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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, April 2012, Vol.142(4), pp.771-3
    Description: Stunted child/overweight mother (SCOWT) pairs have been viewed as a distinct phenomenon and much effort has been expended to characterize the environments that create these dual burden households. We hypothesized that the prevalence of SCOWT pairs is not independent of the prevalence of overweight mothers and stunted children in the general population. We analyzed data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2009. Datasets were included if the maternal BMI and the height-for-age Z-scores for children were reported. Mothers were included if they had a living child between 2 and 5 y old and were not currently pregnant. In 121 datasets from 54 countries, 339,202 households met the inclusion criteria. The median prevalences of maternal overweight, childhood stunting, and SCOWT pairs were 19.6% (range 1.6-70.7%), 27.3% (range 6.65-50.8%), and 3.3% (range 0.5-16.0%), respectively. The mean difference between the observed and expected prevalence of SCOWT pairs was -1.18% (95% CI -1.32%, -1.04%). Only two datasets had an observed prevalence of SCOWT pairs that was higher than the expected prevalence, but both were within the 95% CI for the observed prevalence. SCOWT prevalence was more strongly associated with maternal overweight than with child stunting. SCOWT pairs are not independent and their prevalence depends primarily on the prevalence of maternal overweight.
    Keywords: Family Health ; Global Health ; Mothers ; Child Nutrition Disorders -- Epidemiology ; Growth Disorders -- Epidemiology ; Overweight -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Annals of internal medicine, 07 June 2011, Vol.154(11), pp.766-71
    Description: As the third decade since AIDS was first recognized comes to an end, extraordinary advances have occurred in the understanding, treatment, and prevention of HIV infection and AIDS. As a result of these successes, it is now time to focus on future challenges. Paramount among these is reaching the goal of truly controlling and ultimately ending the HIV and AIDS pandemic. To that end, AIDS researchers and public health personnel worldwide are aggressively pursuing 3 key areas of scientific research. Given the availability of highly effective therapeutic regimens for HIV infection, the first challenge is efficiently identifying a maximum number of HIV-infected persons through voluntary HIV testing and initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Second, scientists are trying to develop a cure for HIV infection, which would alleviate the need for lifelong ART. Finally, preventing new cases of HIV infection, which currently number approximately 2.6 million per year globally, is critical to any attempt to end this pandemic. This article addresses each of these challenges and provides directions for the future.
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- Epidemiology ; Biomedical Research -- Trends ; HIV Infections -- Epidemiology ; Pandemics -- Prevention & Control
    ISSN: 00034819
    E-ISSN: 1539-3704
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Psychology of Sport & Exercise, July 2013, Vol.14(4), pp.468-475
    Description: To examine the use of relaxation skills by differentially skilled athletes in relation to the deliberate practice framework. Differentially skilled athletes completed a survey about their use of relaxation skills. 150 athletes representing three skill levels (recreational, college, and professional) completed the deliberate relaxation for sport survey, which assessed relaxation on three deliberate practice dimensions (relevancy, concentration, and enjoyment); time spent in different relaxation skills in a recent typical week; and functions of relaxation. Athletes perceived relaxation as relevant to performance, requiring concentration, and enjoyable, and the relationships between these dimensions were positive. Professional and college athletes perceived relaxation as more relevant to effective competition than recreational athletes. Professional athletes engaged in more relaxation in a typical week than college and recreational athletes. In a typical week, autogenic, eastern, and muscle relaxation types were used least, deep breathing, meditation, and imagery relaxation types moderately, and stretching most. Athletes reported the primary functions of relaxation were to cope with competitive anxiety and promote recovery but relaxation was also reported to be used to cope with “everyday” anxieties associated with being an athlete. More physical (e.g., muscle relaxation) than mental relaxation types were used in relation to coping with competitive anxiety, whereas more mental (e.g., meditation) than physical relaxation types were used in relation to coping with everyday anxiety. The study provides support for the sport-specific framework of deliberate practice in relation to use of relaxation skills and informs the current understanding of self-regulation by athletes. ► We examine relaxation in recreational, college, and professional athletes. ► Athletes perceive relaxation as relevant to performance. ► Professional athletes use more relaxation than college and recreational athletes. ► Key functions of relaxation include coping with anxiety and promoting recovery. ► Imagery and stretching are the most used types of relaxation.
    Keywords: Competitive Anxiety ; Deliberate Practice ; Psychological Preparation ; Psychological Skills ; Recovery ; Self-Regulation ; Recreation & Sports
    ISSN: 1469-0292
    E-ISSN: 1878-5476
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 04 April 2014, Vol.344(6179), pp.49-51
    Description: The development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine is perhaps the most important and challenging goal remaining in HIV-AIDS research. Recent progress using a poxvirus vector prime and envelope protein boost strategy demonstrated a modest but statistically significant level of efficacy and established the concept that a vaccine could prevent HIV infection ( 1 ), and approaches to boost durability and efficacy are currently in the planning stages ( 2 ). But the results of two vaccine concepts based on recombinant adenovirus serotype-5 (rAd5) ( 3 – 5 ) pointed to a potential major problem—that such vaccines might increase susceptibility to HIV infection. This also raised the question of whether the problem extends to some or all of the other recombinant adenovirus vectors currently in development or to other vector-based vaccines.
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines -- Administration & Dosage ; HIV Antigens -- Immunology ; HIV Infections -- Immunology ; HIV-1 -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 27 March 2012, Vol.59(13), pp.E1031-E1031
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(12)61032-8 Byline: Bryan Dieffenbach, Carolyn Haunschild, Benjamin Kipper, Navaid Iqbal, Yang Xue, Alan Maisel Author Affiliation: Veterans Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, CA, USA Article Note: (footnote) ACC Moderated Poster Contributions McCormick Place South, Hall A Monday, March 26, 2012, 11:00 a.m.-Noon Session Title: Lessons Learned in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Abstract Category: 14. Heart Failure: Clinical Presentation Number: 1226-564
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Annals of internal medicine, 18 September 2018, Vol.169(6), pp.411-412
    Description: In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and partners created the “90-90-90” targets, a high-level road map to end the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Specifically, they challenged all countries to diagnose 90% of HIV infections within their borders, provide effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) to 90% of diagnosed persons, and achieve viral suppression (an undetectable viral load) in 90% of treated patients (1). The goal, therefore, was for at least 73% of people living with HIV to achieve viral suppression. The strategy was based largely on the groundbreaking finding of the international clinical trial HPTN 052, which found that sustained viral suppression virtually eliminates heterosexual transmission, a concept known as “treatment as prevention” (TasP) (2). The findings were extended to men who have sex with men (MSM) through the PARTNER (Partners of People on ART—A New Evaluation of the Risks) (3) and Opposites Attract (4) studies, which showed a similar reduction in forward sexual transmission. These results highlighted the critical role that viral suppression could have in helping to control and possibly end the HIV epidemic. As of 2015, the United States had not reached the 90-90-90 targets: Of the approximately 1.1 million people living with HIV in this country, only 51% had achieved viral suppression (5). For TasP to help achieve the goal of ending the HIV epidemic in the United States, it is critical to understand, address, and bridge implementation gaps.
    Keywords: United States–Us ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus–HIV ; Epidemics ; Antiretroviral Drugs ; Disease Transmission ; Homosexuality ; Men;
    ISSN: 00034819
    E-ISSN: 1539-3704
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, Sept 15, 2010, Vol.51(6), p.725(7)
    Keywords: Hiv Infections -- Prevention ; Hiv Infections -- Care And Treatment ; Antiretroviral Agents -- Usage ; Antiretroviral Agents -- Health Aspects ; Epidemics -- United States ; Epidemics -- Control
    ISSN: 1058-4838
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: JAMA, 10/14/2009, Vol.302(14), p.1530
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0098-7484
    E-ISSN: 15383598
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: JAMA, 10 June 2009, Vol.301(22), pp.2380-2
    Description: Dieffenbach and Fauci talk about a study by Granich et al investigating the universal voluntary testing and treatment for prevention of HIV transmission. In conclusion, the mathematical model of researchers for voluntary testing and treatment sets forth a testable strategy that potentially could curtail the global fly pandemic. A number of important issues arise when a program of this potential magnitude and impact is considered. As a model, the influence of specific variables, such as increased behavioral disinhibition, drug resistance, and the higher frequency of transmission during acute HIV infection, should be mathematically evaluated. These kinds of further evaluations will be helpful in prioritizing the series of questions that must be debated and answered by the research community to provide the necessary data to validate or refute this approach.
    Keywords: AIDS Serodiagnosis ; Health Policy ; HIV Infections -- Prevention & Control
    ISSN: 00987484
    E-ISSN: 1538-3598
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Coaching Education, 08/2011, Vol.4(2), pp.97-97
    ISSN: 1938-7016
    Source: CrossRef
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