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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, November 2012, Vol.194(21), pp.5864-74
    Description: Hfq is an RNA-binding protein known to regulate a variety of cellular processes by interacting with small RNAs (sRNAs) and mRNAs in prokaryotes. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important opportunistic pathogen affecting primarily hospitalized and immunocompromised hosts. We constructed an hfq deletion mutant (Δhfq) of S. maltophilia and compared the behaviors of wild-type and Δhfq S. maltophilia cells in a variety of assays. This revealed that S. maltophilia Hfq plays a role in biofilm formation and cell motility, as well as susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Moreover, Hfq is crucial for adhesion to bronchial epithelial cells and is required for the replication of S. maltophilia in macrophages. Differential RNA sequencing analysis (dRNA-seq) of RNA isolated from S. maltophilia wild-type and Δhfq strains showed that Hfq regulates the expression of genes encoding flagellar and fimbrial components, transmembrane proteins, and enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of several sRNAs identified by dRNA-seq in wild-type and Δhfq S. maltophilia cells grown in different conditions on Northern blots. The accumulation of two sRNAs was strongly reduced in the absence of Hfq. Furthermore, based on our dRNA-seq analysis we provide a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites in S. maltophilia.
    Keywords: Host Factor 1 Protein -- Metabolism ; Molecular Chaperones -- Metabolism ; RNA, Bacterial -- Metabolism ; Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: BMC Genomics, July 31, 2013, Vol.14(1)
    Description: Background REPs (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromes) are small (20-40 bp) palindromic repeats found in high copies in some prokaryotic genomes, hypothesized to play a role in DNA supercoiling, transcription termination, mRNA stabilization. Results We have monitored a large number of REP elements in prokaryotic genomes, and found that most can be sorted into two large DNA super-families, as they feature at one end unpaired motifs fitting either the GTAG or the CGTC consensus. Tagged REPs have been identified in 〉80 species in 8 different phyla. GTAG and CGTC repeats reside predominantly in microorganisms of the gamma and alpha division of Proteobacteria, respectively. However, the identification of members of both super- families in deeper branching phyla such Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes supports the notion that REPs are old components of the bacterial chromosome. On the basis of sequence content and overall structure, GTAG and CGTC repeats have been assigned to 24 and 4 families, respectively. Of these, some are species-specific, others reside in multiple species, and several organisms contain different REP types. In many families, most units are close to each other in opposite orientation, and may potentially fold into larger secondary structures. In different REP-rich genomes the repeats are predominantly located between unidirectionally and convergently transcribed ORFs. REPs are predominantly located downstream from coding regions, and many are plausibly transcribed and function as RNA elements. REPs located inside genes have been identified in several species. Many lie within replication and global genome repair genes. It has been hypothesized that GTAG REPs are miniature transposons mobilized by specific transposases known as RAYTs (REP associated tyrosine transposases). RAYT genes are flanked either by GTAG repeats or by long terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) unrelated to GTAG repeats. Moderately abundant families of TIRs have been identified in multiple species. Conclusions CGTC REPs apparently lack a dedicated transposase. Future work will clarify whether these elements may be mobilized by RAYTs or other transposases, and assess if de-novo formation of either GTAG or CGTC repeats type still occurs. Keywords: Palindromic sequences, Repeated DNA families, RNA hairpins, Transposases, Mobile DNA, Intragenic DNA elements
    Keywords: Genomes ; Transposons ; Genes ; Tyrosine ; DNA Sequencing ; Prokaryotes ; Cyanobacteria ; Molecular Genetics
    ISSN: 1471-2164
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  • 3
    In: FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2010, Vol. 308(2), pp.185-192
    Description: The genome of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is peppered with palindromic elements called SMAG ( Stenotrophomonas maltophilia GTAG) because they carry at one terminus the tetranucleotide GTAG. The repeats are species-specific variants of the superfamily of repetitive extragenic palindromes (REPs), DNA sequences spread in the intergenic space in many prokaryotic genomes. The genomic organization and the functional features of SMAG elements are described herein. A total of 1650 SMAG elements were identified in the genome of the S. maltophilia K279a strain. The elements are 22–25 bp in size, and can be sorted into five distinct major subfamilies because they have different stem and loop sequences. One fifth of the SMAG family is comprised of single units, 2/5 of elements located at a close distance from each other and 2/5 of elements grouped in tandem arrays of variable lengths. Altogether, SMAGs and intermingled DNA occupy 13% of the intergenic space, and make up 1.4% of the chromosome. Hundreds of genes are immediately flanked by SMAGs, and the level of expression of many may be influenced by the folding of the repeats in the mRNA. Expression analyses suggested that SMAGs function as RNA control sequences, either stabilizing upstream transcripts or favoring their degradation.
    Keywords: Repeated Dna Sequences ; Palindromic Dna ; Stem - Loop Structures ; Whole - Genome Analysis ; Rna Hairpins ; Microbiological Diagnostic
    ISSN: 0378-1097
    E-ISSN: 1574-6968
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Current Microbiology, 2018, Vol.75(11), pp.1434-1440
    Description: Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems are two-partner secretion systems in which toxic CdiA proteins are exported on the outer membrane by cognate transporter CdiB proteins. Upon binding to specific receptors, the C-terminal toxic (CT) domain, detached from CdiA, is delivered to neighbouring cells. Contacts inhibit the growth of not-self-bacteria, lacking immunity proteins co-expressed with CdiA, but promote cooperative behaviours in “self” bacteria, favouring the formation of biofilm structures. The Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 strain features two CdiA, which differ significantly in size and have different CT domains. Homologous proteins sharing the same CT domains have been identified in A. baumannii . The growth inhibition property of the two A. baylyi CdiA proteins was supported by competition assays between wild-type cells and mutants lacking immunity genes. However, neither protein plays a role in biofilm formation or adherence to epithelial cells, as proved by assays carried out with knockout mutants. Inhibitory and stimulatory properties may be similarly uncoupled in A. baumannii proteins.
    Keywords: Protein Binding -- Growth ; Bacteria -- Growth ; Proteins -- Growth;
    ISSN: 0343-8651
    E-ISSN: 1432-0991
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC genomics, 14 November 2015, Vol.16, pp.933
    Description: A giant protein called BAP (biofilm-associated protein) plays a role in biofilm formation and adhesion to host cells in A. baumannii. Most of the protein is made by arrays of 80-110 aa modules featuring immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) motifs. The survey of 541 A. baumannii sequenced strains belonging to 108 STs (sequence types) revealed that BAP is highly polymorphic, distinguishable in three main types for changes both in the repetitive and the COOH region. Analyzing the different STs, we found that 29 % feature type-1, 40 % type-2 BAP, 11 % type-3 BAP, 20 % lack BAP. The type-3 variant is restricted to A. baumannii, type-1 and type-2 BAP have been identified also in other species of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ACB) complex. A. calcoaceticus and A. pittii also encode BAP-like proteins in which Ig-like repeats are replaced by long tracts of alternating serine and aspartic acid residues. We have identified in species of the ACB complex two additional proteins, BLP1 and BLP2 (BAP-like proteins 1 and 2) which feature Ig-like repeats, share with BAP a sequence motif at the NH2 terminus, and are similarly expressed in stationary growth phase. The knock-out of either BLP1 or BLP2 genes of the A. baumannii ST1 AYE strain severely affected biofilm formation, as measured by comparing biofilm biomass and thickness, and adherence to epithelial cells. BLP1 is missing in the majority of type-3 BAP strains. BLP2 is largely conserved, but is frequently missing in BAP-negative cells. Multiple proteins sharing Ig-like repeats seem to be involved in biofilm formation. The uneven distribution of the different BAP types, BLP1, and BLP2 is highly indicative that alternative protein complexes involved in biofilm formation are assembled in different A. baumannii strains.
    Keywords: Acinetobacter Baumannii -- Genetics ; Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1471-2164
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, Nov, 2006, Vol.188(21-22), p.7876(9)
    Description: YPALs (Yersinia palindromic sequences) are miniature DNA insertions scattered along the chromosomes of yersiniae. The spread of these intergenic repeats likely occurred via transposition, as suggested by the presence of target site duplications at their termini and the identification of syntenic chromosomal regions which differ in the presence/absence of YPAL DNA among Yersinia strains. YPALs tend to be inserted closely downstream from the stop codon of flanking genes, and many YPAL targets overlap rho-independent transcriptional terminator-like sequences. This peculiar pattern of insertion supports the hypothesis that most of these repeats are cotranscribed with upstream sequences into mRNAs. YPAL RNAs fold into stable hairpins which may modulate mRNA decay. Accordingly, we found that YPAL-positive transcripts accumulate in Yersinia enterocolitica cells at significantly higher levels than homologous transcripts lacking YPAL sequences in their 3' untranslated region.
    Keywords: Yersinia -- Genetic Aspects ; Base Sequence -- Research ; Dna -- Research ; Genetic Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2005, Vol. 187(23), p.7945
    Description: Genome-wide analyses carried out in silico revealed that the DNA repeats called enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences (ERICs), which are present in several Enterobacteriaceae, are overrepresented in yersiniae. From the alignment of DNA regions from the wholly sequenced Yersinia enterocolitica 8081 and Yersinia pestis CO92 strains, we could establish that ERICs are miniature mobile elements whose insertion leads to duplication of the dinucleotide TA. ERICs feature long terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and can fold as RNA into hairpin structures. The proximity to coding regions suggests that most Y. enterocolitica ERICs are cotranscribed with flanking genes. Elements which either overlap or are located next to stop codons are preferentially inserted in the same (or B) orientation. In contrast, ERICs located far apart from open reading frames are inserted in the opposite (or A) orientation. The expression of genes cotranscribed with A- and B-oriented ERICs has been monitored in vivo. In mRNAs spanning B-oriented ERICs, upstream gene transcripts accumulated at lower levels than downstream gene transcripts. This difference was abolished by treating cells with chloramphenicol. We hypothesize that folding of B-oriented elements is impeded by translating ribosomes. Consequently, upstream RNA degradation is triggered by the unmasking of a site for the RNase E located in the righ[T.sup.-]hand TIR of ERIC. A-oriented ERICs may act in contrast as upstream RNA stabilizers or may have other functions. The hypothesis that ERICs act as regulatory RNA elements is supported by analyses carried out in Yersinia strains which either lack ERIC sequences or carry alternatively oriented ERICs at specific loci.
    Keywords: Yersinia -- Genetic Aspects ; Yersinia -- Research ; Gene Expression -- Research ; Genetic Research;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 31 May 2002, Vol.277(22), pp.19594-9
    Description: In a variety of Drosophila TATA-less promoters, transcription is directed by initiator (Inr) sequences, which are faithfully and efficiently recognized only when flanked 3' by the downstream promoter element (DPE). This motif, which is conserved at approximately 30 bp from the RNA start site, is viewed as a downstream counterpart to the TATA box, and is recognized by the general transcription factor (TF) IID. By transient expression assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, we show that DE1 (distal element 1), a DNA motif located at residues +23 to +29, sustains faithful Inr-dependent transcription as efficiently as the DPE. Transcription significantly increased when DE1 and DPE sequences were adjacently placed on the same template. Results emerging from in vivo RNA analyses matched electrophoretic mobility shift assay data. In agarose-electrophoretic mobility shift assays, retarded DNA-protein complexes resulting from the interaction of human holo-TFIID with either Inr(+)/DPE(+) or Inr(+)/DE1(+) promoters were formed at comparable levels, whereas binding of TFIID to both DE1 and DPE motifs was 2-fold increased. The strict requirement for spacing between the Inr and DPE was not observed for DE1, as locating the motif 4 bp away from the +1 site did not impair transcriptional enhancement. DE1 sequences may be common to many promoters and be overlooked because of their poor sequence homology.
    Keywords: Transcription, Genetic ; DNA Polymerase II -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083351X
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  • 9
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2006, Vol. 188(22), p.7876
    Description: YPALs (Yersinia palindromic sequences) are miniature DNA insertions scattered along the chromosomes of yersiniae. The spread of these intergenic repeats likely occurred via transposition, as suggested by the presence of target site duplications at their termini and the identification of syntenic chromosomal regions which differ in the presence/absence of YPAL DNA among Yersinia strains. YPALs tend to be inserted closely downstream from the stop codon of flanking genes, and many YPAL targets overlap rho-independent transcriptional terminator-like sequences. This peculiar pattern of insertion supports the hypothesis that most of these repeats are cotranscribed with upstream sequences into mRNAs. YPAL RNAs fold into stable hairpins which may modulate mRNA decay. Accordingly, we found that YPAL-positive transcripts accumulate in Yersinia enterocolitica cells at significantly higher levels than homologous transcripts lacking YPAL sequences in their 3' untranslated region. [PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Studies ; Deoxyribonucleic Acid–DNA ; Chromosomes ; Hypotheses;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Microbiology, 01 July 2015, Vol.6
    Description: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly identified as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised, cancer and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Knowledge on innate immune responses to S. maltophilia and its potential modulation is poor. The present work investigated the ability of 12 clinical S. maltophilia strains (5 from CF patients, 7 from non-CF patients) and one environmental strain to survive inside human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). The effects of the bacteria on maturation of and cytokine secretion by DCs were also measured. S. maltophilia strains presented a high degree of heterogeneity in internalization and intracellular replication efficiencies as well as in the ability of S. maltophilia to interfere with normal DCs maturation. By contrast, all S. maltophilia strains were able to activate DCs, as measured by increase in the expression of surface maturation markers and proinflammatory cytokines secretion.
    Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis ; Innate Immune Response ; Opportunistic Pathogen ; Cytokines Secretion ; DC Maturation Markers ; Biology
    E-ISSN: 1664-302X
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