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  • 1
    In: Addiction, September 2010, Vol.105(9), pp.1589-1596
    Description: Assess long‐term trends of the correlation between alcohol sales data and survey data. Analyses of state alcohol consumption data from the US Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System based on sales, tax receipts or alcohol shipments. Cross‐sectional, state annual estimates of alcohol‐related measures for adults from the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System using telephone surveys. United States. State alcohol tax authorities, alcohol vendors, alcohol industry (sales data) and randomly selected adults aged ≥ 18 years 1993–2006 (survey data). State‐level per capita annual alcohol consumption estimates from sales data. Self‐reported alcohol consumption, current drinking, heavy drinking, binge drinking and alcohol‐impaired driving from surveys. Correlation coefficients were calculated using linear regression models. State survey estimates of consumption accounted for a median of 22% to 32% of state sales data across years. Nevertheless, state consumption estimates from both sources were strongly correlated with annual r‐values ranging from 0.55–0.71. State sales data had moderate‐to‐strong correlations with survey estimates of current drinking, heavy drinking and binge drinking (range of r‐values across years: 0.57–0.65; 0.33–0.70 and 0.45–0.61, respectively), but a weaker correlation with alcohol‐impaired driving (range of r‐values: 0.24–0.56). There were no trends in the magnitude of correlation coefficients. Although state surveys substantially underestimated alcohol consumption, the consistency of the strength of the association between sales consumption and survey data for most alcohol measures suggest both data sources continue to provide valuable information. These findings support and extend the distribution of consumption model and single distribution theory, suggesting that both sales and survey data are useful for monitoring population changes in alcohol use.
    Keywords: Alcohol Abuse ; Alcohol Drinking ; Cross‐Sectional Studies ; Drinking Behaviors ; Health Surveys ; Statistics
    ISSN: 0965-2140
    E-ISSN: 1360-0443
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(1)
    Description: Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one’s career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987–2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumni (n = 114), and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32) postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140) completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07–7.69) and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04–4.90) were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20–0.82) or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17–0.94) had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5–9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15–0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16–0.87, respectively), as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11–0.98). These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Social Sciences ; Social Sciences ; People And Places ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; People And Places ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Social Sciences ; Science Policy
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(6)
    Description: Fbxo7 is an unusual F box protein that augments D-type cyclin complex formation with Cdk6, but not Cdk4 or Cdk2, and its over-expression has been demonstrated to transform immortalised fibroblasts in a Cdk6-dependent manner. Here we present new evidence in vitro and in vivo on the oncogenic potential of this regulatory protein in primary haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Increasing Fbxo7 expression in HSPCs suppressed their colony forming ability in vitro , specifically decreasing CD11b (Mac1) expression, and these effects were dependent on an intact p53 pathway. Furthermore, increased Fbxo7 levels enhanced the proliferative capacity of p53 null HSPCs when they were grown in reduced concentrations of stem cell factor. Finally, irradiated mice reconstituted with p53 null, but not wild-type, HSPCs expressing Fbxo7 showed a statistically significant increase in the incidence of T cell lymphoma in vivo . These data argue that Fbxo7 negatively regulates the proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs in a p53-dependent manner, and that in the absence of p53, Fbxo7 expression can promote T cell lymphomagenesis.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2015, Vol.10(12), pp.e0144880
    Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3-4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987-2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI): 1.91-13.0) were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38-13.2). In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly.
    Keywords: Career Choice ; Neoplasms -- Prevention & Control
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, San Francisco: Public Library of Science
    Description: Article discussing the microbial communities in male first catch urine and how these are highly similar to those paired in urethral swab specimens.
    Keywords: Microbials ; Bacteria ; Urine
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, February 2017, Vol.23(2), pp.336-339
    Description: At a clinic in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, we observed an increase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-negative men with suspected gonococcal urethritis who had urethral cultures positive for N. meningitidis. We describe genomes of 2 of these N. meningitidis sequence type 11 complex urethritis isolates. Clinical evidence suggests these isolates may represent an emerging urethrotropic clade.
    Keywords: Neisseria ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ; Neisseria Meningitidis ; Bacteria ; Genome ; Meningitis ; Sexually Transmitted Disease ; Sexually Transmitted Infections ; Urethra ; Urethritis ; Neisseria Meningitidis -- Classification ; Urethritis -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, CA: Public Library of Science
    Description: This article explores the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides as mechanisms for urinary tract infection risk.
    Keywords: Resident Bacterial Communities ; Host Antimicrobial Peptides ; Urinary Tract Infection
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: BMC Cancer, April 21, 2011, Vol.11, p.148
    Description: Background Despite the recent publication of results from two randomized clinical trials, prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue. There is lack of agreement across studies that PSA screening significantly reduces prostate cancer mortality. In spite of these facts, the widespread use of PSA testing in the United States leads to overdetection and overtreatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer, and its associated harms of incontinence and impotence. Discussion Given the inconclusive results from clinical trials and incongruent PSA screening guidelines, the decision to screen for prostate cancer with PSA testing is an uncertain one for patients and health care providers. Screening guidelines from some health organizations recommend an informed decision making (IDM) or shared decision making (SDM) approach for deciding on PSA screening. These approaches aim to empower patients to choose among the available options by making them active participants in the decision making process. By increasing involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, IDM/SDM places more of the responsibility for a complex decision on the patient. Research suggests, however, that patients are not well-informed of the harms and benefits associated with prostate cancer screening and are also subject to an assortment of biases, emotion, fears, and irrational thought that interferes with making an informed decision. In response, the IDM/SDM approaches can be augmented with strategies from the philosophy of libertarian paternalism (LP) to improve decision making. LP uses the insights of behavioural economics to help people better make better choices. Some of the main strategies of LP applicable to PSA decision making are a default decision rule, framing of decision aids, and timing of the decision. In this paper, we propose that applying strategies from libertarian paternalism can help with PSA screening decision-making. Summary Our proposal to augment IDM and SDM approaches with libertarian paternalism strategies is intended to guide patients toward a better decision about testing while maintaining personal freedom of choice. While PSA screening remains controversial and evidence conflicting, a libertarian-paternalism influenced approach to decision making can help prevent the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer.
    Keywords: Prostate-specific Antigen Test -- Usage ; Prostate Cancer -- Diagnosis ; Prostate Cancer -- Care And Treatment ; Prostate Cancer -- Research ; Libertarianism -- Usage
    ISSN: 1471-2407
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMC Cancer, April 21, 2011, Vol.11, p.148
    Description: Background Despite the recent publication of results from two randomized clinical trials, prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue. There is lack of agreement across studies that PSA screening significantly reduces prostate cancer mortality. In spite of these facts, the widespread use of PSA testing in the United States leads to overdetection and overtreatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer, and its associated harms of incontinence and impotence. Discussion Given the inconclusive results from clinical trials and incongruent PSA screening guidelines, the decision to screen for prostate cancer with PSA testing is an uncertain one for patients and health care providers. Screening guidelines from some health organizations recommend an informed decision making (IDM) or shared decision making (SDM) approach for deciding on PSA screening. These approaches aim to empower patients to choose among the available options by making them active participants in the decision making process. By increasing involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, IDM/SDM places more of the responsibility for a complex decision on the patient. Research suggests, however, that patients are not well-informed of the harms and benefits associated with prostate cancer screening and are also subject to an assortment of biases, emotion, fears, and irrational thought that interferes with making an informed decision. In response, the IDM/SDM approaches can be augmented with strategies from the philosophy of libertarian paternalism (LP) to improve decision making. LP uses the insights of behavioural economics to help people better make better choices. Some of the main strategies of LP applicable to PSA decision making are a default decision rule, framing of decision aids, and timing of the decision. In this paper, we propose that applying strategies from libertarian paternalism can help with PSA screening decision-making. Summary Our proposal to augment IDM and SDM approaches with libertarian paternalism strategies is intended to guide patients toward a better decision about testing while maintaining personal freedom of choice. While PSA screening remains controversial and evidence conflicting, a libertarian-paternalism influenced approach to decision making can help prevent the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer.
    Keywords: Prostate-specific Antigen Test -- Usage ; Prostate Cancer -- Diagnosis ; Prostate Cancer -- Care And Treatment ; Prostate Cancer -- Research ; Libertarianism -- Usage
    ISSN: 1471-2407
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    In: Nature Neuroscience, 2013, Vol.16(9), p.1257
    Description: Compelling evidence indicates that two autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease genes, PINK1 (PARK6) and Parkin (PARK2), cooperate to mediate the autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy). Mutations in the F-box domain- containing protein Fbxo7 (encoded by PARK15) also cause early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease, by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that Fbxo7 participates in mitochondrial maintenance through direct interaction with PINK1 and Parkin and acts in Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Cells with reduced Fbxo7 expression showed deficiencies in translocation of Parkin to mitochondria, ubiquitination of mitofusin 1 and mitophagy. In Drosophila, ectopic overexpression of Fbxo7 rescued loss of Parkin, supporting a functional relationship between the two proteins. Parkinson's disease-causing mutations in Fbxo7 interfered with this process, emphasizing the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Parkinson Disease -- Genetic Aspects ; Mitochondria -- Physiological Aspects ; Gene Expression -- Research;
    ISSN: 1097-6256
    E-ISSN: 15461726
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