Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Chromatography A, June 15, 2012, Vol.1242, p.1(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.04.027 Byline: Jago Jonathan Birk (a), Michaela Dippold (a), Guido L.B. Wiesenberg (b), Bruno Glaser (a) Keywords: Faeces; Manure; Land use biomarkers; Saponification; Anthrosols Abstract: a* Method allows quantification of steroids in order to detect faeces deposition. a* Saponification yields higher amounts of steroids than analyses without saponification. a* Standard addition to soils samples was used for method evaluation. a* Method was tested in soils with different physico-chemical properties. a* Mean recoveries of individual steroids were [greater than or equal to]85%. Author Affiliation: (a) Soil Physics Group, BayCEER, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany (b) Department of Agroecosystem Research, BayCEER, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany Article History: Received 13 February 2012; Revised 6 April 2012; Accepted 6 April 2012
    Keywords: Soils ; Agroecosystems ; Chromatography ; Sterols ; Mass Spectrometry ; Sediments (Geology) ; Bile Acids ; Soil Biology
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1 December 2013, Vol.373(1/2), pp.385-401
    Description: Background and aims Amino acid turnover in soil is an important element of terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycles. This study accounts for their driver - the microbial metabolism - by tracing them via the unique isotopic approach of position-specific labeling. Methods Three ¹⁴C isotopomers of alanine at five concentration levels combined with selective sterilization were used to distinguish sorption mechanisms, exoenzymatic and microbial utilization of amino acids in soil. Results Sorption and microbial uptake occurred immediately. Unspecific microbial uptake followed a linear kinetic, whereas energy-dependent uptake followed Michaelis-Menten. Less than 6 % of the initially added alanine was sorbed to soil, but after microbial transformation products were bound to the soil matrix at higher proportions (5-25 %). The carboxyl group (C-1) was rapidly oxidized by microorganisms, whereas C-2 and C-3 positions were preferentially incorporated into microbial biomass. Dependency of C metabolization on amino acid concentration reflected individual alanine transformation pathways for starvation, maintenance and growth conditions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that positionspecific labeling determines the mechanisms and rates of C cycling from individual functional groups. This approach reflected underlying metabolic pathways and revealed the formation of new organic matter. We therefore conclude that position-specific labeling is a unique tool for detailed insights into submolecular transformation pathways and their regulation factors.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical reactions ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Mechanics
    ISSN: 0032079X
    E-ISSN: 15735036
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Dec, 2013, Vol.67, p.31(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.08.005 Byline: Carolin Apostel, Michaela Dippold, Bruno Glaser, Yakov Kuzyakov Abstract: Microbial utilization is a key transformation process of soil organic matter (SOM). For the first time, position-specific.sup.13C labeling was combined with compound-specific.sup.13C-PLFA analysis to trace metabolites of two amino acids in microbial groups and to reconstruct detailed biochemical pathways. Short-term transformation was assessed by applying position-specifically.sup.13C labeled alanine and glutamic acid to soil in a field experiment. Microbial utilization of the amino acids' functional groups was quantified by.sup.13C incorporation in total microbial biomass and in distinct microbial groups classified by.sup.13C-PLFA. Loss from PLFAs was fastest for the highly oxidized carboxyl group of both amino acids, whereas the reduced C positions, e.g. C.sub.3-5, were preferentially incorporated into microorganisms and their PLFAs. The incorporation of C from alanines' C.sub.2 position into the cell membrane of gram negative bacteria was higher by more than one order of magnitude than into all other microbial groups. Whereas C.sub.2 of alanine was still bound to C.sub.3 at day 3, the C.sub.2 and C.sub.3 positions were partially split at day 10. In contrast, the C.sub.2 of glutamic acid was lost faster from PLFAs of all microbial groups. The divergence index, which reflects relative incorporation of one position to the incorporation of C from all positions in a molecule, revealed that discrimination between positions is highest in the initial reactions and decreases with time. Reconstruction of microbial transformation pathways showed that the C.sub.2 position of alanine is lost faster than its C.sub.3 position regardless of whether the molecule is used ana- or catabolically. Glutamic acid C.sub.2 is incorporated into PLFAs only by two out of eight microbial groups (fungi and part of gram positive prokaryotes). Its incorporation in PLFA can only be explained by either the utilization of the glyoxolate bypass or the transformation of glutamic acid into aspartate prior to being fed into the citric acid cycle. During these pathways, no C is lost as CO.sub.2 but neither is energy produced, making them typical C deficiency pathways. Glutamic acid is therefore a promising metabolic tracer in regard to ecophysiology of cells and therefore changing environmental conditions. Analyzing the fate of individual C atoms by position-specific labeling allows insight into the mechanisms and kinetics of microbial utilization by various microbial groups. This approach will strongly improve our understanding of soil C fluxes. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Soil Science of Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems, Georg-August-University Gottingen, 37077 Gottingen, Germany (b) Department of Agricultural Soil Science, Georg-August-University Gottingen, Germany (c) Department of Agroecosystem Research, BayCEER, University of Bayreuth, Germany (d) Department of Soil Biogeochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Science, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany Article History: Received 10 August 2012; Revised 1 August 2013; Accepted 3 August 2013
    Keywords: Amino Acids -- Labeling ; Amino Acids -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 01 February 2016, Vol.174, pp.211-221
    Description: Fatty acids have been used as plant and microbial biomarkers, and knowledge about their transformation pathways in soils and sediments is crucial for interpreting fatty acid signatures, especially because the formation, recycling and decomposition processes are concurrent. We analyzed the incorporation of free fatty acids into microbial fatty acids in soil by coupling position-specific C labeling with compound-specific C analysis. Position-specifically and uniformly C labeled palmitate were applied in an agricultural Luvisol. Pathways of fatty acids were traced by analyzing microbial utilization of C from individual molecule positions of palmitate and their incorporation into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). The fate of palmitate C in the soil was characterized by the main pathways of microbial fatty acid metabolism: Odd positions (C-1) were preferentially oxidized to CO in the citric acid cycle, whereas even positions (C-2) were preferentially incorporated into microbial biomass. This pattern is a result of palmitate cleavage to acetyl-CoA and its further use in the main pathways of C metabolism. We observed a direct, intact incorporation of more than 4% of the added palmitate into the PLFA of microbial cell membranes, indicating the important role of palmitate as direct precursor for microbial fatty acids. Palmitate C was incorporated into PLFA as intact alkyl chain, i.e. the C backbone of palmitate was not cleaved, but palmitate was incorporated either intact or modified (e.g. desaturated, elongated or branched) according to the fatty acid demand of the microbial community. These modifications of the incorporated palmitate increased with time. Future PLFA studies must therefore consider the recycling of existing plant and microbial-derived fatty acids. This study demonstrates the intact uptake and recycling of free fatty acids such as palmitate in soils, as well as the high turnover and transformation of cellular PLFA. Knowledge about the intact uptake and use of soil-derived free fatty acids is crucial for interpreting microbial fatty acid fingerprints and their isotopic composition.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, January 2015, Vol.80, pp.199-208
    Description: Microbial transformations are key processes of soil organic matter (SOM) formation, stabilization and decomposition. Combination of position-specific C labeling with compound-specific C-PLFA analysis is a novel tool to trace metabolic pathways. This combination was used to analyze short-term transformations (3 and 10 days after tracer application) of two key monosaccharides: glucose and ribose in soil under field conditions. Transformations of sugars were quantified by the incorporation of C from individual molecule positions in bulk soil, microbial biomass (by CFE) and in cell membranes of microbial groups classified by C-PLFA. The C incorporation in the Gram negative bacteria was higher by one order of magnitude compared to all other microbial groups. All of the C recovered in soil on day 3 was allocated in microbial biomass. On day 10 however, a part of the C was recovered in non-extractable microbial cell components or microbial excretions. As sugars are not absorbed by mineral particles due to a lack of charged functional groups, their quick mineralization from soil solution is generally expected. However, microorganisms transformed sugars to metabolites with a slower turnover. The C incorporation from the individual glucose positions into soil and microbial biomass showed that the two main glucose utilizing pathways in organisms – glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway – exist in soils in parallel. However, the pattern of C incorporation from individual glucose positions into PLFAs showed intensive recycling of the added C via gluconeogenesis and a mixing of both glucose utilizing pathways. The pattern of position-specific incorporation of ribose C also shows initial utilization in the pentose phosphate pathway but is overprinted on day 10, again due to intensive recycling and mixing. This shows that glucose and ribose – as ubiquitous substrates – are used in various metabolic pathways and their C is intensively recycled in microbial biomass. Analyzing the fate of individual C atoms by position-specific labeling deeply improves our understanding of the pathways of microbial utilization of sugars (and other compounds) by microbial groups and so, of soil C fluxes.
    Keywords: Monosaccharide Transformation ; Isotopic Approaches ; Metabolic Tracing ; Carbon Sequestration ; Carbon Cycle ; Biomarkers ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, May 2014, Vol.72, pp.180-192
    Description: Organo-mineral interactions are the most important mechanisms of long-term C stabilization in soils. Nevertheless, a part of the sorbed low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) remains bioavailable. Uniformly labeling of substances by C or C reflects only the average fate of C atoms of a LMWOS molecule. The submolecular tool of position-specific labeling allows to analyze metabolic pathways of individual functional groups and thus reveals deeper insight into mechanisms of sorption and microbial utilization. Alanine labeled with C in the 1st, 2nd or 3rd position was adsorbed to five sorbents: two iron oxides with different crystalline structure: goethite and haematite; two clay minerals with 2:1 layers – smectite, and 1:1 layers – kaolinite; and activated charcoal. After subsequent addition of these sorbents to a loamy haplic Luvisol, we analyzed C release into the soil solution, its microbial utilization and CO efflux from individual C positions of alanine. All sorbents bound alanine as an intact molecule (identical sorption of 1st, 2nd or 3rd positions). The bioavailability of sorbed alanine and its microbial transformation pathways depended strongly on the sorbent. Goethite and activated charcoal sorbed the highest amount of alanine (∼45% of the input), and the lowest portion of the sorbed alanine C was microbially utilized (26 and 22%, respectively). Mineralization of the desorbed alanine peaked within the first 5 h and was most pronounced for alanine bound to clay minerals. The initial mineralization to CO of bound alanine was always highest for the C-1 position (–COOH group). Mineralization rates of C-2 and C-3 exceeded the C-1 oxidation after 10–50 h, reflecting the classical biochemical pathways: 1) deamination, 2) decarboxylation of C-1 within glycolysis, and further 3) oxidation of C-2 and C-3 in the citric acid cycle. The ratio between two metabolic pathways – glycolysis (C-1 oxidation) versus citric-acid cycle (oxidation of C-2 and C-3) – was dependent on the microbial availability of sorbed alanine. High availability causes a peak in glycolysis C-1 oxidation followed by an abrupt shift to oxidation via the citric acid cycle. Low microbial availability of sorbed alanine, in turn, leads to a less pronounced, parallel oxidation of all three positions and to a higher relative incorporation of alanine C into microbial compounds. Modeling of C fluxes revealed that a significant portion of the sorbed alanine was incorporated in microbial biomass after 78 h and was further stabilized at the sorbents' surfaces. Position-specific labeling enabled determination of pathways and rates of C utilization from individual molecule positions and its dependence on various sorption mechanisms. We conclude that position-specific labeling is a unique tool for detailed insights into the submolecular transformation processes, mechanisms and rates of C stabilization in soil.
    Keywords: Position-Specific Tracers ; Sorption Mechanisms ; Metabolic Tracing ; C Mineralization and Stabilization ; Iron Oxides ; Clay Minerals ; Activated Charcoal ; Soil Organic Matter Formation ; Biochar ; Organo-Mineral Interactions ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Jan, 2015, Vol.80, p.199(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.09.005 Byline: Carolin Apostel, Michaela Dippold, Yakov Kuzyakov Abstract: Microbial transformations are key processes of soil organic matter (SOM) formation, stabilization and decomposition. Combination of position-specific.sup.13C labeling with compound-specific.sup.13C-PLFA analysis is a novel tool to trace metabolic pathways. This combination was used to analyze short-term transformations (3 and 10 days after tracer application) of two key monosaccharides: glucose and ribose in soil under field conditions. Transformations of sugars were quantified by the incorporation of.sup.13C from individual molecule positions in bulk soil, microbial biomass (by CFE) and in cell membranes of microbial groups classified by.sup.13C-PLFA. The.sup.13C incorporation in the Gram negative bacteria was higher by one order of magnitude compared to all other microbial groups. All of the.sup.13C recovered in soil on day 3 was allocated in microbial biomass. On day 10 however, a part of the.sup.13C was recovered in non-extractable microbial cell components or microbial excretions. As sugars are not absorbed by mineral particles due to a lack of charged functional groups, their quick mineralization from soil solution is generally expected. However, microorganisms transformed sugars to metabolites with a slower turnover. The.sup.13C incorporation from the individual glucose positions into soil and microbial biomass showed that the two main glucose utilizing pathways in organisms - glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway - exist in soils in parallel. However, the pattern of.sup.13C incorporation from individual glucose positions into PLFAs showed intensive recycling of the added.sup.13C via gluconeogenesis and a mixing of both glucose utilizing pathways. The pattern of position-specific incorporation of ribose C also shows initial utilization in the pentose phosphate pathway but is overprinted on day 10, again due to intensive recycling and mixing. This shows that glucose and ribose - as ubiquitous substrates - are used in various metabolic pathways and their C is intensively recycled in microbial biomass. Analyzing the fate of individual C atoms by position-specific labeling deeply improves our understanding of the pathways of microbial utilization of sugars (and other compounds) by microbial groups and so, of soil C fluxes. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Soil Science of Temperate Ecosystems, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Germany (b) Department of Agricultural Soil Science, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Germany (c) Department of Agroecosystem Research, BayCEER, University of Bayreuth, Germany (d) Institute of Environmental Sciences, Kazan Federal University, Russia Article History: Received 5 December 2013; Revised 28 August 2014; Accepted 3 September 2014
    Keywords: Metabolites -- Analysis ; Glucose Metabolism -- Analysis ; Biochemistry -- Analysis ; Soil Microbiology -- Analysis ; Ecosystems -- Analysis ; Tracers (Biology) -- Analysis ; Phosphates -- Labeling ; Phosphates -- Analysis ; Glucose -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Oct, 2013, Vol.65, p.195(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.05.021 Byline: Jing Tian, Michaela Dippold, Johanna Pausch, Evgenia Blagodatskaya, Mingsheng Fan, Xiaolin Li, Yakov Kuzyakov Abstract: Rhizodeposit-carbon (rhizo-C) serves as a primary energy and C source for microorganisms in the rhizosphere. Despite important progress in understanding the fate of rhizo-C in upland soils, little is known about microbial community dynamics associated with rhizo-C in flooded soils, especially depending on water regimes in rice systems. In this study, rice grown under non-flooded, continuously flooded and alternating water regimes was pulse labeled with.sup.13CO.sub.2 and the incorporation of rhizo-C into specific microbial groups was determined by.sup.13C in phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) at day 2 and 14 after the labeling. A decreased C released from roots under continuously flooded condition was accompanied with lower total.sup.13C incorporation into microorganisms compared to the non-flooded and alternating water regimes treatments. Continuous flooding caused a relative increase of.sup.13C incorporation in Gram positive bacteria (i14:0, i15:0, a15:0, i16:0, i17:0, a17:0). In contrast, Gram negative bacteria (16:1I7c, 18:1I7c, cy17:0, cy 19:0) and fungi (18:2I6, 9c, 18:1I9c) showed greater rhizo-C incorporation coupled with a higher turnover under non-flooded and alternating water regimes treatments. These observations suggest that microbial groups processing rhizo-C differed among rice systems with varying water regimes. In contrast to non-flooded and alternating water regimes, there was little to no temporal.sup.13C change in most microbial groups under continuous flooding condition between day 2 and 14 after the labeling, which may demonstrate slower microbial processing turnover. In summary, our findings indicate that belowground C input by rhizodeposition and its biological cycling was significantly influenced by water regimes in rice systems. Author Affiliation: (a) Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China (b) Department of Soil Science of Temperate Ecosystems, University of Gottingen, 37077 Gottingen, Germany (c) Department of Agroecosystem Research, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany .sup.dDepartment of Agropedology, University of Gottingen, 37077 Gottingen, Germany Article History: Received 26 January 2013; Revised 22 May 2013; Accepted 24 May 2013
    Keywords: Agroecosystems ; Fatty Acids ; Bacteria ; Soils ; Water
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Chromatography A, 15 June 2012, Vol.1242, pp.1-10
    Description: ► Method allows quantification of steroids in order to detect faeces deposition. ► Saponification yields higher amounts of steroids than analyses without saponification. ► Standard addition to soils samples was used for method evaluation. ► Method was tested in soils with different physico-chemical properties. ► Mean recoveries of individual steroids were ≥85%. Faeces incorporation can alter the concentration patterns of stanols, stanones, Δ -sterols and bile acids in soils and terrestrial sediments. A joint quantification of these substances would give robust and specific information about the faecal input. Therefore, a method was developed for their purification and determination via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) based on a total lipid extract (TLE) of soils and terrestrial sediments. Stanols, stanones, Δ -steroles and bile acids were extracted by a single Soxhlet extraction yielding a TLE. The TLE was saponified with KOH in methanol. Sequential liquid–liquid extraction was applied to recover the biomarkers from the saponified extract and to separate the bile acids from the neutral stanoles, stanones and Δ -steroles. The neutral fraction was directly purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) columns packed with 5% deactivated silica gel. The bile acids were methylated in dry HCl in methanol and purified on SPE columns packed with activated silica gel. A mixture of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and pyridine was used to silylate the hydroxyl groups of the stanols and Δ -sterols avoiding a silylation of the keto groups of the stanones in their enol-form. Silylation of the bile acids was carried out with , -bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing -trimethylsilylimidazole (TSIM). TLEs from a set of soils with different physico-chemical properties were used for method evaluation and for comparison of amounts of faecal biomarkers analysed with saponification and without saponification of the TLE. Therefore, a Regosol, a Podzol and a Ferralsol were sampled. To proof the applicability of the method for faecal biomarker analyses in archaeological soils and sediments, additional samples were taken from pre-Columbian Anthrosols in Amazonia and an Anthrosol from a site in central Europe settled since the Neolithic. The comparison of the amounts of steroids in combination with and without saponification of the TLE showed that high amounts of faecal biomarkers occur bound to other lipids and were liberated by saponification. The method was evaluated by standard addition. The standard contained 5β-stanols, 5β-stanones and their 5α-isomers together with Δ -sterols and bile acids (19 substances). The standard addition revealed mean recoveries of individual substances ≥85%. The recoveries of biomarkers within each biomarker group did not differ significantly. Precisions were ≤0.22 (RSD) and quantification limits were between 1.3 and 10 ng g soil. These data showed that the method can be applied for quantification of trace amounts of faecal steroids and for the analyses of steroid patterns to detect enhanced faeces deposition in soils and sediments.
    Keywords: Faeces ; Manure ; Land Use Biomarkers ; Saponification ; Anthrosols ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    E-ISSN: 18733778
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of chromatography, 2012, Vol.1242, pp.1-10
    Description: Faeces incorporation can alter the concentration patterns of stanols, stanones, Δ⁵-sterols and bile acids in soils and terrestrial sediments. A joint quantification of these substances would give robust and specific information about the faecal input. Therefore, a method was developed for their purification and determination via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) based on a total lipid extract (TLE) of soils and terrestrial sediments. Stanols, stanones, Δ⁵-steroles and bile acids were extracted by a single Soxhlet extraction yielding a TLE. The TLE was saponified with KOH in methanol. Sequential liquid–liquid extraction was applied to recover the biomarkers from the saponified extract and to separate the bile acids from the neutral stanoles, stanones and Δ⁵-steroles. The neutral fraction was directly purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) columns packed with 5% deactivated silica gel. The bile acids were methylated in dry HCl in methanol and purified on SPE columns packed with activated silica gel. A mixture of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and pyridine was used to silylate the hydroxyl groups of the stanols and Δ⁵-sterols avoiding a silylation of the keto groups of the stanones in their enol-form. Silylation of the bile acids was carried out with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing N-trimethylsilylimidazole (TSIM). TLEs from a set of soils with different physico-chemical properties were used for method evaluation and for comparison of amounts of faecal biomarkers analysed with saponification and without saponification of the TLE. Therefore, a Regosol, a Podzol and a Ferralsol were sampled. To proof the applicability of the method for faecal biomarker analyses in archaeological soils and sediments, additional samples were taken from pre-Columbian Anthrosols in Amazonia and an Anthrosol from a site in central Europe settled since the Neolithic. The comparison of the amounts of steroids in combination with and without saponification of the TLE showed that high amounts of faecal biomarkers occur bound to other lipids and were liberated by saponification. The method was evaluated by standard addition. The standard contained 5β-stanols, 5β-stanones and their 5α-isomers together with Δ⁵-sterols and bile acids (19 substances). The standard addition revealed mean recoveries of individual substances ≥85%. The recoveries of biomarkers within each biomarker group did not differ significantly. Precisions were ≤0.22 (RSD) and quantification limits were between 1.3 and 10ngg⁻¹ soil. These data showed that the method can be applied for quantification of trace amounts of faecal steroids and for the analyses of steroid patterns to detect enhanced faeces deposition in soils and sediments. ; p. 1-10.
    Keywords: Saponification ; Solid Phase Extraction ; Potassium Hydroxide ; Silica Gel ; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ; Physicochemical Properties ; Sterols ; Anthrosols ; Ferralsols ; Biomarkers ; Feces ; Methanol ; Liquid-Liquid Extraction ; Pyridines ; Regosols ; Sediments ; Hydrochloric Acid ; Podzols ; Bile Acids
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages