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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Expert Review of Vaccines, 01 June 2013, Vol.12(6), pp.593-596
    Description: In the Second Conference on Controversies in Vaccination in Adults, leading vaccine experts among manufacturers, physicians, microbiologists, virologists, immunologists and public health specialists came together to discuss recent approaches, developments and strategies in vaccination against worldwide pressing epidemic and endemic infectious diseases (pneumococcal, staphylococcal, influenza, papillomavirus-associated tumors, varicella-zoster, AIDS and tuberculosis), and noninfectious epidemics (atherosclerosis and smoking) outlining arguments surrounding the progress of vaccines.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1476-0584
    E-ISSN: 1744-8395
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  • 2
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin, 2011, Vol.35(4), pp.205-210
    Description: Die Labordiagnose einer Infektionskrankheit beruht auf dem Nachweis des Infektionserregers oder der spezifischen Immunreaktion unter Berücksichtigung der klinischen Plausibilität. Biologische Testverfahren wie der Zellkulturversuch erbringen nur näherungsweise ein quantitatives Ergebnis und sind mit einer relativ großen Streuung behaftet. Das gilt auch für Antikörperassays, soweit sie über ein biologisches Testsignal abgelesen werden (CPE, Agglutination, Komplementverbrauch). Moderne serologische und molekularbiologische Untersuchungsmethoden der Virologie werden i. d. R. über ein physikochemisches Testssignal abgelesen und quantitativ ausgewertet. Dadurch gelingt die nationale und internationale Standardisierung, die sich in Ringversuchen gut überprüfen lässt. Aus biologischen Gründen ist meist eine log. Ergebnisberechnung angezeigt, was für „signifikante“ Unterschiede in Verlaufsuntersuchungen zu berücksichtigen ist: Da sowohl Infektion als auch Immunreaktion dynamische Prozesse darstellen, können Normalwerte in der virologischen Labordiagnostik nur restriktiv definiert werden. Ihre Ergebnisse sind mehr oder minder individuell interpretationsbedürftig.
    Description: Standardisation and Interpretation of Results Obtained in the Virologic Diagnostic Service. The laboratory diagnosis of an infectious disease is based on the detection of the infectious agent or on the analysis of the specific immunoreaction in terms of clinical plausibility. Virus isolation procedures using cell cultures are difficult to quantify and to standardize. Similar restrictions are seen in traditional fluid-phase antibody assays determining residual infectivity (neutralisation test) or using biologic test signals (e.g., complement-fixation/CFT, haem-agglutination/HI). Modern serologic and molecular biologic assays result in physicochemical test signals which are easily to quantitate and which can be better controlled by external proficiency tests. Infections and immunoreactions are dynamic processes and have to be logarithmicly quantitated in test evaluations. Because of biologic reasons, standard values of virus diagnostic investigations can only defined with some restriction. The results need more or less individual interpretation.
    Keywords: Antikörpertest ; Ergebnisquantifizierung ; Interne/Externe Kontrollen ; Ringversuch ; Virus (Genom) Nachweis ; Antibody Test ; Internal/External Controls ; Proficiency Testing ; Result Quantitation ; Virus (Genome) Detection
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1 January 2011, Vol.52(1), pp.122-127
    Description: Background. To determine the rate of seroconversion after 2 doses of a novel split virion, inactivated, adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine (A/California/7/2009) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)—infected patients (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01017172). Methods. Diagnostic study of adult HIV-1—infected patients scheduled for H1N1 influenza A vaccination. Blood samples where taken before and 21 days after the first dose and 21 days after the second dose of the vaccine. Antibody (AB) titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Seroconversion was defined by either an AB titer ≤1:10 before and ≥1:40 after or ≥1:10 before and a ≥4-fold increase in AB titer 21 days after vaccination. Results. One hundred thirty-five patients received 2 doses of the H1N1 vaccine and were analyzed. The rate of seroconversion was 68.2% (95% confidence interval, 59.6—75.9) after the first dose and 91.9% (95% confidence interval, 85.9—95.9) after the second dose. Patients who did not seroconvert had a lower mean nadir CD4 cell count (±standard deviation; 81 ± 99 vs 190 ± 148 cells/μL; P = .006), had a longer duration of HIV infection (±standard deviation; 13.1 ± 5.9 vs 8.8 ± 6.8 years; P = .04), and were more likely to have an AB titer ≥1:40 before vaccination (4% vs 55%; P 〈 .001) when compared with patients with seroconversion. No other differences were found between the 2 groups, including AIDS status, highly active antiretroviral therapy status, HIV RNA - polymerase chain reaction load 〈50 copies/mL, CD4 cell count, sex, body mass index, and chronic hepatitis. Conclusion. Among HIV-infected patients, the rate of seroconversion after the first dose of an adjuvanted H1N1 influenza A vaccine was 68% and increased to 92% after a second doses.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Biological therapy ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Pharmacology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology ; Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Biological therapy ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases ; Health sciences -- Health and wellness -- Public health ; Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Drug therapy
    ISSN: 10584838
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  • 4
    In: Laboratoriumsmedizin, 2012, Vol.36(6), pp.397-403
    Description: Zum virologischen Nachweis einer akuten Influenza und zur Überprüfung des Immunstatus steht eine Vielzahl von Untersuchungsmethoden zur Verfügung. Bei Verdacht auf eine Influenzavirusinfektion liefert der Rachenabstrich das geeignete Untersuchungsmaterial. Das tiefe Nasopharynxaspirat ist etwas sensitiver, Sputum etwas weniger ergiebig. Die RT-PCR ermöglicht in 1–2 h nach Materialeingang ein sensitives und spezifisches Ergebnis. Typen, Subtypen und Driftvarianten lassen sich durch geeignete Primersonden, die kommerziell zur Verfügung stehen, einwandfrei identifizieren. Demgegenüber ist die Zellkultur-gestützte Virusisolierung zeitaufwendiger und stärker abhängig von einer sachgerechten Materialgewinnung und –überbringung (Kühlkette). PCR und Virusanzüchtung ermöglichen die geno- bzw. phänotypische Testung auf Therapieresistenzen. Der Antigentest ist eine einfache (bed-side) Schnellmethode. Seine Spezifität ist gut, die Sensitivität limitiert; daher kann der Antigentest nicht zur individuellen Ausschlussdiagnose eingesetzt werden. Influenzavirusspezifische Antikörper erscheinen im Blut erst in der zweiten Krankheitswoche. Die Serodiagnostik erfolgt typenspezifisch mit Komplementbindungsreaktion (KBR), IFT und ELISA über eine signifikante Titerbewegung oder den Nachweis von IgA-Antikörpern. IgG-spezifische IFT und ELISA Methoden geben Auskunft über die Influenzavirus-typspezifische Durchseuchung. Die klinisch relevantere subtypen- und variantenspezifische Influenzavirusimmunität wird mit dem HHT oder NT gemessen.
    Description: A variety of methods are available for virological diagnosis and immunity assessment of influenza. For virus detection, the clinical specimen is usually the respiratory swab. In terms of sensitivity, nasopharyngeal aspirates are superior and sputum specimens are inferior. The diagnostic method of choice is RT-PCR of viral DNA sequences coding for matrix and nucleoprotein, which define influenza virus types A, B, C, or coding for haemagglutinin and neuraminidase spikes on the viral envelope identifying influenza virus A subtypes and strains. Gene-specific primer probes are commercially available. PCR takes 1–2 h after the arrival of the clinical specimen. Cell culture based virus isolation combined with intracellular antigen detection needs 1–2 days, but is regarded as gold standard. Transport of the swabs in an ice chest is recommendable. Direct antigen detection in the clinical specimen by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence test (IFT) is the most rapid (bedside) method, but of inferior sensitivity. Therapy resistance analysis is done by genotyping subsequent to PCR amplification or by the cell culture method (phenotyping). Antibodies due to influenza virus are produced during the second week after infection and may confirm or disprove virological diagnosis. ELISA and IFT apply nucleoprotein or matrix proteins as antigens and differentiate between the Ig classes IgA (IgM) and IgG indicating an acute or passed infection. Complement fixing antibodies do not persist. Influenza virus immunity is assessed by neutralisation assay or – more simply – by haemagglutination inhibition in a type-, subtype- and even variant-specific manner.
    Keywords: Antikörpertest ; Immunitätsbeurteilung ; Influenza ; Resistenzprüfung ; Virusnachweis ; Antibody Test ; Immune Assessment ; Influenza ; Resistance Analysis ; Virus Detection
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
    Source: Walter de Gruyter GmbH
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  • 5
    In: Laboratoriumsmedizin, 2013, Vol.36(6), pp.---
    Description: A variety of methods are available for virological diagnosis and immunity assessment of influenza. For virus detection, the clinical specimen is usually the respiratory swab. In terms of sensitivity, nasopharyngeal aspirates are superior and sputum specimens are inferior. The diagnostic method of choice is RT-PCR of viral DNA sequences coding for matrix and nucleoprotein, which define influenza virus types A, B, C, or coding for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase spikes on the viral envelope identifying influenza virus A subtypes and strains. Genespecific primer probes are commercially available. PCR takes 1–2 h after the arrival of the clinical specimen. Cell culture based virus isolation combined with intracellular antigen detection needs 1–2 days, but is regarded as gold standard. Transport of the swabs in an ice chest is recommendable. Direct antigen detection in the clinical specimen by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence test (IFT) is the most rapid (bedside) method, but of inferior sensitivity. Therapy resistance analysis is done by genotyping subsequent to PCR amplification or by the cell culture method (phenotyping). Antibodies due to influenza virus are produced during the second week after infection and may confirm or disprove virological diagnosis. ELISA and IFT apply nucleoprotein or matrix proteins as antigens and differentiate between the Ig classes IgA (IgM) and IgG indicating an acute or passed infection. Complement fixing antibodies do not persist. Influenza virus immunity is assessed by neutralization assay or – more simply – by hemagglutination inhibition in a type-, subtype- and even variantspecific manner.
    Keywords: Antibody Test ; Immune Assessment ; Influenza ; Resistance Analysis ; Virus Detection
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
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  • 6
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin, 2011, Vol.35(4), pp.---
    Description: Standardisation and Interpretation of Results Obtained in the Virologic Diagnostic Service. The laboratory diagnosis of an infectious disease is based on the detection of the infectious agent or on the analysis of the specific immunoreaction in terms of clinical plausibility. Virus isolation procedures using cell cultures are difficult to quantify and to standardise. Similar restrictions are seen in traditional fluid-phase antibody assays determining residual infectivity (neutralisation test) or using biological test signals (e.g., complement-fixation/CFT, haem-agglutination/HI). Modern serologic and molecular biological assays result in physicochemical test signals which are easily to quantitate and which can be better controlled by external proficiency tests. Infections and immunoreactions are dynamic processes and have to be logarithmically quantitated in test evaluations. Because of biologic reasons, standard values of virus diagnostic investigations can only be defined with some restriction. The results need more or less individual interpretation.
    Keywords: Antibody Test ; Internal/External Controls ; Proficiency Testing ; Result Quantitation ; Virus (Genome) Detection
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin / Journal of Laboratory Medicine, Nov 1, 2012, Vol.36(6), p.397(7)
    Description: A variety of methods are available for virological diagnosis and immunity assessment of influenza. For virus detection, the clinical specimen is usually the respiratory swab. In terms of sensitivity, nasopharyngeal aspirates are superior and sputum specimens are inferior. The diagnostic method of choice is RT-PCR of viral DNA sequences coding for matrix and nucleoprotein, which define influenza virus types A, B, C, or coding for haemagglutinin and neuraminidase spikes on the viral envelope identifying influenza virus A subtypes and strains. Gene-specific primer probes are commercially available. PCR takes 1-2 h after the arrival of the clinical specimen. Cell culture based virus isolation combined with intracellular antigen detection needs 1-2 days, but is regarded as gold standard. Transport of the swabs in an ice chest is recommendable. Direct antigen detection in the clinical specimen by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence test (IFT) is the most rapid (bedside) method, but of inferior sensitivity. Therapy resistance analysis is done by genotyping subsequent to PCR amplification or by the cell culture method (phenotyping). Antibodies due to influenza virus are produced during the second week after infection and may confirm or disprove virological diagnosis. ELISA and IFT apply nucleoprotein or matrix proteins as antigens and differentiate between the Ig classes IgA (IgM) and IgG indicating an acute or passed infection. Complement fixing antibodies do not persist. Influenza virus immunity is assessed by neutralisation assay or--more simply--by haemagglutination inhibition in a type-, subtype- and even variant-specific manner. Keywords: antibody test; immune assessment; influenza; resistance analysis; virus detection. Zum virologischen Nachweis einer akuten Influenza und zur Uberprufung des Immunstatus steht eine Vielzahl von Untersuchungsmethoden zur Verfugung. Bei Verdacht auf eine Influenzavirusinfektion liefert der Rachenabstrich das geeignete Untersuchungsmaterial. Das tiefe Nasopharynxaspirat ist etwas sensitiver, Sputum etwas weniger ergiebig. Die RT-PCR ermoglicht in 1-2 h nach Materialeingang ein sensitives und spezifisches Ergebnis. Typen, Subtypen und Driftvarianten lassen sich durch geeignete Primersonden, die kommerziell zur Verfugung stehen, einwandfrei identifizieren. Demgegenuber ist die Zellkultur-gestutzte Virusisolierung zeitaufwendiger und starker abhangig von einer sachgerechten Materialgewinnung und--uberbringung (Kuhlkette). PCR und Virusanzuchtung ermoglichen die geno--bzw. phanotypische Testung auf Therapieresistenzen. Der Antigentest ist eine einfache (bed-side) Schnellmethode. Seine Spezifitat ist gut, die Sensitivitat limitiert; daher kann der Antigentest nicht zur individuellen Ausschlussdiagnose eingesetzt werden. Influenzavirusspezifische Antikorper erscheinen im Blut erst in der zweiten Krankheitswoche. Die Serodiagnostik erfolgt typenspezifisch mit Komplementbindungsreaktion (KBR), IFT und ELISA uber eine signifikante Titerbewegung oder den Nachweis von IgA-Antikorpern. IgG-spezifische IFT und ELISA Methoden geben Auskunft uber die Influenzavirustypspezifische Durchseuchung. Die klinisch relevantere subtypen- und variantenspezifische Influenzavirusimmunitat wird mit dem HHT oder NT gemessen. Schlusselworter: Antikorpertest; Immunitatsbeurteilung; Influenza; Resistenzprufung; Virusnachweis.
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 14390477
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Intervirology, October 2012, Vol.55(6), pp.395-400
    Description: Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) is a sexually transmitted disease causing a lifelong persisting infection. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of anti-HSV2-IgG in a German collective. We evaluate the German serological status, point out trends in the chronological spread of HSV2 infection, and position our findings in a global context. Methods: Serum samples from 29,694 patients at the University Hospital Frankfurt am Main, Germany, were screened for anti-HSV2-IgG using ELISA. We evaluated five defined groups containing patients from the departments of pediatrics (PED), gynecology (GYN), dermatology (DER), psychiatrics (PSY) and patients suffering from HIV/AIDS (HIV). Results: We retrospectively evaluated an overall seropositivity to anti-HSV2-IgG of 13.6% (95% CI 13.1–14.1), with a significantly higher level in females (15.9%, 95% CI 15.4–16.5) than in males (11.4%, 95% CI 10.9–11.9). The highest seroprevalence was detected in HIV (34.7%, 95% CI 30.3–39.3). The lowest rate was observed in PED (9.9%, 95% CI 9.4–10.6) with an estimated number of 18 infections at delivery between 1/1/2000 and 1/1/2011. Conclusions: HSV2 infections are widespread in Germany with a tremendous health risk for newborns. Therefore, the public’s perception of HSV2 should be strengthened and protected sexual intercourse should be propagated.
    Keywords: Original Paper ; Hsv2 ; Herpes Genitalis ; Seroepidemiology ; HIV ; Germany ; Biology
    ISSN: 0300-5526
    E-ISSN: 1423-0100
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  • 9
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin, 2010, Vol.34(5), pp.---
    Description: A variety of factors are known to influence qualitative and quantitative serological assays. Here, we discuss such pitfalls in serology emerging in a case of influenza A/H1N1v-hemagglutination inhibition test (H1N1-HHT) subsequent to hyposensitization and vaccinations. Assuming that hyposensitization and vaccinations are frequently provided services, their potential interference with serological assays should be considered.
    Keywords: Disturbing Factors In Serodiagnosis ; H1n1 ; Hyposensitization ; Vaccination
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
    Source: Walter de Gruyter GmbH
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  • 10
    In: AIDS, 2010, Vol.24(9), pp.F31-F35
    Description: OBJECTIVE:: To determine rates of seroconversion after single vaccination with a novel split virion, inactivated, adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine (A/California/7/2009) in HIV-1-infected patients (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01017172). DESIGN:: Single center diagnostic study. SETTING:: Institutional HIV outpatient department of an urban university clinic. PARTICIPANTS:: Adult HIV-1-infected individuals. INTERVENTION:: Serum samples were taken before and 21 days after vaccination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Antibody titers determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Seroconversion to vaccination was defined by either an antibody titer of 1: 10 or less before and of at least 1: 40 after or at least 1: 10 before and at least four-fold increase in antibody titer 21 days after single vaccination. RESULTS:: One hundred and sixty patients (125 men/35 women) were analyzed. Before vaccination, 23 patients (14.4%) had a hemagglutination inhibition assay titer of at least 1: 40. A median of 22 ± 3 days after vaccination, 110 (69%) patients seroconverted. Seroconverters were younger (45.1 ± 10.0 vs. 48.8 ± 11.3 years; P = 0.04), had a higher CD4 cell count (532 ± 227 vs. 475 ± 281 cells/μl; P = 0.03) and were more likely to have received a previous H5N1 vaccination in 2009 (25 vs. 8%; P = 0.02) when compared to nonresponders. No other significant differences were found comparing the two groups (prevaccination hemagglutination inhibition assay titer of ≥1: 40, AIDS, HAART, HIV RNA PCR 〈50 copies/ml or CD4 nadir, CD4 and CD8 percentage, sex, BMI, chronic hepatitis B or C). CONCLUSION:: Seroconversion after one dose of a split virion, inactivated, adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine of HIV-infected patients was 69%. Studies to investigate whether a second dose of the vaccine will increase seroconversion rate are needed.
    Keywords: Virions ; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ; Hemagglutination Inhibition ; Cd8 Antigen ; Vaccination ; Influenza ; Antibodies ; Cd4 Antigen ; Pandemics ; RNA ; Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ; Hepatitis B ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Seroconversion ; Vaccines ; Sex ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus ; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ; Antibodies ; Cd4 Antigen ; Cd8 Antigen ; Hemagglutination Inhibition ; Hepatitis B ; Influenza ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; RNA ; Seroconversion ; Sex ; Vaccination ; Vaccines ; Virions ; Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ; Pandemics ; AIDS and HIV;
    ISSN: 0269-9370
    E-ISSN: 14735571
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