Individuals were cultured together with two evolutionarily- related (veneroid) cold-tolerant species (Spisula solidissima and Arctica islandica), and exposed to a natural annual temperature change between 12[degrees]C and 2[degrees]C. Individuals of M. mercenaria were sampled in December (beginning of the 2[degrees]C winter temperature plateau), and all three species were sampled in April (end of 2[degrees]C plateau), and again in August (end of 12[degrees]C summer plateau). Gill membrane carbon chain composition (fatty acids + alkenyl chains) was analyzed separately (GC-MS + GC-FID) for mitochondria and other sources of membranes (non-mitochondrial). Valve opening was monitored visually in all species, and markers of lipoxidation (lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS) were measured during winter in M. mercenaria to investigate possible signs of stress. Below 6-7[degrees]C, individuals of M. mercenaria maintained valves closed, and markers of lipoxidation increased. Changes in membrane lipids were observed for this species; however, these were opposite to what would counteract the effects of cold. The chain fluidity index and mol% HUFA were higher in August (12[degrees]C) instead of April (2[degrees]C). In contrast, both cold tolerant species maintained filter-feeding activity during winter and operated a cold counteracting lipid remodeling of mitochondrial membranes. In April, chain fluidity index was higher for S. solidissima and mol% HUFA was higher for A. islandica as compared to August. Our results show that M. mercenaria do not further attempt at counteracting the effects of cold on membranes after entrance into quiescence. Adjusting the pace of membrane processes to that of the whole organisms through conditional cold counteracting lipid remodeling may benefit facultative active ectotherms. Article History: Received 22 November 2014; Revised 3 February 2015; Accepted 4 February 2015
    Keywords: Biological Monitoring – Analysis ; Saturated Fatty Acids – Analysis ; Unsaturated Fatty Acids – Analysis ; Mitochondrial DNA – Analysis ; Lipids – Analysis
    ISSN: 0022-0981
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journals of Gerontology, Series A, 2015, Vol.70(4), p.434(10)
    Description: The susceptibility of membrane lipids to peroxidation (peroxidation index [PI]) increases with the double bond content of fatty acids and is inversely correlated to longevity in mammals, birds, and bivalve molluscs. In molluscs, membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids content can be affected by temperature, nutrition, and the individual's age. In this study, we evaluated how these three parameters may alter correlations between PI and longevity. We determined the fatty acid and dimethyl acetal compositions of phospholipids from gill mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial preparations from the short-lived Spisula solidissima (maximum longevity = 37 years) and the long-lived Arctica islandica (maximum longevity = 507 years) exposed to diet abundance and temperature (season) treatments. We also evaluated the effect of individual age on PI in S. solidissima (from 6 to 23 years). The temperature increase from winter to summer (2 to 12[degrees]C) coincided with decreases in values of PI, proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid, and dimethyl acetals. Higher microalgae supplementation increased polyunsaturated fatty acids and PI and decreased dimethyl acetals; age did not affect the PI in S. solidissima. Our finding that the PI of A. islandica remained significantly lower than that of S. solidissima in corresponding fractions throughout treatments suggests that longevity-related differences in PI are resilient to environmental conditions. Key Words: Arctica islandica--Membrane lipids--Mitochondria--Longevity--Polyunsaturated fatty acids. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glu054
    Keywords: Omega 3 Fatty Acids – Chemical Properties ; Unsaturated Fatty Acids – Chemical Properties ; Mitochondrial DNA – Chemical Properties ; Lipids – Chemical Properties
    ISSN: 1079-5006
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of experimental biology, 01 April 2017, Vol.220(Pt 7), pp.1170-1180
    Description: Mitochondria are widely recognized as a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animal cells, where it is assumed that over-production of ROS leads to an overwhelmed antioxidant system and oxidative stress. In this Commentary, we describe a more nuanced model of mitochondrial ROS metabolism, where integration of ROS production with consumption by the mitochondrial antioxidant pathways may lead to the regulation of ROS levels. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (HO) are the main ROS formed by mitochondria. However, superoxide, a free radical, is converted to the non-radical, membrane-permeant HO; consequently, ROS may readily cross cellular compartments. By combining measurements of production and consumption of HO, it can be shown that isolated mitochondria can intrinsically approach a steady-state concentration of HO in the medium. The central hypothesis here is that mitochondria regulate the concentration of HO to a value set by the balance between production and consumption. In this context, the consumers of ROS are not simply a passive safeguard against oxidative stress; instead, they control the established steady-state concentration of HO By considering the response of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria to high levels of ADP, we demonstrate that HO production by mitochondria is far more sensitive to changes in mitochondrial energetics than is HO consumption; this concept is further extended to evaluate how the muscle mitochondrial HO balance should respond to changes in aerobic work load. We conclude by considering how differences in the ROS consumption pathways may lead to important distinctions amongst tissues, along with briefly examining implications for differing levels of activity, temperature change and metabolic depression.
    Keywords: Antioxidant ; Energetics ; Glutathione Peroxidase ; Hydrogen Peroxide ; Oxidative Stress ; Peroxiredoxin ; Skeletal Muscle ; Thioredoxin ; Hydrogen Peroxide -- Metabolism ; Mitochondria -- Metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00220949
    E-ISSN: 1477-9145
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  • 5
    In: Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 2015, Vol. 70(4), pp.434-443
    Description: The susceptibility of membrane lipids to peroxidation (peroxidation index [PI]) increases with the double bond content of fatty acids and is inversely correlated to longevity in mammals, birds, and bivalve molluscs. In molluscs, membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids content can be affected by temperature, nutrition, and the individual’s age. In this study, we evaluated how these three parameters may alter correlations between PI and longevity. We determined the fatty acid and dimethyl acetal compositions of phospholipids from gill mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial preparations from the short-lived Spisula solidissima (maximum longevity = 37 years) and the long-lived Arctica islandica (maximum longevity = 507 years) exposed to diet abundance and temperature (season) treatments. We also evaluated the effect of individual age on PI in S. solidissima (from 6 to 23 years). The temperature increase from winter to summer (2 to 12°C) coincided with decreases in values of PI, proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid, and dimethyl acetals. Higher microalgae supplementation increased polyunsaturated fatty acids and PI and decreased dimethyl acetals; age did not affect the PI in S. solidissima . Our finding that the PI of A. islandica remained significantly lower than that of S. solidissima in corresponding fractions throughout treatments suggests that longevity-related differences in PI are resilient to environmental conditions.
    Keywords: 〈Kwd〉 〈Italic〉Arctica Islandica〈/Italic〉 〈/Kwd〉 ; Membrane Lipids ; Mitochondria ; Longevity ; Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.
    ISSN: 1079-5006
    E-ISSN: 1758-535X
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  • 6
    In: Contemporary Political Theory, 2011, Vol.10(1), p.102
    Description: Although Ontario's first experiment with faith-based arbitration ended in 2006 with the Liberal government's amendment of the 1991 Arbitration Act to disallow faith-based arbitration, the debate about whether such tribunals should be permitted in a multicultural democracy is still open given that actors in a number of jurisdictions persist with campaigns to have faith-based arbitration recognized as legitimate. Are faith-based arbitration tribunals permissible in a multicultural democracy? Does faith-based arbitration put the rights of women and children at risk? More generally, are the requirements of democratic stability and legitimacy compatible with this sort of legal pluralism in family and civil law? The author assesses faith-based arbitration from the perspective of deliberative democracy and argues that, if certain institutional reforms and safeguards are adopted, faith-based arbitration may serve to improve deliberative reciprocity across group boundaries, rather than harm stability and integration in a multicultural democracy as critics suggest. Adapted from the source document. Reprinted by permission of Palgrave Macmillan
    Keywords: Religious Influences ; Arbitration ; Deliberative Democracy ; Citizenship ; Faith ; Multiculturalism ; Legitimacy ; Basic Rights ; Ontario ; Canada ; Political Science;
    ISSN: 1470-8914
    E-ISSN: 14769336
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: BBA - Bioenergetics, 2014, Vol.1837, p.e63
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2014.05.241 Byline: Daniel Munro, Jason Treberg, Nicolas Pichaud, Pierre U. Blier
    ISSN: 0005-2728
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, May 2015, Vol.466, pp.76-84
    Description: To counteract the effects of cold on the pace of membrane bound metabolic processes, winter active ectotherms decrease saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and/or increase highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) esterified to phospholipids. Whereas it has been shown that winter dormant species do not undergo this cold counteracting lipid remodeling, no studies have investigated winter facultative quiescent species. The northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria) enters quiescence conditional to temperature decreasing below 6–7 °C. Previous studies have shown that the species can operate a cold counteracting lipid remodeling with temperatures decreasing from 22 to 8 °C, but there is no evidence that further adjustments are made at lower temperatures during quiescence. This study was designed to precisely investigate if cold counteracting lipid remodeling is further operated by M. mercenaria after entrance into quiescence. Individuals were cultured together with two evolutionarily- related (veneroid) cold-tolerant species (Spisula solidissima and Arctica islandica), and exposed to a natural annual temperature change between 12 °C and 2 °C. Individuals of M. mercenaria were sampled in December (beginning of the 2 °C winter temperature plateau), and all three species were sampled in April (end of 2 °C plateau), and again in August (end of 12 °C summer plateau). Gill membrane carbon chain composition (fatty acids + alkenyl chains) was analyzed separately (GC-MS + GC-FID) for mitochondria and other sources of membranes (non-mitochondrial). Valve opening was monitored visually in all species, and markers of lipoxidation (lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS) were measured during winter in M. mercenaria to investigate possible signs of stress. Below 6–7 °C, individuals of M. mercenaria maintained valves closed, and markers of lipoxidation increased. Changes in membrane lipids were observed for this species; however, these were opposite to what would counteract the effects of cold. The chain fluidity index and mol% HUFA were higher in August (12 °C) instead of April (2 °C). In contrast, both cold tolerant species maintained filter-feeding activity during winter and operated a cold counteracting lipid remodeling of mitochondrial membranes. In April, chain fluidity index was higher for S. solidissima and mol% HUFA was higher for A. islandica as compared to August. Our results show that M. mercenaria do not further attempt at counteracting the effects of cold on membranes after entrance into quiescence. Adjusting the pace of membrane processes to that of the whole organisms through conditional cold counteracting lipid remodeling may benefit facultative active ectotherms.
    Keywords: Bivalves ; Homeoviscous Adaptation ; Lipid Peroxidation ; Lipid Remodeling ; Mercenaria Mercenaria ; Quiescence ; Biology ; Oceanography ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0022-0981
    E-ISSN: 1879-1697
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, San Francisco: Public Library of Science
    Description: Article discussing the bacterial composition of subgingival plaque among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects to determine the effect that diabetes mellitus has on dental health.
    Keywords: Periodontiitis ; Bacteria ; Diabetes ; Pyrosequencing
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 10
    In: The Eagle Feather, 10/01/2013
    ISSN: The Eagle Feather
    E-ISSN: 23324066
    Source: CrossRef
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