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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: ChemInform, 10 September 2014, Vol.45(38), pp.no-no
    Description: Review: 152 refs.
    Keywords: Applied Chemistry ; Review ; Environmental Protection ; Waste Gas Purification ; Waste Water Purification ; Surface Chemistry
    ISSN: 0931-7597
    E-ISSN: 1522-2667
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 05 September 2013, Vol.432, pp.8-18
    Description: Processes controlling the dynamics of the soil–water interfacial properties have a high impact on habitat, filter, buffer, storage, and transformation functions of a soil. Besides surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity, also the dynamics of surfaces properties in soils limit the application of well established methods of wettability determination for solid materials. Numerous studies investigated the influence of changing environmental conditions, like water content, pH and drying and wetting temperature on the repellency of soils. The present paper presents an integral approach linking some of the individual results of several studies. Two hypothetical models are suggested in order to explain differences in the nature of repellency between two types of sites and between wettable and repellent samples within each type of site. The chemical nature dominating the soil water repellency at the one type of sites can be best explained by hydrolysis–condensation reactions. The physico-chemical nature dominating the repellency on the other type of site is probably controlled by micelles- or reverse-micelles-like arrangement of amphiphilic molecules during drying. Wetting properties of the surface layers of organic coating on the soil particles then depend on number and size of amphiphilic molecules, pH and ionic strength in the soil solution. It is concluded that local site properties, e.g., soil-type, climate, or land-use, determine which mechanism controls the dynamics of repellency. Future research has to verify the suggested mechanisms before critical environmental conditions can be identified in order to prevent the negative impacts of soil water repellency.
    Keywords: Soil Water Repellency ; Soil Ph ; Amphiphiles ; Hydrolysis-Condensation Reactions ; Supramolecular Structure ; Humic Substances ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    E-ISSN: 1873-4359
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and surfaces, 2013, Vol.432, pp.8-18
    Description: Processes controlling the dynamics of the soil–water interfacial properties have a high impact on habitat, filter, buffer, storage, and transformation functions of a soil. Besides surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity, also the dynamics of surfaces properties in soils limit the application of well established methods of wettability determination for solid materials. Numerous studies investigated the influence of changing environmental conditions, like water content, pH and drying and wetting temperature on the repellency of soils. The present paper presents an integral approach linking some of the individual results of several studies. Two hypothetical models are suggested in order to explain differences in the nature of repellency between two types of sites and between wettable and repellent samples within each type of site. The chemical nature dominating the soil water repellency at the one type of sites can be best explained by hydrolysis–condensation reactions. The physico-chemical nature dominating the repellency on the other type of site is probably controlled by micelles- or reverse-micelles-like arrangement of amphiphilic molecules during drying. Wetting properties of the surface layers of organic coating on the soil particles then depend on number and size of amphiphilic molecules, pH and ionic strength in the soil solution. It is concluded that local site properties, e.g., soil-type, climate, or land-use, determine which mechanism controls the dynamics of repellency. Future research has to verify the suggested mechanisms before critical environmental conditions can be identified in order to prevent the negative impacts of soil water repellency. ; p. 8-18.
    Keywords: Environmental Factors ; Habitats ; Soil Solution ; Drying ; Temperature ; Ionic Strength ; Models ; Soil Water ; Colloids ; Surface Roughness ; Wettability ; Water Content ; Coatings ; Climate ; Land Use ; Ph
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, 15 April 2018, Vol.516, pp.446-455
    Description: Soil water repellency originating from organic coatings plays a crucial role for soil hydraulics and plant water uptake. Focussing on hydrophobicity in the rhizosphere induced by root-mucilage, this study aims to explore the link between macroscopic wettability and nano-microscopic surface properties. The existing knowledge of the nanostructures of organic soil compounds and its effect on wettability is limited by the lack of a method capable to assess the natural spatial heterogeneity of physical and chemical properties. In this contribution, this task is tackled by a geostatistical approach via variogram analysis of topography and adhesion force data acquired by atomic force microscopy and macroscopic sessile drop measurements on dried films of mucilage. The results are discussed following the wetting models given by Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter. Undiluted mucilage formed homogeneous films on the substrate with contact angles 〉90°. For diluted samples contact angles were smaller and incomplete mucilage surface coverage with hole-like structures frequently exhibited increased adhesion forces. Break-free distances of force curves indicated enhanced capillary forces due to adsorbed water films at atmospheric RH (35 ± 2%) that promote wettability. Variogram analysis enabled a description of complex surface structures exceeding the capability of comparative visual inspection.
    Keywords: Soil Water Repellency ; Root-Mucilage ; Contact Angle ; Atomic Force Microscopy ; Adhesion ; Nanomechanical Mapping ; Variogram ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0021-9797
    E-ISSN: 1095-7103
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 02 January 2017, Vol.236, pp.43-51
    Description: Disposal of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a well-recognized environmental and agricultural problem. Spreading on agricultural lands and roads, which is one way of discharging OMW, may result in multiple effects on soil environment, including changes in the potential of the soil to interact with organic compounds. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the persistence and temporal dynamics of effects of prior OMW land application on the sorption of organic compounds to soil, and the role of application season. This knowledge is also important for better understanding of dynamics of organic matter in soil environments. Therefore, in this work sorption of diuron, an urea pesticide, was determined in lab batch experiments on soil sampled from two depths (0–5 and 5–10 cm) in the field, in different time intervals (up to 18 months) following OMW application in various seasons (Spring, Summer and Winter), where Summer application was carried out in “dry” and “wet” (with previous moistening) regimes. The application of typical (local) OMW to the field (in Bait Reema village in Palestinian Authority) enhanced diuron-soil interactions. A greater enhancement effect was on the soil samples from the 5–10 cm layer as compared with that on the samples from the 0–5 cm layer. Larger extents of diuron sorption enhancement, following the prior OMW-soil interactions, were observed at higher diuron concentrations in soil solution. The enhancement effect of OMW on soil sorption of diuron mitigated with time. It was also “season”- dependent such that the OMW field application when carried out in summer led to smaller impacts on diuron sorption, as compared with the application in spring and winter. This work emphasized the importance of long-term observations in understanding the environmental fate of organic compounds in areas affected by OMW disposal and experiencing the “pressure” of anthropogenic organic contaminants.
    Keywords: Olive Mill Wastewater (Omw) ; Soil Sorption ; Pesticide ; Persistence ; Soil Depth ; Application Season ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(6), p.e65359
    Description: It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM) molecules via cation bridges (CaB). The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al(3+), Ca(2+) or Na(+), respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (〉〉2 h) than deprotonation of functional groups (〈2 h) and was described by a Langmuir model. The maximum uptake increased with pH of cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB) and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis) suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (∼3 nm in this peat) cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is decisive for CaB and aging-induced structural reorganisation can enhance cross-link formation.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 2012, Vol.11(1), pp.41-54
    Description: Interactions between cations and natural organic matter (NOM) are central for the stability of organic matter, formation of supramolecular NOM structure, formation of organo-mineral associations, soil aggregation and binding of organic contaminants. The effect of multivalent cations on environmental functionalities of NOM strongly depends on the relative importance between intramolecular complexation and intermolecular cross-linking, the degree of which will be determined by the spatial arrangement of the hydrophilic functional groups in NOM. This literature review seeks to evaluate the current state of the art regarding the relevance of intermolecular cross-links via bridges of multivalent cations. Cross-linking has been suggested to explain among others aggregate stability, retarded dissolved organic matter release, reduced organic matter (OM) solubility as well as increase in degree and nonlinearity of sorption or organic chemicals to NOM. Although the cross-linking mechanism has been suggested in numerous studies, it has not yet been verified directly. The dynamics of the intermolecular cross-links, their persistence as well as their interplay with OM and their influence on stability and bioavailability of organic chemicals is up to now unknown. The major challenge in this context is the development of a suitable combination of experimental and instrumental techniques and relating the results to molecular and physicochemical models on the basis of targeted combination of spectroscopic, molecular modelling and thermoanalytical methods.
    Keywords: Cations ; Natural organic matter ; Cross-linking ; Water molecule bridges ; Cation bridges ; NMR ; Thermal analysis
    ISSN: 1569-1705
    E-ISSN: 1572-9826
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 December 2015, Vol.538, pp.246-261
    Description: Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water–land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill these gaps, we propose a scientific framework, which considers abiotic and biotic aspects based on an interdisciplinary approach.
    Keywords: Aquatic–Terrestrial Subsidies ; Flood Events ; Hot Moments ; Hot Spots ; Biogeochemical Processes ; Environmental Chemicals ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2017, Vol.17(4), pp.901-916
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11368-016-1584-1 Byline: Nisreen Tamimi (1), Gabriele E. Schaumann (1), Dorte Diehl (1) Keywords: Differential scanning calorimetry; Olive mill wastewater; Soil organic carbon; Soil organic matter; Thermal stability; Thermogravimetry Abstract: Purpose Application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) to soil may cause positive or negative effects. The present study aims at a better understanding of the fate of organic matter brought into soil by OMW application under different environmental conditions. Materials and methods Single OMW application to soil was conducted in spring, dry summer, summer with irrigation, and in winter. Two days and 18--24 months after the application, soil samples from two depths were analyzed for thermal soil organic matter (SOM) properties, total organic carbon, water-extractable dissolved soil organic carbon, and its specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm. Results and discussion After winter and irrigated summer treatments, OMW was largely leached from the upper horizon within 2 days. Application in spring and summer dry initially increased the thermolabile fraction and the calorific value of SOM, however, in a different degree due to different transport, transformation, and immobilization mechanisms. At the long term, SOM content was still elevated after summer dry treatment. The reduction of the thermostable fraction in spring treatment indicates a priming effect of the labile OMW constituents. Conclusions Application in winter or with irrigation cannot be recommended for the investigated site. Under hot and dry conditions, SOM content increased most persistently due to stronger mineral-organic interactions. Favorable conditions for biodegradation during OMW application in spring reduced the effects on SOM quantity in the long term. However, a possible priming effect and the persistence of changes in thermal properties need to be further investigated for repeated applications. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Universitat Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829, Landau, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 19/10/2016 Received Date: 04/07/2016 Accepted Date: 19/10/2016 Online Date: 04/11/2016 Article note: Responsible editor: Zucong Cai
    Keywords: Differential scanning calorimetry ; Olive mill wastewater ; Soil organic carbon ; Soil organic matter ; Thermal stability ; Thermogravimetry
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 01 June 2016, Vol.64(2), pp.176-195
    Description: Environmental conditions play a major role for effects of olive mill wastewater (OMW) application to soil. Choosing a different season for OMW application than the commonly practiced winter, may help avoid negative effects. However, understanding of the OMW-soil interaction during different seasons is still incomplete due to the lack of comparative data. In this study, an 18 months field experiment was carried out in an olive orchard in West Bank. Degree and persistence of soil salinization, acidification, accumulation of phenolic compounds and soil water repellency were investigated as a function of soil depth and time elapsed after OMW application, which was performed either in spring, summer (with and without irrigation) or winter. The persistence of negative effects increased with duration of the hot and dry period following the application due to accumulation and polymerization of OMW. On the other hand, leaching of OMW components to groundwater is favored during the rainy season and by formation of preferential flow paths before the rain season starts. The risks of groundwater contamination and persistent negative effects decrease with increasing time under conditions favoring biological activity. Therefore, OMW application in spring if improved by a careful irrigation is considered as the most suitable under semiarid conditions for clay loam soils.
    Keywords: Olive Mill Wastewater ; Soil Water Repellency ; Acidification ; Salinity ; Soluble Phenolic Compounds ; Leaching ; Geography
    E-ISSN: 0042-790X
    E-ISSN: 13384333
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