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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, April, 2013, Vol.128, p.54(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012.11.001 Byline: Shane Donohue (a), Dermot Forristal (b), Louise A. Donohue (c) Keywords: Soil compaction; Seismic; Surface waves; Geophysics; Cone penetrometer; Bulk density Abstract: a* A novel technique for assessment of soil compaction is introduced to the agricultural literature. a* The advantages and limitations of the MASW technique are discussed with regard to detection of soil compaction. a* The MASW approach can distinguish between heavily compacted and uncompacted soil. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queens University Belfast, David Keir Building, BT9 5AG, United Kingdom (b) Teagasc, Crops Research Centre, Oakpark, Ireland (c) School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland Article History: Received 19 July 2012; Revised 26 October 2012; Accepted 3 November 2012
    Keywords: Geophysics
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2016, Vol.767(1), pp.207-220
    Description: Lake shores are characterised by a high natural variability, which is increasingly threatened by a multitude of anthropogenic disturbances including morphological alterations to the littoral zone. The European Water Framework Directive (EU WFD) calls for the assessment of lake ecological status by monitoring biological quality elements including benthic macroinvertebrates. To identify cost- and time-efficient sampling strategies for routine lake monitoring, we sampled littoral invertebrates in 32 lakes located in different geographical regions in Europe. We compared the efficiency of two sampling methodologies, defined as habitat-specific and pooled composite sampling protocols. Benthic samples were collected from unmodified and morphologically altered shorelines. Variability within macroinvertebrate communities did not differ significantly between sampling protocols across alteration types, lake types and geographical regions. Community composition showed no significant differences between field composite samples and artificially generated composite samples, and correlation coefficients between macroinvertebrate metrics calculated with both methods and a predefined morphological stressor index were similar. We conclude that proportional composite sampling represents a time- and cost-efficient method for routine lake monitoring as requested under the EU WFD, and may be applied across various European geographical regions.
    Keywords: Morphological alteration ; Macroinvertebrates ; Lake monitoring ; Method comparison ; Littoral zone ; EU Water Framework Directive
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, April 2013, Vol.128, pp.54-60
    Description: ► A novel technique for assessment of soil compaction is introduced to the agricultural literature. ► The advantages and limitations of the MASW technique are discussed with regard to detection of soil compaction. ► The MASW approach can distinguish between heavily compacted and uncompacted soil. Seismic geophysical methods have rarely been used in precision agriculture, predominantly due to the perception that they are slow and results require a complex evaluation. This paper explores the possibility of using a recently developed surface wave seismic geophysical approach, the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method, for assessment of agricultural compaction. This approach has the advantage of being non-intrusive, rapid and is able to produce 2D ground models with a relatively high density of spatial sampling points. The method, which was tested on a research site in Oakpark, Ireland, detected a significant difference in shear wave velocity between a heavily compacted headland and an uncompacted location. The results from this approach compared favourably with those obtained from measurements of bulk density and penetrometer resistance and demonstrate that the MASW approach can distinguish between the extreme states of heavily compacted and uncompacted soil.
    Keywords: Soil Compaction ; Seismic ; Surface Waves ; Geophysics ; Cone Penetrometer ; Bulk Density ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil & tillage research, 2013, Vol.128, pp.54-60
    Description: Seismic geophysical methods have rarely been used in precision agriculture, predominantly due to the perception that they are slow and results require a complex evaluation. This paper explores the possibility of using a recently developed surface wave seismic geophysical approach, the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method, for assessment of agricultural compaction. This approach has the advantage of being non-intrusive, rapid and is able to produce 2D ground models with a relatively high density of spatial sampling points. The method, which was tested on a research site in Oakpark, Ireland, detected a significant difference in shear wave velocity between a heavily compacted headland and an uncompacted location. The results from this approach compared favourably with those obtained from measurements of bulk density and penetrometer resistance and demonstrate that the MASW approach can distinguish between the extreme states of heavily compacted and uncompacted soil. ; p. 54-60.
    Keywords: Models ; Bulk Density ; Soil Compaction ; Precision Agriculture ; Soil
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 5
    In: Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie, March 2012, Vol.180(2), pp.175-184
    Description: Lake shorelines are commonly affected by human-induced activities, with possible impacts on the ecological quality of littoral zones. This study assessed the importance of shoreline habitat features for littoral macroinvertebrate assemblages in six Irish lakes, of similar depth and size but varying along gradients of total phosphorus and alkalinity. Macroinvertebrate communities, sampled in proportion to local mesohabitats, were related to features of habitat diversity recorded by the Lake Habitat Survey (LHS), but moderated by nutrient (TP) concentrations, alkalinity, lake area, and hydromorphological pressures. When these moderating effects were accounted for, the results of partial canonical correspondence analysis (pCCA) revealed that of particular relevance to littoral macroinvertebrate communities were LHS attributes of: macrophytes extended lakewards; the diversity of littoral features; presence/absence of complex riparian vegetation; and the total number of macrophyte types.
    Keywords: Habitat Diversity ; Littoral Macroinvertebrates ; Ecological Quality ; Lhs Metrics ; Hydromorphology ; Habitat Diversity ; Littoral Macroinvertebrates ; Ecological Quality ; Lhs Metrics ; Hydromorphology
    ISSN: 1863-9135
    E-ISSN: 23637110
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2009, Vol.633(1), pp.105-122
    Description: Until the E.U. Water Framework Directive listed benthic invertebrates as a biotic element to be used for ecological classification of lakes, techniques for the assessment of the response of littoral invertebrates to anthropogenic pressures were extremely limited compared with those of rivers and lake profundal zones. We describe here the development of an ecological classification model based on changes of littoral invertebrate assemblages across a gradient of eutrophication, which is the most widespread anthropogenic pressure on lakes across Europe. The model comprises three derived parameters, two of which were developed from taxon-specific optima along a total phosphorus gradient calculated using canonical correspondence analysis, and the third based on invertebrate abundance. Combining the parameter metrics, we can estimate the ecological quality ratio (EQR), relative to those from paleolimnologically-confirmed reference lakes. The model was tested using independent samples collected from both hard and soft substrata and across two seasons from 45 lakes, comprising three alkalinity groups ( n  = 15 in each), and across gradients in water column total phosphorus concentrations. For hard substrata, EQRs were related consistently and highly significantly to water column concentrations of total phosphorus, accounting for the majority of the variance in every alkalinity group. For samples taken from soft substrata, a significant relationship was found only for high alkalinity lakes, accounting for a moderate proportion of the variability in water column total phosphorus concentrations. Our results compare highly favourably with those from other aquatic ecological assessment methods, irrespective of the faunal or floral group upon which they are based, demonstrating that littoral invertebrate assemblages can provide a statistically robust prediction of nutrient status when samples are collected from hard substrata. While the method was developed specifically to assess nutrient pressures on littoral invertebrates, many lakes are subject to multiple pressures. The development of classification models that incorporate multiple pressures presents a particularly significant challenge for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive, requiring both reliable identification of minimally-impacted reference states and incorporation of pressures that are unlikely to interact in predictable ways.
    Keywords: Benthic ; Nutrients ; Ecological classification ; Water Framework Directive
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, Oct, 2009, Vol.632(1), p.105(18)
    Description: Byline: Ian Donohue (1), Louise A. Donohue (1), Blaithin Ni Ainin (1), Kenneth Irvine (1) Keywords: Benthic; Nutrients; Ecological classification; Water Framework Directive Abstract: Until the E.U. Water Framework Directive listed benthic invertebrates as a biotic element to be used for ecological classification of lakes, techniques for the assessment of the response of littoral invertebrates to anthropogenic pressures were extremely limited compared with those of rivers and lake profundal zones. We describe here the development of an ecological classification model based on changes of littoral invertebrate assemblages across a gradient of eutrophication, which is the most widespread anthropogenic pressure on lakes across Europe. The model comprises three derived parameters, two of which were developed from taxon-specific optima along a total phosphorus gradient calculated using canonical correspondence analysis, and the third based on invertebrate abundance. Combining the parameter metrics, we can estimate the ecological quality ratio (EQR), relative to those from paleolimnologically-confirmed reference lakes. The model was tested using independent samples collected from both hard and soft substrata and across two seasons from 45 lakes, comprising three alkalinity groups (n = 15 in each), and across gradients in water column total phosphorus concentrations. For hard substrata, EQRs were related consistently and highly significantly to water column concentrations of total phosphorus, accounting for the majority of the variance in every alkalinity group. For samples taken from soft substrata, a significant relationship was found only for high alkalinity lakes, accounting for a moderate proportion of the variability in water column total phosphorus concentrations. Our results compare highly favourably with those from other aquatic ecological assessment methods, irrespective of the faunal or floral group upon which they are based, demonstrating that littoral invertebrate assemblages can provide a statistically robust prediction of nutrient status when samples are collected from hard substrata. While the method was developed specifically to assess nutrient pressures on littoral invertebrates, many lakes are subject to multiple pressures. The development of classification models that incorporate multiple pressures presents a particularly significant challenge for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive, requiring both reliable identification of minimally-impacted reference states and incorporation of pressures that are unlikely to interact in predictable ways. Author Affiliation: (1) School of Natural Sciences, Department of Zoology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland Article History: Registration Date: 06/07/2009 Online Date: 29/07/2009 Article note: Guest editors: P. NAuges, W. van de Bund, A. C. Cardoso, A. Solimini & A.-S. Heiskanen Assessment of the Ecological Status of European Surface Waters
    Keywords: Water Resource Management -- Analysis ; Water Resource Management -- Usage ; Eutrophication -- Analysis ; Eutrophication -- Usage ; Rivers -- Analysis ; Rivers -- Usage
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Ecological indicators, 2013, Vol.25, pp.205-214
    Description: Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) has drawn much attention to hydromorphological alterations of surface waters. The Lake Habitat Survey (LHS) protocol provides a method for characterising and assessing the physical habitats of lakes and reservoirs. Two metrics were developed based on this method: the Lake Habitat Modification Score (LHMS) and the Lake Habitat Quality Assessment (LHQA), as measures of lake modification and habitat value, respectively. However, the use of these metrics to predict measures of ecological quality remains largely untested. Thus, we assessed the relationships between LHS metrics and the littoral macroinvertebrate community in 42 lakes across Europe. A significant relationship was found between littoral macrophyte descriptors and riparian natural land cover variables of the LHQA score and macroinvertebrate community composition in 2 out of 4 European regions. No relationship was found between macroinvertebrate community composition and the LHMS. Some significant correlations were found between selected macroinvertebrate metrics and the LHS scores, but this pattern was not consistent across regions, and no relationship was found with the overall LHMS or LHQA scores. This demonstrates that the LHS metrics do not consistently predict the quality of littoral macroinvertebrate communities across Europe, and a region specific approach may be necessary. However, we could demonstrate a relationship between the site specific LHS variables and the macroinvertebrate community at the site level, and in some cases at the regional level. Therefore, although the LHS metrics do not appear to be a useful for relating habitat quality and pressure to littoral macroinvertebrate communities, selected LHS variables may exhibit stronger relationships with the biota. ; p. 205-214.
    Keywords: Land Cover ; Habitats ; European Union ; Macroinvertebrates ; Surface Water ; Lakes ; Surveys ; Community Structure
    ISSN: 1470-160X
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Indicators, February 2013, Vol.25, pp.205-214
    Description: ► The relationship between the LHS and the macroinvertebrate community was assessed in 42 lakes. ► There was a significant relationship between LHS and macroinvertebrates in 2 of the 4 regions. ► Some macroinvertebrate metrics correlated with LHS metrics, albeit inconsistently across Europe. ► LHS metrics are not useful for relating habitat quality to littoral macroinvertebrate communities. ► A typology approach may be necessary for different geographical regions. Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) has drawn much attention to hydromorphological alterations of surface waters. The Lake Habitat Survey (LHS) protocol provides a method for characterising and assessing the physical habitats of lakes and reservoirs. Two metrics were developed based on this method: the Lake Habitat Modification Score (LHMS) and the Lake Habitat Quality Assessment (LHQA), as measures of lake modification and habitat value, respectively. However, the use of these metrics to predict measures of ecological quality remains largely untested. Thus, we assessed the relationships between LHS metrics and the littoral macroinvertebrate community in 42 lakes across Europe. A significant relationship was found between littoral macrophyte descriptors and riparian natural land cover variables of the LHQA score and macroinvertebrate community composition in 2 out of 4 European regions. No relationship was found between macroinvertebrate community composition and the LHMS. Some significant correlations were found between selected macroinvertebrate metrics and the LHS scores, but this pattern was not consistent across regions, and no relationship was found with the overall LHMS or LHQA scores. This demonstrates that the LHS metrics do not consistently predict the quality of littoral macroinvertebrate communities across Europe, and a region specific approach may be necessary. However, we could demonstrate a relationship between the site specific LHS variables and the macroinvertebrate community at the site level, and in some cases at the regional level. Therefore, although the LHS metrics do not appear to be a useful for relating habitat quality and pressure to littoral macroinvertebrate communities, selected LHS variables may exhibit stronger relationships with the biota.
    Keywords: Eu Water Framework Directive ; Bioassessment ; Ecological Quality ; Habitat Surveying ; Hydromorphology ; Habitat Metrics ; Macroinvertebrate Metrics ; Macroinvertebrate Community Composition ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1470-160X
    E-ISSN: 1872-7034
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    In: Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, June 2015, Vol.25(3), pp.353-364
    Description: Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Riparian ; Lake ; Littoral ; Water Framework Directive ; Hydromorphology ; Environmental Impact Assessment ; Invertebrates ; Benthos ; Urban Development ; Recreation
    ISSN: 1052-7613
    E-ISSN: 1099-0755
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