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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(2)
    Description: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare aggressive form of sarcoma often associated with the tumor syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) on NF1 associated MPNST and determinants of TRAIL sensitivity. MPNST cell lines with complete neurofibromin deficiency were sensitive to apoptotic cell death induced by TRAIL whereas MPNST cells with retained neurofibromin expression or normal human Schwann cells were resistant. Increased sensitivity to TRAIL was associated with overexpression of death receptors, especially DR5. Re-expression of the GAP related domain of neurofibromin (NF1-GRD) suppressed DR5 expression and decreased sensitivity to TRAIL. We show that death receptor expression and TRAIL sensitivity critically depend on c-MYC and that c-MYC amounts are increased by MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signalling pathways which are suppressed by neurofibromin. Furthermore PI3K/AKT signalling strongly suppresses the MYC-antagonist MAD1 which significantly contributes to TRAIL sensitivity. Re-expression of the NF1-GRD decreased c-MYC and increased MAD1 amounts suggesting that neurofibromin influences TRAIL sensitivity at least in part by modulating the MYC/MAX/MAD network. The phytochemical curcumin further increased the sensitivity of neurofibromin deficient MPNST cells to TRAIL. This was presumably mediated by ROS, as it correlated with increased ROS production, was blocked by N-acetylcysteine and mimicked by exogenous ROS.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    In: Modern Pathology, 2014
    Description: Cellular schwannoma is an uncommon, but well-recognized, benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, which can be misdiagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. To develop consensus diagnostic criteria for cellular schwannoma, we reviewed 115 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and 26 cellular schwannoma cases from two institutions. Clinical data were retrieved from the electronic medical records, and morphologic features, maximal mitotic counts, Ki67 labeling indices, and immunohistochemical profiles (SOX10, SOX2, p75NTR, p16, p53, EGFR, and neurofibromin) were assessed. Several features distinguish cellular schwannoma from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. First, in contrast to patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, no metastases or disease-specific deaths were found in patients with cellular schwannoma. More specifically, 5-year progression-free survival rates were 100 and 18%, and 5-year disease-specific survival rates were 100 and 32% for cellular schwannoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, respectively. Second, the presence of Schwannian whorls, a peritumoral capsule, subcapsular lymphocytes, macrophage-rich infiltrates, and the absence of fascicles favored the diagnosis of cellular schwannoma, while the presence of perivascular hypercellularity, tumor herniation into vascular lumens, and necrosis favor malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Third, complete loss of SOX10, neurofibromin or p16 expression, or the presence of EGFR immunoreactivity was specific for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (P〈0.001 for each). Expression of p75NTR was observed in 80% of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors compared with 31% of cellular schwannomas (P〈0.001). Fourth, Ki-67 labeling indices ≥20% were highly predictive of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (87% sensitivity and 96% specificity). Taken together, the combinations of these histopathological and immunohistochemical features provide useful criteria to distinguish between malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and cellular schwannoma with high sensitivity and specificity. Additional retrospective and prospective multicenter studies with larger data sets will be required to validate these findings.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0893-3952
    E-ISSN: 15300285
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, May 2013, Vol.133(5), pp.1372-1375
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-202X
    E-ISSN: 1523-1747
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  • 4
    In: Nature, 2018
    Description: Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging-with substantial inter-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show that the availability of this method may have a substantial impact on diagnostic precision compared to standard methods, resulting in a change of diagnosis in up to 12% of prospective cases. For broader accessibility, we have designed a free online classifier tool, the use of which does not require any additional onsite data processing. Our results provide a blueprint for the generation of machine-learning-based tumour classifiers across other cancer entities, with the potential to fundamentally transform tumour pathology.
    Keywords: DNA Methylation ; Central Nervous System Neoplasms -- Diagnosis;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Acta Neuropathologica, 2013, Vol.125(3), pp.351-358
    Description: Meningiomas are among the most frequent intracranial tumors. The secretory variant of meningioma is characterized by glandular differentiation, formation of intracellular lumina and pseudopsammoma bodies, expression of a distinct pattern of cytokeratins and clinically by pronounced perifocal brain edema. Here we describe whole-exome sequencing analysis of DNA from 16 secretory meningiomas and corresponding constitutional tissues. All secretory meningiomas invariably harbored a mutation in both KLF4 and TRAF7 . Validation in an independent cohort of 14 secretory meningiomas by Sanger sequencing or derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) assay detected the same pattern, with KLF4 mutations observed in a total of 30/30 and TRAF7 mutations in 29/30 of these tumors. All KLF4 mutations were identical, affected codon 409 and resulted in a lysine to glutamine exchange (K409Q). KLF4 mutations were not found in 89 non-secretory meningiomas, 267 other intracranial tumors including gliomas, glioneuronal tumors, pituitary adenomas and metastases, 59 peripheral nerve sheath tumors and 52 pancreatic tumors. TRAF7 mutations were restricted to the WD40 domains. While KLF4 mutations were exclusively seen in secretory meningiomas, TRAF7 mutations were also observed in 7/89 (8 %) of non-secretory meningiomas. KLF4 and TRAF7 mutations were mutually exclusive with NF2 mutations. In conclusion, our findings suggest an essential contribution of combined KLF4 K409Q and TRAF7 mutations in the genesis of secretory meningioma and demonstrate a role for TRAF7 alterations in other non-NF2 meningiomas.
    Keywords: Meningioma ; Secretory ; KLF4 ; TRAF7 ; NF2 ; Krüppel-like factor 4
    ISSN: 0001-6322
    E-ISSN: 1432-0533
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Acta neuropathologica communications, 02 March 2018, Vol.6(1), pp.21
    Description: All isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant solid neoplasms exhibit highly elevated levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Detection of 2HG in tumor tissues currently is performed by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- or LC-MS) or biochemical detection. While these methods are highly accurate, a considerable amount of time for tissue preparation and a relatively high amount of tissue is required for testing. We here present a rapid approach to detect 2HG in brain tumor tissue based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). We analyzed 26 brain tumor samples with known IDH1 or IDH2 mutation and compared readouts to those from 28 brain tumor samples of wildtype IDH status. IDH mutant samples exhibited a clear positive signal for 2HG which was not observed in any of the IDH wildtype tumors. Our analytical pipeline allowed for 2HG detection in less than 5 min. Data were validated by determining 2HG levels in all tissues with a biochemical assay. In conclusion, we developed a protocol for rapid detection of 2HG levels and illustrate the possibility to use MALDI-TOF for the detection of metabolites on frozen tissue sections in a diagnostic setting.
    Keywords: 2-Hydroxyglutarate ; Diffuse Glioma ; Idh Mutation ; Maldi-Tof ; Mass Spectrometry ; Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization ; Brain Neoplasms -- Chemistry ; Glutarates -- Analysis ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 2051-5960
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  • 7
    In: Modern Pathology, 2017
    Description: An increasing body of evidence supports the involvement of NF1 mutations, constitutional or somatic, in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Due to the large size of the NF1 locus, the existence of multiple pseudogenes and the wide spectrum of mechanisms of gene inactivation, the analysis of NF1 gene status is still challenging for most laboratories. Here we sought to assess the efficacy of a recently developed neurofibromin-specific antibody (NFC) in detecting NF1-inactivated GISTs. NFC reactivity was analyzed in a series of 98 GISTs. Of these, 29 were 'NF1-associated' (17 with ascertained NF1 mutations and 12 arising in the context of clinically diagnosed Neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome and thus considered bona fine NF1 inactivated); 38 were 'NF1-unrelated' (either wild-type or carrying non-pathogenic variants of NF1). Thirty-one additional GISTs with no available information on NF1 gene status or with NF1 gene variants of uncertain pathogenic significance were also included in the analysis. Cases were scored as NFC negative when, in the presence of NFC positive internal controls, no cytoplasmic staining was detected in the neoplastic cells. NFC immunoreactivity was lost in 24/29 (83%) NF1-associated GISTs as opposed to only 2/38 (5%) NF1-unrelated GISTs (P=3e-11). NFC staining loss significantly correlated (P=0.007) with the presence of biallelic NF1 inactivation, due essentially to large deletions or truncating mutations. NFC reactivity was instead retained in two cases in which the NF1 alteration was heterozygous and in one case where the pathogenic NF1 variant, although homo/hemizygous, was a missense mutation predicted not to affect neurofibromin half-life. Overall this study provides evidence that NFC is a valuable tool for identifying NF1-inactivated GISTs, thus serving as a surrogate for molecular analysis.
    Keywords: Antibodies, Monoclonal ; DNA Mutational Analysis -- Methods ; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors -- Genetics ; Neurofibromin 1 -- Biosynthesis;
    ISSN: 0893-3952
    E-ISSN: 1530-0285
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  • 8
    In: Brain, 2012, Vol. 135(5), pp.1622-1638
    Description: Classical paraneoplastic encephalitis syndromes with ‘onconeural’ antibodies directed to intracellular antigens, and the recently described paraneoplastic or non-paraneoplastic encephalitides and antibodies against both neural surface antigens (voltage-gated potassium channel-complexes, N -methyl- d -aspartate receptors) and intracellular antigens (glutamic acid decarboxylase-65), constitute an increasingly recognized group of immune-mediated brain diseases. Evidence for specific immune mechanisms, however, is scarce. Here, we report qualitative and quantitative immunopathology in brain tissue (biopsy or autopsy material) of 17 cases with encephalitis and antibodies to either intracellular (Hu, Ma2, glutamic acid decarboxylase) or surface antigenic targets (voltage-gated potassium channel-complex or N -methyl- d -aspartate receptors). We hypothesized that the encephalitides with antibodies against intracellular antigens (intracellular antigen-onconeural and intracellular antigen-glutamic acid decarboxylase groups) would show neurodegeneration mediated by T cell cytotoxicity and the encephalitides with antibodies against surface antigens would be antibody-mediated and would show less T cell involvement. We found a higher CD8/CD3 ratio and more frequent appositions of granzyme-B + cytotoxic T cells to neurons, with associated neuronal loss, in the intracellular antigen-onconeural group (anti-Hu and anti-Ma2 cases) compared to the patients with surface antigens (anti- N -methyl- d -aspartate receptors and anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex cases). One of the glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody encephalitis cases (intracellular antigen-glutamic acid decarboxylase group) showed multiple appositions of GrB-positive T cells to neurons. Generally, however, the glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody cases showed less intense inflammation and also had relatively low CD8/CD3 ratios compared with the intracellular antigen-onconeural cases. Conversely, we found complement C9neo deposition on neurons associated with acute neuronal cell death in the surface antigen group only, specifically in the voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody patients. N -methyl- d -aspartate receptors-antibody cases showed no evidence of antibody and complement-mediated tissue injury and were distinguished from all other encephalitides by the absence of clear neuronal pathology and a low density of inflammatory cells. Although tissue samples varied in location and in the stage of disease, our findings strongly support a central role for T cell-mediated neuronal cytotoxicity in encephalitides with antibodies against intracellular antigens. In voltage-gated potassium channel-complex encephalitis, a subset of the surface antigen antibody encephalitides, an antibody- and complement-mediated immune response appears to be responsible for neuronal loss and cerebral atrophy; the apparent absence of these mechanisms in N -methyl- d -aspartate receptors antibody encephalitis is intriguing and requires further study.
    Keywords: Encephalitis ; Antibodies ; Pathogenic ; Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes ; Complement
    ISSN: 0006-8950
    E-ISSN: 1460-2156
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  • 9
    In: Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 2016, Vol.75(10), pp.925-935
    Description: Glioblastomas (GBM) are aggressive brain tumors that inevitably recur despite surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation. The degree to which recurrent GBM retains its initial immunophenotype is incompletely understood. We generated tissue microarrays of paired initial and posttreatment GBM (3 pairs positive and 17 negative for IDH1) from the same patients and made comparisons in the IDH1-negative group for immunohistochemical and gene expression differences between primary and recurrent tumors. In initial tumors, immunopositivity for Ki-67 in 〉 20% of tumor cells was associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival. Recurrent tumors showed decreased staining for CD34 suggesting lower vessel density. A subset of tumors showed increased staining for markers associated with the mesenchymal gene expression pattern, including CD44, phosphorylated STAT3, and YKL40. Recurrent tumors with the greatest increase in mesenchymal marker expression had rapid clinical progression, but no difference in overall survival after second surgery. Comparison of protein and gene expression data from the same samples revealed a poor correlation. A subset of tumors (15%) showed loss of neurofibromin protein in both initial and recurrent tumors. These data support the notion that GBM progression is associated with a shift toward a mesenchymal phenotype in a subset of tumors and this may portend a more aggressive behavior.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0022-3069
    E-ISSN: 15546578
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  • 10
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