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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, November 2013, Vol.195(21), pp.4900-14
    Description: The mineralization of organic matter in anoxic environments relies on the cooperative activities of hydrogen producers and consumers obligately linked by interspecies metabolite exchange in syntrophic consortia that may include sulfate reducing species such as Desulfovibrio. To evaluate the metabolic flexibility of syntrophic Desulfovibrio to adapt to naturally fluctuating methanogenic environments, we studied Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain G20 grown in chemostats under respiratory and syntrophic conditions with alternative methanogenic partners, Methanococcus maripaludis and Methanospirillum hungatei, at different growth rates. Comparative whole-genome transcriptional analyses, complemented by G20 mutant strain growth experiments and physiological data, revealed a significant influence of both energy source availability (as controlled by dilution rate) and methanogen on the electron transfer systems, ratios of interspecies electron carriers, energy generating systems, and interspecies physical associations. A total of 68 genes were commonly differentially expressed under syntrophic versus respiratory lifestyle. Under low-energy (low-growth-rate) conditions, strain G20 further had the capacity to adapt to the metabolism of its methanogenic partners, as shown by its differing gene expression of enzymes involved in the direct metabolic interactions (e.g., periplasmic hydrogenases) and the ratio shift in electron carriers used for interspecies metabolite exchange (hydrogen/formate). A putative monomeric [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase and Hmc (high-molecular-weight-cytochrome c3) complex-linked reverse menaquinone (MQ) redox loop become increasingly important for the reoxidation of the lactate-/pyruvate oxidation-derived redox pair, DsrC(red) and Fd(red), relative to the Qmo-MQ-Qrc (quinone-interacting membrane-bound oxidoreductase; quinone-reducing complex) loop. Together, these data underscore the high enzymatic and metabolic adaptive flexibility that likely sustains Desulfovibrio in naturally fluctuating methanogenic environments.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological -- Physiology ; Desulfovibrio -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, Oct, 2011, Vol.193(19-20), p.5716(12)
    Description: We used high-resolution tiling microarrays and 5' RNA sequencing to identify transcripts in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a model sulfate-reducing bacterium. We identified the first nucleotide position for 1,124 transcripts, including 54 proteins with leaderless transcripts and another 72 genes for which a major transcript initiates within the upstream protein-coding gene, which confounds measurements of the upstream gene's expression. Sequence analysis of these promoters showed that D. vulgaris prefers -10 and -35 boxes different from those preferred by Escherichia coli. A total of 549 transcripts ended at intrinsic (rho-independent) terminators, but most of the other transcripts seemed to have variable ends. We found low-level antisense expression of most genes, and the 5' ends of these transcripts mapped to promoter-like sequences. Because antisense expression was reduced for highly expressed genes, we suspect that elongation of nonspecific antisense transcripts is suppressed by transcription of the sense strand. Finally, we combined the transcript results with comparative analysis and proteomics data to make 505 revisions to the original annotation of 3,531 proteins: we removed 255 (7.5%) proteins, changed 123 (3.6%) start codons, and added 127 (3.7%) proteins that had been missed. Tiling data had higher coverage than shotgun proteomics and hence led to most of the corrections, but many errors probably remain. Our data are available at http://genomics.lbl.gov/supplemental/DvHtranscripts2011/. doi: 10.1128/JB.05563-11
    Keywords: Dna Microarrays -- Usage ; Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans -- Genetic Aspects ; Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans -- Physiological Aspects ; Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans -- Research ; Promoters (Genetics) -- Research ; Transcription (Genetics) -- Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, 09 October 2013, Vol.195(21)
    Description: We performed whole genome analyses of DNA methylation in Shewanella 17 oneidensis MR-1 to examine its possible role in regulating gene expression and 18 other cellular processes. Single-Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing 19 revealed extensive methylation of adenine (N6mA) throughout the 20 genome. These methylated bases were located in five sequence motifs, 21 including three novel targets for Type I restriction/modification enzymes. The 22 sequence motifs targeted by putative methyltranferases were determined via 23 SMRT sequencing of gene knockout mutants. In addition, we found S. 24 oneidensis MR-1 cultures grown under various culture conditions displayed 25 different DNA methylation patterns. However, the small number of differentially 26 methylated sites could not be directly linked to the much larger number of 27 differentially expressed genes in these conditions, suggesting DNA methylation is 28 not a major regulator of gene expression in S. oneidensis MR-1. The enrichment 29 of methylated GATC motifs in the origin of replication indicate DNA methylation 30 may regulate genome replication in a manner similar to that seen in Escherichia 31 coli. Furthermore, comparative analyses suggest that many 32 Gammaproteobacteria, including all members of the Shewanellaceae family, may 33 also utilize DNA methylation to regulate genome replication.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, March 2013, Vol.195(5), pp.990-1004
    Description: Mineralization of organic matter in anoxic environments relies on the cooperative activities of hydrogen producers and consumers linked by interspecies electron transfer in syntrophic consortia that may include sulfate-reducing species (e.g., Desulfovibrio). Physiological differences and various gene repertoires implicated in syntrophic metabolism among Desulfovibrio species suggest considerable variation in the biochemical basis of syntrophy. In this study, comparative transcriptional and mutant analyses of Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain G20 and Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough growing syntrophically with Methanococcus maripaludis on lactate were used to develop new and revised models for their alternative electron transfer and energy conservation systems. Lactate oxidation by strain G20 generates a reduced thiol-disulfide redox pair(s) and ferredoxin that are energetically coupled to H(+)/CO(2) reduction by periplasmic formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase via a flavin-based reverse electron bifurcation process (electron confurcation) and a menaquinone (MQ) redox loop-mediated reverse electron flow involving the membrane-bound Qmo and Qrc complexes. In contrast, strain Hildenborough uses a larger number of cytoplasmic and periplasmic proteins linked in three intertwining pathways to couple H(+) reduction to lactate oxidation. The faster growth of strain G20 in coculture is associated with a kinetic advantage conferred by the Qmo-MQ-Qrc loop as an electron transfer system that permits higher lactate oxidation rates under elevated hydrogen levels (thereby enhancing methanogenic growth) and use of formate as the main electron-exchange mediator (〉70% electron flux), as opposed to the primarily hydrogen-based exchange by strain Hildenborough. This study further demonstrates the absence of a conserved gene core in Desulfovibrio that would determine the ability for a syntrophic lifestyle.
    Keywords: Desulfovibrio -- Growth & Development ; Electron Transport -- Genetics ; Energy Metabolism -- Genetics ; Methanococcus -- Growth & Development
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, October 2012, Vol.194(19), pp.5456-7
    Description: Pelosinus fermentans JBW45 is an anaerobic, lactate-fermenting bacterium isolated from Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation 100-H site (Washington) that was collected after stimulation with a polylactate compound. The genome sequence of this organism will provide insight into the metabolic potential of a predominant population during stimulation for metal-reducing conditions.
    Keywords: Chromium -- Metabolism ; Veillonellaceae -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, 01 February 2018, Vol.84(3)
    Description: Purple nonsulfur bacteria represent a promising resource for biotechnology because of their great metabolic versatility. has been widely studied regarding its metabolism of volatile fatty acid, mainly acetate. As the glyoxylate shunt is unavailable in , the citramalate cycle pathway and the ethylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pathway are proposed as alternative anaplerotic pathways for acetate assimilation. However, despite years of debate, neither has been confirmed to be essential. Here, using functional genomics, we demonstrate that the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway is required for acetate photoassimilation. Moreover, an unexpected reversible long-term adaptation is observed, leading to a drastic decrease in the lag phase characterizing the growth of in the presence of acetate. Using proteomic and genomic analyses, we present evidence that the adaptation phenomenon is associated with reversible amplification and overexpression of a 60-kb genome fragment containing key enzymes of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Our observations suggest that a genome duplication and amplification phenomenon is not only involved in adaptation to acute stress but can also be important for basic carbon metabolism and the redox balance. Purple nonsulfur bacteria represent a major group of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that emerged as a promising resource for biotechnology because of their great metabolic versatility and ability to grow under various conditions. S1H has notably been selected by the European Space Agency to colonize its life support system, called MELiSSA, due to its capacity to perform photoheterotrophic assimilation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), mainly acetate. VFAs are valuable carbon sources for many applications, combining bioremediation of contaminated environments with the generation of added-value products. Acetate is one of the major volatile fatty acids generated as a by-product of fermentation processes. In , purple nonsulfur bacteria, the assimilation of acetate is still under debate since two different pathways have been proposed. Here, we clearly demonstrate that the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway is the major anaplerotic pathway for acetate assimilation in this strain. Interestingly, we further observed that gene duplication and amplification, which represent a well-known phenomenon in antibiotic resistance, also play a regulatory function in carbon metabolism and redox homeostasis.
    Keywords: Acetate Assimilation ; Gene Duplication and Amplification ; Photoheterotrophy ; Redox Homeostasis ; Acetates -- Metabolism ; Adaptation, Physiological -- Genetics ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways -- Genetics ; Rhodospirillum Rubrum -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 06 October 2016, Vol.11(10)
    Description: In order to study how a bacterium allocates its resources, we compared the costs and benefits of most (86%) of the proteins in Escherichia coli K-12 during growth in minimal glucose medium. The cost or investment in each protein was estimated from ribosomal profiling data, and the benefit of each protein was measured by assaying a library of transposon mutants. We found that proteins that are important for fitness are usually highly expressed, and 95% of these proteins are expressed at above 13 parts per million (ppm). Conversely, proteins that do not measurably benefit the host (with a benefit of less than 5% per generation) tend to be weakly expressed, with a median expression of 13 ppm. In aggregate, genes with no detectable benefit account for 31% of protein production, or about 22% if we correct for genetic redundancy. Though some of the apparently unnecessary expression could have subtle benefits in minimal glucose medium, the majority of the burden is due to genes that are important in other conditions. We propose that at least 13% of the cell's protein is on standby in case conditions change.
    Keywords: Basic Biological Sciences ; 60 Applied LIFE Sciences ; Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 24 May 2017, Vol.12(5)
    Description: Although transcriptional regulation is fundamental to understanding bacterial physiology, the targets of most bacterial transcription factors are not known. Comparative genomics has been used to identify likely targets of some of these transcription factors, but these predictions typically lack experimental support. Here, we used mutant fitness data, which measures the importance of each gene for a bacterium's growth across many conditions, to test regulatory predictions from RegPrecise, a curated collection of comparative genomics predictions. Because characterized transcription factors often have correlated fitness with one of their targets (either positively or negatively), correlated fitness patterns provide support for the comparative genomics predictions. At a false discovery rate of 3%, we identified significant cofitness for at least one target of 158 TFs in 107 ortholog groups and from 24 bacteria. Thus, high-throughput genetics can be used to identify a high-confidence subset of the sequence-based regulatory predictions.
    Keywords: Basic Biological Sciences ; 60 Applied LIFE Sciences ; Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(2)
    Description: Genetic interaction mapping is useful for understanding the molecular basis of cellular decision making, but elucidating interactions genome-wide is challenging due to the massive number of gene combinations that must be tested. Here, we demonstrate a simple approach to thoroughly map genetic interactions in bacteria using microfluidic-based single cell sequencing. Using single cell PCR in droplets, we link distinct genetic information into single DNA sequences that can be decoded by next generation sequencing. Our approach is scalable and theoretically enables the pooling of entire interaction libraries to interrogate multiple pairwise genetic interactions in a single culture. The speed, ease, and low-cost of our approach makes genetic interaction mapping viable for routine characterization, allowing the interaction network to be used as a universal read out for a variety of biology experiments, and for the elucidation of interaction networks in non-model organisms.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Engineering And Technology ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 October 2015, Vol.112(48)
    Description: Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a model organism used for studying photosynthesis and the circadian clock, and it is being developed for the production of fuel, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. To identify a comprehensive set of genes and intergenic regions that impacts fitness in S. elongatus, we created a pooled library of ~250,000 transposon mutants and used sequencing to identify the insertion locations. By analyzing the distribution and survival of these mutants, we identified 718 of the organism's 2,723 genes as essential for survival under laboratory conditions. The validity of the essential gene set is supported by its tight overlap with wellconserved genes and its enrichment for core biological processes. The differences noted between our dataset and these predictors of essentiality, however, have led to surprising biological insights. One such finding is that genes in a large portion of the TCA cycle are dispensable, suggesting that S. elongatus does not require a cyclic TCA process. Furthermore, the density of the transposon mutant library enabled individual and global statements about the essentiality of noncoding RNAs, regulatory elements, and other intergenic regions. In this way, a group I intron located in tRNA Leu , which has been used extensively for phylogenetic studies, was shown here to be essential for the survival of S. elongatus. Our survey of essentiality for every locus in the S. elongatus genome serves as a powerful resource for understanding the organism's physiology and defines the essential gene set required for the growth of a photosynthetic organism.
    Keywords: Basic Biological Sciences ; Rb-Tnseq ; Transposon Mutagenesis ; Tn-Seq ; Cyanobacteria ; Photosynthesis ; Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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