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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2011, Vol. 77(20), p.7296
    Description: Combining lipid biomarker profiling with stable isotope probing (SIP) is a powerful technique for studying specific microbial populations responsible for the degradation of organic pollutants in various natural environments. However, the presence of other easily degradable substrates may induce significant physiological changes by altering both the rate of incorporation of the target compound into the biomass and the microbial lipid profiles. In order to test this hypothesis, Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacterium, was incubated with [(13)C]2,4-D, [(13)C]glucose, or mixtures of both substrates alternatively labeled with (13)C. C. necator JMP134 exhibited a preferential use of 2,4-D over glucose. The isotopic analysis showed that glucose had only a small effect on the incorporation of the acetic chain of 2,4-D into the biomass (at days 2 and 3) and no effect on that of the benzenic ring. The addition of glucose did change the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition. However, the overall FAME isotopic signature reflected that of the entire biomass. Compound-specific individual isotopic analyses of FAME composition showed that the (13)C-enriched FAME profiles were slightly or not affected when tracing the 2,4-D acetic chain or 2,4-D benzenic ring, respectively. This batch study is a necessary step for validating the use of lipid-based SIP methods in complex environments.
    Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid -- Metabolism ; Cupriavidus Necator -- Chemistry ; Fatty Acids -- Analysis ; Glucose -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 1098-5336
    ISSN: 10985336
    ISSN: 00992240
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Feb, 2013, Vol.57, p.1(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.06.018 Byline: Alexander Dumig (a), Cornelia Rumpel (b), Marie-France Dignac (b), Ingrid Kogel-Knabner (a)(c) Abstract: .sup.13C contents of organic matter are changing during decomposition of plant material and stabilization as soil organic carbon (SOC). In this context, several studies showed.sup.13C enrichment in soil as compared to vegetation for C.sub.3 forests, whereas depletion of.sup.13C was frequently reported for C.sub.4 grassland soil as compared to C.sub.4 vegetation. These changes were often attributed to selective preservation and/or stabilization of specific organic compounds. This study investigates if changes in the chemical composition of OC and specifically lignin may explain the observed shifts in [delta].sup.13C values from plant material to SOC. We analyzed aboveground biomass, roots and heavy organo-mineral fractions from topsoils in both, long-term stable C.sub.4 grasslands and C.sub.3 Araucaria forest situated nearby in the southern Brazilian highlands on soils with andic properties. The stable carbon isotope (.sup.12C/.sup.13C) composition was analyzed for total organic carbon (OC.sub.tot) and lignin-derived phenols. The bulk chemical composition of OC was assessed by solid-state.sup.13C NMR spectroscopy while neutral sugar monomers were determined after acid hydrolysis. The shifts of the.sup.13C/.sup.12C isotope signature during decomposition and stabilization (plant tissues versus soil heavy fractions) showed similar trends for VSC phenols and OC.sub.tot (.sup.13C depletion in C.sub.4 grassland soil and.sup.13C enrichment in C.sub.3 forest soil compared to the corresponding vegetation). In this regard, the isotopic difference between roots and aboveground biomass was not relevant, but may become more important at greater soil depths..sup.13C depletion of VSC lignins relative to OC.sub.tot was higher in C.sub.3-biomass and C.sub.3-derived SOC compared to the C.sub.4 counterparts. As lignin contents of heavy fractions were low, in particular for those with C.sub.4 isotopic signature, the influence of lignin on OC.sub.tot [delta].sup.13C values in grassland topsoils is presumably low. Rather, the presence of charred grass residues and the accumulation of alkyl C in heavy fractions as revealed by.sup.13C NMR spectroscopy contribute to decreasing [delta].sup.13C values from grass biomass to C.sub.4-derived heavy fractions. In forest topsoils, the accumulation of.sup.13C depleted VSC lignin residues in heavy fractions counteracts the prevailing.sup.13C enrichment of OC.sub.tot from plant biomass to heavy fractions. Nonetheless, non-lignin compounds with relatively high.sup.13C contents like microbial-derived OC have a stronger influence on [delta].sup.13C values of OC.sub.tot in forest soils than lignins or aliphatic biopolymers. The mineral-associated SOC is in a late phase of decomposition with large contributions of microbial-derived carbohydrates, but distinct structural and isotopical alterations of lignin between C.sub.4- and C.sub.3-derived heavy fractions. This may indicate different processes and/or extent of lignin (and SOM) biodegradation between C.sub.4 grassland and C.sub.3 forest resulting from other kind of decomposer communities in association with distinct types and amounts of plant input as source of SOM and thus, carbon source for microbial transformation. Our results indicate that the importance of lignin for [delta].sup.13C values of OC.sub.tot was overestimated in previous studies, at least in subtropical C.sub.4 grassland and C.sub.3 forest topsoils. Author Affiliation: (a) Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Department fur Okologie und Okosystemmanagement, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan fur Ernahrung, Landnutzung und Umwelt, Technische Universitat Munchen, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (b) CNRS-INRA, Laboratoire de Biogeochimie et Ecologie des Milieux Continentaux (UMR 7618, UPMC-CNRS-UPEC-ENS-INRA-AgroParisTech), Centre INRA - Batiment EGER de Versailles-Grignon, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France (c) Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitat Munchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 2a, D-85748 Garching, Germany Article History: Received 5 April 2012; Revised 26 June 2012; Accepted 29 June 2012
    Keywords: Biodegradation -- Analysis ; Lignin -- Analysis ; Grasslands -- Analysis ; Biopolymers -- Analysis ; Marine Safety -- Analysis ; Forest Soils -- Analysis ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- Analysis ; Alkyl Groups -- Analysis ; Hydrolysis -- Analysis ; Soil Carbon -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2017, Vol.576, pp.251-263
    Description: Implementation of ley grassland into crop rotation could have positive influence in soil ecosystem services such as C storage. The periodical changes of land-use plus the in situ labelling given by the introduction of maize crops under ley...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Ley Grassland ; Lignin ; Agroecosystems ; Land Use ; Bare Soil ; Stable Isotopes ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 09 April 2010, Vol.2010(42), pp.1200-1211
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2010, Vol.42(8), pp.1200-1211
    Description: Lignins are amongst the most studied macromolecules in natural environments. During the last decades, lignins were considered as important components for the carbon cycle in soils, and particularly for the carbon storage. Thus, they are an important variable in many soil–plant models such as CENTURY and RothC, and appeared determinant for the estimation of the soil organic matter (SOM) pool-size and its stabilization. Recent studies challenged this point of view. The aim of this paper was to synthesise the current knowledge and recent progress about quantity, composition and turnover of lignins in soils and to identify variables determining lignin residence time. In soils, lignins evolve under the influence of various variables and processes such as their degradation or mineralization, as well as their incorporation into SOM. Lignin-derived products obtained after CuO oxidation can be used as environmental biomarkers, and also vary with the degree of degradation of the molecule. The lignin degradation is related to the nature of vegetation and land-use, but also to the climate and soil characteristics. Lignin content of SOM decreases with decreasing size of the granulometric fractions, whereas its level of degradation increases concomitantly. Many studies and our results suggest the accumulation and potential stabilization of a part of lignins in soils, by interaction with the clay minerals, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Lignin turnover in soils could be faster than that of the total SOM. Different kinetic pools of lignins were suggested, which sizes seem to be variable for different soil types. The mechanisms behind different degradation kinetics as well as their potential stabilization behaviour still need to be elucidated.
    Keywords: Review ; Lignin Turnover ; Carbon Dynamics ; Soil Organic Matter ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2010, Vol.42, pp.1200-1211
    Description: Lignins are amongst the most studied macromolecules in natural environments. During the last decades, lignins were considered as important components for the carbon cycle in soils, and particularly for the carbon storage. Thus, they are an important variable in many soil–plant models such as CENTURY and RothC, and appeared determinant for the estimation of the soil organic matter (SOM) pool-size and its stabilization. Recent studies challenged this point of view. The aim of this paper was to synthesise the current knowledge and recent progress about quantity, composition and turnover of lignins in soils and to identify variables determining lignin residence time. In soils, lignins evolve under the influence of various variables and processes such as their degradation or mineralization, as well as their incorporation into SOM. Lignin-derived products obtained after CuO oxidation can be used as environmental biomarkers, and also vary with the degree of degradation of the molecule. The lignin degradation is related to the nature of vegetation and land-use, but also to the climate and soil characteristics. Lignin content of SOM decreases with decreasing size of the granulometric fractions, whereas its level of degradation increases concomitantly. Many studies and our results suggest the accumulation and potential stabilization of a part of lignins in soils, by interaction with the clay minerals, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Lignin turnover in soils could be faster than that of the total SOM. Different kinetic pools of lignins were suggested, which sizes seem to be variable for different soil types. The mechanisms behind different degradation kinetics as well as their potential stabilization behaviour still need to be elucidated. ; Includes references ; p. 1200-1211.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Soil Physical Properties ; Biodegradation ; Soil Chemistry ; Carbon Sequestration ; Lignin ; Environmental Fate ; Soil-Plant Interactions ; Soil Organic Matter ; Vegetation ; Simulation Models ; Biomarkers ; Temporal Variation ; Biogeochemical Cycles ; Carbon ; Mineralization ; Climatic Factors ; Kinetics ; Land Use ; Literature Reviews
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.57, pp.1-13
    Description: ¹³C contents of organic matter are changing during decomposition of plant material and stabilization as soil organic carbon (SOC). In this context, several studies showed ¹³C enrichment in soil as compared to vegetation for C₃ forests, whereas depletion of ¹³C was frequently reported for C₄ grassland soil as compared to C₄ vegetation. These changes were often attributed to selective preservation and/or stabilization of specific organic compounds. This study investigates if changes in the chemical composition of OC and specifically lignin may explain the observed shifts in δ¹³C values from plant material to SOC. We analyzed aboveground biomass, roots and heavy organo-mineral fractions from topsoils in both, long-term stable C₄ grasslands and C₃ Araucaria forest situated nearby in the southern Brazilian highlands on soils with andic properties. The stable carbon isotope (¹²C/¹³C) composition was analyzed for total organic carbon (OCₜₒₜ) and lignin-derived phenols. The bulk chemical composition of OC was assessed by solid-state ¹³C NMR spectroscopy while neutral sugar monomers were determined after acid hydrolysis. The shifts of the ¹³C/¹²C isotope signature during decomposition and stabilization (plant tissues versus soil heavy fractions) showed similar trends for VSC phenols and OCₜₒₜ (¹³C depletion in C₄ grassland soil and ¹³C enrichment in C₃ forest soil compared to the corresponding vegetation). In this regard, the isotopic difference between roots and aboveground biomass was not relevant, but may become more important at greater soil depths. ¹³C depletion of VSC lignins relative to OCₜₒₜ was higher in C₃-biomass and C₃-derived SOC compared to the C₄ counterparts. As lignin contents of heavy fractions were low, in particular for those with C₄ isotopic signature, the influence of lignin on OCₜₒₜ δ¹³C values in grassland topsoils is presumably low. Rather, the presence of charred grass residues and the accumulation of alkyl C in heavy fractions as revealed by ¹³C NMR spectroscopy contribute to decreasing δ¹³C values from grass biomass to C₄-derived heavy fractions. In forest topsoils, the accumulation of ¹³C depleted VSC lignin residues in heavy fractions counteracts the prevailing ¹³C enrichment of OCₜₒₜ from plant biomass to heavy fractions. Nonetheless, non-lignin compounds with relatively high ¹³C contents like microbial-derived OC have a stronger influence on δ¹³C values of OCₜₒₜ in forest soils than lignins or aliphatic biopolymers. The mineral-associated SOC is in a late phase of decomposition with large contributions of microbial-derived carbohydrates, but distinct structural and isotopical alterations of lignin between C₄- and C₃-derived heavy fractions. This may indicate different processes and/or extent of lignin (and SOM) biodegradation between C₄ grassland and C₃ forest resulting from other kind of decomposer communities in association with distinct types and amounts of plant input as source of SOM and thus, carbon source for microbial transformation. Our results indicate that the importance of lignin for δ¹³C values of OCₜₒₜ was overestimated in previous studies, at least in subtropical C₄ grassland and C₃ forest topsoils. ; p. 1-13.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Forest Soils ; Forests ; Biodegradation ; Lignin ; Roots ; Organic Matter ; Highlands ; Stable Isotopes ; Sugars ; Grasses ; Soil Depth ; Phenols ; Soil Texture ; Acid Hydrolysis ; Carbon ; Grasslands ; Grassland Soils ; Araucaria ; Plant Tissues ; Aboveground Biomass ; Biopolymers ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2013, Vol.57, pp.1-13
    Description: C contents of organic matter are changing during decomposition of plant material and stabilization as soil organic carbon (SOC). In this context, several studies showed C enrichment in soil as compared to vegetation for C forests, whereas depletion of C was frequently reported for C grassland soil as compared to C vegetation. These changes were often attributed to selective preservation and/or stabilization of specific organic compounds. This study investigates if changes in the chemical composition of OC and specifically lignin may explain the observed shifts in δ C values from plant material to SOC. We analyzed aboveground biomass, roots and heavy organo-mineral fractions from topsoils in both, long-term stable C grasslands and C Araucaria forest situated nearby in the southern Brazilian highlands on soils with andic properties. The stable carbon isotope ( C/ C) composition was analyzed for total organic carbon (OC ) and lignin-derived phenols. The bulk chemical composition of OC was assessed by solid-state C NMR spectroscopy while neutral sugar monomers were determined after acid hydrolysis. The shifts of the C/ C isotope signature during decomposition and stabilization (plant tissues versus soil heavy fractions) showed similar trends for VSC phenols and OC ( C depletion in C grassland soil and C enrichment in C forest soil compared to the corresponding vegetation). In this regard, the isotopic difference between roots and aboveground biomass was not relevant, but may become more important at greater soil depths. C depletion of VSC lignins relative to OC was higher in C -biomass and C -derived SOC compared to the C counterparts. As lignin contents of heavy fractions were low, in particular for those with C isotopic signature, the influence of lignin on OC δ C values in grassland topsoils is presumably low. Rather, the presence of charred grass residues and the accumulation of alkyl C in heavy fractions as revealed by C NMR spectroscopy contribute to decreasing δ C values from grass biomass to C -derived heavy fractions. In forest topsoils, the accumulation of C depleted VSC lignin residues in heavy fractions counteracts the prevailing C enrichment of OC from plant biomass to heavy fractions. Nonetheless, non-lignin compounds with relatively high C contents like microbial-derived OC have a stronger influence on δ C values of OC in forest soils than lignins or aliphatic biopolymers. The mineral-associated SOC is in a late phase of decomposition with large contributions of microbial-derived carbohydrates, but distinct structural and isotopical alterations of lignin between C - and C -derived heavy fractions. This may indicate different processes and/or extent of lignin (and SOM) biodegradation between C grassland and C forest resulting from other kind of decomposer communities in association with distinct types and amounts of plant input as source of SOM and thus, carbon source for microbial transformation. Our results indicate that the importance of lignin for δ C values of OC was overestimated in previous studies, at least in subtropical C grassland and C forest topsoils. ► Lignin and SOC showed C enrichment in C forest and C depletion in C grassland. ► Low influence of lignin on δ C values of SOC in C grassland soils. ► C depleted lignin counteracts the prevailing C enrichment of SOC in forest soils. ► C enriched non-lignin compounds strongly influence δ C values in C forest soils. ► Structural and isotopical degradation of lignin differs between grassland and forest.
    Keywords: 13c/12c ; Soil Organic Matter ; 13c NMR Spectroscopy ; Cuo Oxidation ; Gc/C-Irms ; Carbohydrates ; Brazil ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 9
    In: Global Change Biology, July 2014, Vol.20(7), pp.2272-2285
    Description: Lignin is an aromatic plant compound that decomposes more slowly than other organic matter compounds; however, it was recently shown that lignin could decompose as fast as litter bulk carbon in minerals soils. In alpine istosols, where organic matter dynamics is largely unaffected by mineral constituents, lignin may be an important part of soil organic matter (). These soils are expected to experience alterations in temperature and/or physicochemical parameters as a result of global climate change. The effect of these changes on lignin dynamics remains to be examined and the importance of lignin as SOM compound in these soils evaluated. Here, we investigated the decomposition of individual lignin phenols of maize litter incubated for 2 years in Histosols on an Alpine elevation gradient (900, 1300, and 1900 m above sea level); to this end, we used the cupric oxide oxidation method and determined the phenols’ C signature. Maize lignin decomposed faster than bulk maize carbon in the first year (86 vs. 78% decomposed); however, after the second year, lignin and bulk C decomposition did not differ significantly. Lignin mass loss did not correlate with soil temperature after the first year, and even correlated negatively at the end of the second year. Lignin mass loss also correlated negatively with the remaining maize N at the end of the second year, and we interpreted this result as a possible negative influence of nitrogen on lignin degradation, although other factors (notably the depletion of easily degradable carbon sources) may also have played a role at this stage of decomposition. Microbial community composition did not correlate with lignin mass loss, but it did so with the lignin degradation indicators (Ac/Al)s and S/V after 2 years of decomposition. Progressing substrate decomposition toward the final stages thus appears to be linked with microbial community differentiation.
    Keywords: C ; Compound‐Specific Isotope Analysis ; Cupric Oxide ; Histosols ; Lignin ; Plfa ; Soil Microbial Communities ; Soil Organic Matter
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Management, 2018, Vol.222, pp.207-215
    Description: Alkaline industrial wastes such as red mud and fly ash are produced in large quantities. They may be recycled as bulking agent during composting and vermicomposting, converting organic waste into soil amendments or plant growth media. The aim of this study was to assess the microbial parameters,...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Composting ; Vermicomposting ; Red Mud ; Fly Ash ; Carbon ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4797
    E-ISSN: 1095-8630
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