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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Economics Letters, 2011, Vol.113(1), pp.70-72
    Description: We show how most Humphrey–Hawkins testimonies by Paul Volcker and Alan Greenspan were difficult to follow, implying the general public needs information through different, more accessible communications. Still, it is not obvious that Greenspan was increasingly ‘mumbling with great incoherence’. ► Clarity is a key element of central bank transparency. ► Humphrey–Hawkins testimonies were often difficult to follow. ► Readability measures should be carefully interpreted.
    Keywords: Central Bank Communication ; Readability ; Greenspan ; Transparency ; Economics
    ISSN: 0165-1765
    E-ISSN: 1873-7374
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of banking & finance, 2013, Vol.37(3), pp. 989-998
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2012.11.005 Byline: Anneke Kosse (a), David-Jan Jansen (b) Keywords: Consumer payments; Habits; Debit card; Cash; Migration Abstract: a* Foreign backgrounds influence choice between payment instruments after migration. a* Evidence based on diary survey among 2258 Dutch residents. a* Consumers originating from cash-oriented countries more likely to use cash. a* Differences in payment behavior only present for first-generation migrants. a* Uncertain that targeted information campaign on debit cards will be cost effective. Author Affiliation: (a) De Nederlandsche Bank, Cash and Payment Systems Division, P.O. Box 98, 1000 AB Amsterdam, The Netherlands (b) De Nederlandsche Bank, Economics and Research Division, P.O. Box 98, 1000 AB Amsterdam, The Netherlands Article History: Received 12 January 2012; Accepted 5 November 2012
    Keywords: Debit Cards -- Target Marketing;
    ISSN: 03784266
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Social Indicators Research, 2016, Vol.127(2), pp.577-600
    Description: Using eight annual household surveys for the Netherlands between 2006 and 2013, we find that respondents’ personal adverse financial crisis experiences do not only reduce their trust in banks, but also have an immediate negative effect on generalized trust. Respondents who were customers of a bank that ran into problems have less trust in banks than respondents without this experience. Respondents who were customer of a bank that failed have a significantly stronger decline of generalized trust than other respondents. Our results also suggest that personal financial crisis experiences do not have a significant direct effect on trust in the banking supervisor.
    Keywords: Trust in financial firms ; Generalized trust ; Bank bailout ; Bank failure ; Financial crisis ; Households ; Survey data
    ISSN: 0303-8300
    E-ISSN: 1573-0921
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pediatrics, 2018, Vol.177(11), pp.1697-1704
    Description: Neonates with low birthweight (LBW) represent a vulnerable population. This retrospective study analyzed the birth frequency of diseases detected by neonatal screening (NBS) in normal and LBW neonates in the Czech Republic. Between years 2002 and 2016, the number of screened disorders in the Czech Republic gradually increased from two to 13. Prevalence of screened diseases was calculated for cohorts ranging from 777,100 to 1,277,283 neonates stratified by birthweight. Odds ratio of the association of LBW with each disease was calculated and statistical significance was evaluated using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. Three diseases were associated with higher risk of prevalence in LBW neonates, namely congenital hypothyroidism (OR 2.50, CI 1.92; 3.25), cystic fibrosis (OR 2.44, CI 1.51; 3.94), and long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) (OR 7.74, CI 2.18; 27.42). Conclusion : Although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood, results can be hypothesized that LBW (respectively prematurity) may lead to the secondary and often transitory hypothyroidism while cystic fibrosis and LCHADD may manifest already prenatally and result into preterm birth and LBW. What is Known: • The percentage of low birthweight (LBW) neonates in the Czech Republic has been increasing. • Previously published studies reported positive association between LBW and congenital hypothyroidism and cystic fibrosis. What is New: • The association between LCHADD and LBW has not yet been described. • LBW can be the first manifestation of cystic fibrosis and LCHADD.
    Keywords: Congenital hypothyroidism ; Cystic fibrosis ; Long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency ; Low birthweight ; Neonatal screening
    ISSN: 0340-6199
    E-ISSN: 1432-1076
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Banking and Finance, March 2013, Vol.37(3), pp.989-998
    Description: ► Foreign backgrounds influence choice between payment instruments after migration. ► Evidence based on diary survey among 2258 Dutch residents. ► Consumers originating from cash-oriented countries more likely to use cash. ► Differences in payment behavior only present for first-generation migrants. ► Uncertain that targeted information campaign on debit cards will be cost effective. Is having a foreign background a relevant factor in choosing between payment instruments in consumer point-of-sale transactions after migration? We analyze this question using a unique diary survey in which both participants with a Dutch and a foreign background documented their daily purchases. We present several pieces of evidence suggesting that foreign backgrounds still influence the choice between payment instruments after migration to the Netherlands. For instance, we find that first-generation migrants from a number of countries that can be seen as cash-oriented are more likely to use cash in the Netherlands. At the same time, second-generation migrants have similar payment habits as individuals with a Dutch background. This finding suggests that payment behavior is not passed on between generations, but affected by host country payment habits. Finally, we suggest that, in this context, special information campaigns to increase debit card usage will not have clear net social benefits.
    Keywords: Consumer Payments ; Habits ; Debit Card ; Cash ; Migration ; Business
    ISSN: 0378-4266
    E-ISSN: 1872-6372
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  • 6
    In: Contemporary Economic Policy, October 2011, Vol.29(4), pp.494-509
    Description: ( E44, E52, E58)
    Keywords: United States–Us ; Greenspan, Alan ; Studies ; Banking ; Markets ; Statistics ; Central Banks ; Monetary Policy ; Central Banks ; Federal Reserve Monetary Policy ; Volatility ; Securities Markets ; Communication ; Public Officials ; Federal Reserve System;
    ISSN: 1074-3529
    E-ISSN: 1465-7287
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 07 August 2018, Vol.90(15), pp.8793-8799
    Description: The use of plastic materials in daily life, industry, and agriculture can cause soil pollution with plastic fragments down to the micrometer scale, i.e., microplastics. Quantitative assessment of microplastics in soil has been limited so far. Until now, microplastic analyses in soil require laborious sample cleanup and are mostly restricted to qualitative assessments. In this study, we applied thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) to develop a method for the direct quantitative analysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) without further sample pretreatment. For this, soil samples containing 1.61 ± 0.15 wt % organic matter were spiked with 0.23-4.59 wt % PET bottle recyclate microplastics. dl-Cysteine was used as the internal standard (IS). Sample mixtures were pyrolyzed with a 5 K min ramp (40-1000 °C), while sample mass loss and MS signal intensity of typical PET pyrolysis products were recorded. We found MS signal intensities linearly responding to microplastic concentrations. The most-promising results were obtained with the IS-corrected PET pyrolysis product vinylbenzene/benzoic acid ( m/ z = 105, adj. R = 0.987). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.07 and 1.72 wt % PET, respectively. Our results suggest that TGA-MS can be an easy and viable complement to existing methods such as pyrolysis or thermogravimetry-thermal desorption assays followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection or to spectral microscopy techniques.
    Keywords: Microplastics ; Quantitative-Analysis ; Pyrolysis ; Terephthalate ; Soil-Pollution ; Soil-Analysis ; Ground-Samples ; Mass-Reduction ; Cysteine ; Benzoic-Acid ; Agricultural-Industry ; Fragment ; Organic-Medium ; Detection-Limit ; Thermogravimetric-Analysis ; Spectral-Technique ; Mikroplastik ; Quantitative Analyse ; Pyrolyse ; Terephthalat ; Bodenverschmutzung ; Bodenanalyse ; Bodenprobe ; Massenverringerung ; Cystein ; Benzoesäure ; Agrikultur ; Fragment ; Organisches Material ; Nachweisgrenze ; Thermogravimetrie ; Spektralverfahren ; Engineering ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, September 2018, Vol.207, pp.590-600
    Description: Ballast water managements systems (BWMS) installed on vessels may use active substances to inactivate or kill organisms in the ballast water. This paper provides new insights in this global issue - discharge of hazardous disinfection by-products with ballast water and related risk assessment for the environment. Considering the possible extent of this issue, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) engaged the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP)-Ballast Water Working Group (BWWG) to oversee the evaluation process of BWMS that make use of active substances to prevent negative effects. We analysed all BWMS that received IMO final approval over a decade until 2017 and provide an overview of active substances used for ballast water treatment and disinfection by-products in the discharged ballast water. A risk assessment was conducted using the GESAMP-BWWG methodology for two very different commercial ports (Koper, Slovenia and Hamburg, Germany). Some relevant chemicals (chloropicrin, monochloroacetic acid, and dibromoacetonitrile) and other chemicals (isocyanuric acid and sodium thiosulphate) reached levels of concern, indicating a risk for aquatic organisms after discharge of that ballast water. From this analysis, it became clear GESAMP-BWWG worst-case scenario assumptions do not fully account for the potential environmental risks. We provide recommendations how to make this risk assessment more robust, recommend further research, and urge for policy as well as regulatory responses.
    Keywords: Ballast Water Treatment ; Active Substances ; Disinfection By-Products ; Environmental Health ; Ecotoxicology ; Risk Assessment ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 9
    In: Circulation, 2012, Vol.125(25), pp.3117-3126
    Description: BACKGROUND—: Molecular imaging is a fast emerging technology allowing noninvasive detection of vascular pathologies. However, imaging modalities offering high resolution currently do not allow real-time imaging. We hypothesized that contrast-enhanced ultrasound with microbubbles (MBs) selectively targeted to activated platelets would offer high-resolution, real-time molecular imaging of evolving and dissolving arterial thrombi. METHODS AND RESULTS—: Lipid-shell based gas-filled MBs were conjugated to either a single-chain antibody specific for activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa via binding to a Ligand-Induced Binding Site (LIBS-MBs) or a nonspecific single-chain antibody (control MBs). Successful conjugation was assessed in flow cytometry and immunofluorescence double staining. LIBS-MBs but not control MBs strongly adhered to both immobilized activated platelets and microthrombi under flow. Thrombi induced in carotid arteries of C57Bl6 mice in vivo by ferric chloride injury were then assessed with ultrasound before and 20 minutes after MB injection through the use of gray-scale area intensity measurement. Gray-scale units converted to decibels demonstrated a significant increase after LIBS-MB but not after control MB injection (9.55±1.7 versus 1.46±1.3 dB; P〈0.01). Furthermore, after thrombolysis with urokinase, LIBS-MB ultrasound imaging allows monitoring of the reduction of thrombus size (P〈0.001). CONCLUSION—: We demonstrate that glycoprotein IIb/IIIa–targeted MBs specifically bind to activated platelets in vitro and allow real-time molecular imaging of acute arterial thrombosis and monitoring of the success or failure of pharmacological thrombolysis in vivo.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0009-7322
    E-ISSN: 15244539
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  • 10
    In: Nature, 2017
    Description: Cytosolic DNA arising from intracellular pathogens triggers a powerful innate immune response. It is sensed by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which elicits the production of type I interferons by generating the second messenger 2'3'-cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Endogenous nuclear or mitochondrial DNA can also be sensed by cGAS under certain conditions, resulting in sterile inflammation. The cGAS dimer binds two DNA ligands shorter than 20 base pairs side-by-side, but 20-base-pair DNA fails to activate cGAS in vivo and is a poor activator in vitro. Here we show that cGAS is activated in a strongly DNA length-dependent manner both in vitro and in human cells. We also show that cGAS dimers form ladder-like networks with DNA, leading to cooperative sensing of DNA length: assembly of the pioneering cGAS dimer between two DNA molecules is ineffective; but, once formed, it prearranges the flanking DNA to promote binding of subsequent cGAS dimers. Remarkably, bacterial and mitochondrial nucleoid proteins HU and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), as well as high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), can strongly stimulate long DNA sensing by cGAS. U-turns and bends in DNA induced by these proteins pre-structure DNA to nucleate cGAS dimers. Our results suggest a nucleation-cooperativity-based mechanism for sensitive detection of mitochondrial DNA and pathogen genomes, and identify HMGB/TFAM proteins as DNA-structuring host factors. They provide an explanation for the peculiar cGAS dimer structure and suggest that cGAS preferentially binds incomplete nucleoid-like structures or bent DNA.
    Keywords: DNA -- Chemistry ; DNA-Binding Proteins -- Metabolism ; Hmgb Proteins -- Metabolism ; High Mobility Group Proteins -- Metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Nucleotidyltransferases -- Metabolism ; Transcription Factors -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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