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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 February 2017, Vol.288, pp.204-212
    Description: Deadwood is a key factor in forest ecosystems, yet how it influences forest soil properties is uncertain. We hypothesized that changes in soil properties induced by deadwood mainly depend on the amount of released phenolic matter. Consequently we expected softwood- and hardwood-related deadwood effects on soil to be explained by unequal enrichment of phenolic substances. We measured differences in the quantity and composition of soil organic matter (SOM), pH, nutrient concentrations, and enzymatic activity between paired control and treatment points influenced by deadwood of silver fir ( Mill.) and European beech ( L.), and checked for correlations with total C and phenolic matter; the latter was quantified as aromaticity of water-extractable organic C through specific UV absorbance at 280 nm. Near fir deadwood, aromaticity and effective cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased while pH decreased. In comparison, concentrations of water-extractable organic C, effective CEC, exchangeable Ca and Mg , base saturation, and available molybdenum-reactive P increased near beech deadwood while exchangeable Al decreased. For fir deadwood, soil properties strongly correlated almost exclusively with total C. For beech deadwood, numerous strong correlations with aromaticity indicated that extractable phenolics influenced soil properties. These differences in correlations imply that deadwood affects soil through the composition of added phenolic matter, which would stem from differing decay processes and organisms. Decayed, particulate lignin from brown-rot in fir deadwood as opposed to oxidized, dissolved lignin from white-rot in beech deadwood would account for our observations.
    Keywords: Coarse Woody Debris ; Soil Chemistry ; Lignin ; Brown-Rot Fungi ; White-Rot Fungi ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, November 2013, Vol.195(21), pp.4782-92
    Description: Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is an intracellular second messenger that regulates adaptation processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we have characterized the core components of a c-di-GMP signaling pathway in the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Specifically, we have directly identified and characterized three active diguanylate cyclases, DgcP, DgcK, and DgcW (formerly YtrP, YhcK, and YkoW, respectively), one active c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, PdeH (formerly YuxH), and a cyclic-diguanylate (c-di-GMP) receptor, DgrA (formerly YpfA). Furthermore, elevation of c-di-GMP levels in B. subtilis led to inhibition of swarming motility, whereas biofilm formation was unaffected. Our work establishes paradigms for Gram-positive c-di-GMP signaling, and we have shown that the concise signaling system identified in B. subtilis serves as a powerful heterologous host for the study of c-di-GMP enzymes from bacteria predicted to possess larger, more-complex signaling systems.
    Keywords: Bacillus Subtilis -- Metabolism ; Cyclic Gmp -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 3
    In: Chemical Communications, 2010, Vol.46(13), pp.2274-2276
    Description: Polymeric dinuclear alkynylcopper( i ) complexes, for example phenylethynylcopper( i ), can be prepared by a robust method involving the interaction of terminal alkynes with copper( ii ) salts in acetonitrile. The use of the ladder polymers provides heterogeneous catalysts for copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions and provides important mechanistic information.
    Keywords: Acetonitrile ; Alkynes ; Catalysis ; Catalysts ; Cycloaddition ; Ladders ; Terminals ; Miscellaneous Sciences (So) ; Components and Materials (General) (Ea);
    ISSN: 1359-7345
    E-ISSN: 1364-548X
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  • 4
    In: Nature, 2016, Vol.529(7584), p.6
    Description: Whisper it, but science and the church seem to be walking hand-in-hand on one of the defining issues of the twenty-first century, and in a way that is truly remarkable. The issue is climate change, and the force behind this new reconciliation is Pope Francis.
    Keywords: United States–Us ; Francis (Pope) ; Science ; Activists ; Political Activism ; International Agreements ; Values ; Politics ; Scientists ; Climate Change ; Conservatism ; Catholicism ; Roman Catholic Church;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 5
    In: Nature, 2015, Vol.526(7573), p.306
    Keywords: Atmosphere -- Chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide -- Isolation & Purification ; Industry -- Economics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    ISSN: 14764687
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 6
    In: Nature, 2015, Vol.523(7560), p.267
    Keywords: Lobbying ; Smoking Prevention ; Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Smoking Cessation -- Methods;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    In: Nature, 2016, Vol.529(7584), p.22
    Description: Gear up for some big birthdays, as anniversaries roll around for Star Trek, H. G. Wells and the US National Park Service. And jostling for the spotlight are Finding Nemo's fishy crew, a modern twist on haute couture, groundbreaking artists, ground-quaking dinosaurs and (perhaps) Keanu Reeves. Daniel Cressey reports.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 8
    In: Nature, 2015, Vol.528(7581), p.176
    Keywords: Oceanography -- Economics ; Robotics -- Trends;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 9
    In: Nature, 2015, Vol.524(7563), p.18
    Keywords: Acids–Adverse Effects ; Animals–Analysis ; Aquatic Organisms–Chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide–Drug Effects ; Fisheries–Metabolism ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration–Adverse Effects ; Models, Biological–Analysis ; Oceans and Seas–Chemistry ; Seawater–Economics ; Uncertainty–Chemistry ; Acids ; Carbon Dioxide;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 10
    In: Nature, 2015, Vol.526(7573), p.307
    Description: The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded last week to three researchers for their work on DNA repair. Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar "mapped, at a molecular level, how cells repair damaged DNA and safeguard the genetic information", said the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, which awards the prize.
    Keywords: Nobel Prizes ; DNA Repair ; Studies ; Enzymes ; Deoxyribonucleic Acid–DNA ; Researchers;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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