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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Culture, Health & Sexuality, 02 November 2018, Vol.20(11), pp.1244-1258
    Description: Well-being is a term commonly used in discussions of sexuality, reproduction and sexual health, yet the meaning of the term is elusive and often disregarded. As an example, the 'well-being' component of sexual and reproductive health and well-being is often not explicitly addressed in research,...
    Keywords: Youth ; Sexuality ; Reproductive Health ; Well-Being ; Fiji ; Sociology & Social History ; Women'S Studies
    ISSN: 1369-1058
    E-ISSN: 1464-5351
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  • 2
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2014
    Description: Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of [less than or equal to] 500 cells/[mm.sup.3]. Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/[mm.sup.3] or 500 cells/[mm.sup.3]. The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of [less than or equal to] 2300 cells/[micro]L had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of 〈350 cells/[mm.sup.3] and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of [less than or equal to] 500 cells/[mm.sup.3] it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.
    Keywords: HIV Infections – Drug Therapy ; HIV Infections – Research ; Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy – Usage ; Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy – Physiological Aspects ; Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy – Research ; White Blood Cell Count – Physiological Aspects ; White Blood Cell Count – Research
    ISSN: 1687-9686
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2014, Vol.2014, 5 pages
    Description: . An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. . We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. . Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm. Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation ). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm or 500 cells/mm. The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/L had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. . Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.
    Keywords: Research Article;
    ISSN: 1687-9686
    E-ISSN: 1687-9694
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 01 April 2017, Vol.64(7), pp.852-859
    Description: The duration of antibody response following reduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine doses has not been determined. We compared the antibody responses in girls previously vaccinated with zero, 1, 2, or 3 doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV; Gardasil, Merck) 6 years previously. A prospective cohort study was undertaken in 200 Fijian girls 15-19 years of age. Approximately equal numbers of girls from 2 main ethnic groups (Fijians of Indian descent [FID] and Indigenous Fijians [iTaukei]) in Fiji were recruited for each dosage groups. Blood was drawn before and 28 days following a single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV; Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline). We measured neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 using the pseudovirion-based neutralization assay. After 6 years (before a dose of 2vHPV was given), the geometric mean NAb titers for all 4 HPV types were not statistically different between 2-dose (2D) and 3-dose (3D) recipients: HPV-6 (3D: 2216 [95% confidence interval {CI},1695-2896]; 2D: 1476 [95% CI, 1019-2137]; P = .07), HPV-11 (3D: 4431 [95% CI, 3396-5783]; 2D: 2951 [95% CI, 1984-4390]; P = .09), HPV-16 (3D: 3373 [95% CI, 2511-4530]; 2D: 3275 [95% CI, 2452-4373]; P = .89); HPV-18 (3D: 628 [95% CI: 445-888]; 2D: 606 [95% CI, 462-862]; P = .89), and were higher in FID than iTaukei girls. Although 1-dose recipients had significantly lower NAb titers than 2-/3-dose recipients, their NAb titers were 5- to 30-fold higher than unvaccinated girls. Post-2vHPV NAb titers against HPV-16 and -18 were not statistically different between girls who received 1, 2, or 3 doses of 4vHPV previously. Two doses of 4vHPV provide similar NAb titers as 3 doses for 6 years, although the clinical significance is unknown. A single dose of 4vHPV elicits antibodies that persisted for at least 6 years, and induced immune memory, suggesting possible protection against HPV vaccine types after a single dose of 4vHPV.
    Keywords: Adolescents ; Human Papillomavirus Vaccine ; Immune Memory ; Neutralizing Antibodies ; Reduced Doses ; Antibodies, Viral -- Immunology ; Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18 -- Immunology ; Papillomaviridae -- Immunology ; Papillomavirus Infections -- Prevention & Control ; Papillomavirus Vaccines -- Immunology
    ISSN: 10584838
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC cell biology, 20 November 2013, Vol.14, pp.50
    Description: Acrosomal proteins play crucial roles in the physiology of fertilization. Identification of proteins localizing to the acrosome is fundamental to the understanding of its contribution to fertilization. Novel proteins are still being reported from acrosome. In order to capture yet unreported proteins localizing to acrosome in particular and sperm in general, 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis of mouse sperm proteins was done. One of the protein spots identified in the above study was reported in the NCBI database as a hypothetical protein from Riken cDNA 1700026L06 that localizes to chromosome number 2. Immunofluorescence studies using the antibody raised in rabbit against the recombinant protein showed that it localized to mouse acrosome and sperm tail. Based on the localization of this protein, it has been named mouse acrosome and sperm tail protein (MAST, [Q7TPM5 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/Q7TPM5)]). This protein shows 96% identity to the rat spermatid specific protein RSB66. Western blotting showed that MAST is expressed testis-specifically. Co-immunoprecipitation studies using the MAST antibody identified two calcium-binding proteins, caldendrin and calreticulin as interacting partners of MAST. Caldendrin and calreticulin genes localize to mouse chromosomes 5 and 8 respectively. In a Yq-deletion mutant mouse, that is subfertile and has a deletion of 2/3rd of the long arm of the Y chromosome, MAST failed to localize to the acrosome. Western blot analysis however, revealed equal expression of MAST in the testes of wild type and mutant mice. The acrosomal calcium-binding proteins present in the MAST IP-complex were upregulated in sperms of Yq-del mice. We have identified a mouse acrosomal protein, MAST, that is expressed testis specifically. MAST does not contain any known motifs for protein interactions; yet it complexes with calcium-binding proteins localizing to the acrosome. The misexpression of all the proteins identified in a complex in the Yq-del mice invokes the hypothesis of a putative pathway regulated by the Y chromosome. The role of Y chromosome in the regulation of this complex is however not clear from the current study.
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Acrosome -- Metabolism ; Chromosomes, Mammalian -- Physiology ; Membrane Glycoproteins -- Metabolism ; Sperm Tail -- Metabolism ; Y Chromosome -- Physiology
    E-ISSN: 1471-2121
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 23 October 2019
    Description: Pneumococcal carriage is a prerequisite for pneumococcal disease. Little is known about whether social contact frequency and intensity are associated with pneumococcal carriage. In Fiji, indigenous iTaukei have higher prevalence of pneumococcal carriage... In 2015, young infants (5-8 weeks), toddlers (12-23 months), children (2-6 years), and caregivers from Suva and surrounding areas, participated in a cross-sectional survey (n = 2014), three years post pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Demographic... iTaukei participants had larger household sizes, higher pneumococcal carriage rates, more contacts, and more frequent contacts of longer duration, compared with FID. The odds of vaccine-type carriage increased by 28% (95% CI 8-53%) P 〈 0.01 in association... iTaukei had greater frequency and intensity of contact compared with FID. Physical contact was associated with pneumococcal carriage. Observed differences in pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence between iTaukei and FID were not explained by...
    Keywords: Carriage ; Density ; Indigenous ; Pcv10 ; Pneumococcal ; Social Contact
    ISSN: 0264410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 8
    In: JAMA Network Open, 2019, Vol.2(10)
    Description: Key Points Question Is pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage associated with mode of delivery in Fijian infants aged 5 to 8 weeks? Findings In this cross-sectional study, pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence, density, and serotype range were higher in infants delivered vaginally vs... Importance Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage is a prerequisite for pneumococcal disease. The main transmission route is from toddlers, who commonly carry pneumococci. However, neonatal pneumococcal disease case reports suggest that vertical pneumococcal transmission may also occur. Objective... This cross-sectional study uses surveys to describe and compare pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and density by vaginal vs cesarean delivery in young Fijian infants.
    Keywords: Research ; Original Investigation ; Online Only ; Global Health
    E-ISSN: 2574-3805
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  • 9
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science, June 19, 2015, Vol.348(6241), p.1340(4)
    Description: The efficiency of biological photosynthesis results from the exquisite organization of photoactive elements that promote rapid movement of charge carriers out of a critical recombination range. If synthetic organic photovoltaic materials could mimic this assembly, charge separation and collection could be markedly enhanced. We show that micelle-forming cationic semiconducting polymers can coassemble in water with cationic fullerene derivatives to create photoinduced electron-transfer cascades that lead to exceptionally long-lived polarons. The stability of the polarons depends on the organization of the polymer-fullerene assembly. Properly designed assemblies can produce separated polaronic charges that are stable for days or weeks in aqueous solution. 10.1126/science.aaa6850
    Keywords: Fullerenes – Optical Properties ; Polyelectrolytes – Optical Properties ; Photosynthesis – Identification and Classification
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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