Applied and environmental microbiology, 01 February 2018, Vol.84(3)
Purple nonsulfur bacteria represent a promising resource for biotechnology because of their great metabolic versatility. has been widely studied regarding its metabolism of volatile fatty acid, mainly acetate. As the glyoxylate shunt is unavailable in , the citramalate cycle pathway and the ethylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pathway are proposed as alternative anaplerotic pathways for acetate assimilation. However, despite years of debate, neither has been confirmed to be essential. Here, using functional genomics, we demonstrate that the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway is required for acetate photoassimilation. Moreover, an unexpected reversible long-term adaptation is observed, leading to a drastic decrease in the lag phase characterizing the growth of in the presence of acetate. Using proteomic and genomic analyses, we present evidence that the adaptation phenomenon is associated with reversible amplification and overexpression of a 60-kb genome fragment containing key enzymes of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Our observations suggest that a genome duplication and amplification phenomenon is not only involved in adaptation to acute stress but can also be important for basic carbon metabolism and the redox balance. Purple nonsulfur bacteria represent a major group of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that emerged as a promising resource for biotechnology because of their great metabolic versatility and ability to grow under various conditions. S1H has notably been selected by the European Space Agency to colonize its life support system, called MELiSSA, due to its capacity to perform photoheterotrophic assimilation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), mainly acetate. VFAs are valuable carbon sources for many applications, combining bioremediation of contaminated environments with the generation of added-value products. Acetate is one of the major volatile fatty acids generated as a by-product of fermentation processes. In , purple nonsulfur bacteria, the assimilation of acetate is still under debate since two different pathways have been proposed. Here, we clearly demonstrate that the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway is the major anaplerotic pathway for acetate assimilation in this strain. Interestingly, we further observed that gene duplication and amplification, which represent a well-known phenomenon in antibiotic resistance, also play a regulatory function in carbon metabolism and redox homeostasis.
Acetate Assimilation ; Gene Duplication and Amplification ; Photoheterotrophy ; Redox Homeostasis ; Acetates -- Metabolism ; Adaptation, Physiological -- Genetics ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways -- Genetics ; Rhodospirillum Rubrum -- Genetics
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