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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Population and Development Review, June 2012, Vol.38(2), pp.353-368
    Description: The fertility of immigrants' children increasingly shapes the ethnic diversity of the population in Western Europe. However, few data are available on the fertility patterns of immigrants and their offspring. This article provides new fertility estimates of immigrants and immigrants' children by ethnic group in the United Kingdom that may provide better‐informed fertility assumptions for future population projection models. The impact of migration‐specific tempo effects on the period TFR of immigrants is analyzed. Among the results, intergenerational fertility transitions strongly contribute both to fertility convergence between ethnic groups and to fertility “assimilation” or “intergenerational adaptation” to the UK mainstream childbearing behavior. Ethnic fertility convergence, particularly marked for populations originating from high‐fertility countries, reflects in part decreasing fertility in sending countries and in part intergenerational adaptation to the UK mainstream. Higher educational enrollment of the daughters of immigrants may partly explain their relatively lower fertility.
    Keywords: Fertility ; Immigration ; Ethnic Demography ; Children ; Ethnic Groups ; Intergenerational Relations ; United Kingdom ; Western Europe ; Sociology;
    ISSN: 0098-7921
    E-ISSN: 1728-4457
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  • 2
    Language: French
    In: European Psychiatry, November 2015, Vol.30(8), pp.S65-S65
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.09.181 Byline: P.L. Weil-Dubuc Abstract: Resume non recu. Author Affiliation: Universite Paris-Sud, espace ethique, CHU Saint-Louis, Paris
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0924-9338
    E-ISSN: 1778-3585
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, May 2012, Vol.148(1), pp.73-80
    Description: Food sharing among nonkin—one of the most fascinating cooperative behaviors in humans—is not widespread in nonhuman primates. Over the past few years, a large body of work has investigated the contexts in which primates cooperate and share food with unrelated individuals. This work has successfully demonstrated that species‐specific differences in temperament constrain the extent to which food sharing emerges in experimental situations, with despotic species being less likely to share food than tolerant ones. However, little experimental work has examined the contexts that promote food sharing and cooperation within a species. Here, we examine whether one salient reproductive context—the consortship dyad—can allow the necessary social tolerance for co‐feeding to emerge in an extremely despotic species, the rhesus macaque (). We gave naturally formed male–female rhesus macaque pairs access to a monopolizable food site in the free‐ranging population at Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Using this method, we were able to show that tolerated co‐feeding between unrelated adults can take place in this despotic species. Specifically, our results show that consort pairs co‐fed at the experimental food site more than nonconsort control pairs, leading females to obtain more food in this context. These results suggest that co‐feeding is possible even in the most despotic of primate species, but perhaps only in contexts that specifically promote the necessary social tolerance. Researchers might profit from exploring whether other kinds of within‐species contexts could also generate cooperative behaviors. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Social Tolerance ; Food Sharing ; Sexual Consortships ; Nonhuman Primates
    ISSN: 0002-9483
    E-ISSN: 1096-8644
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Dairy Science, April 2017, Vol.100(4), pp.3079-3082
    Description: The objectives of this study were to validate the performance of on-farm bacteriological culture systems for identification of in the uterus of early postpartum dairy cows and to determine if an association is present between the results and the subsequent occurrence of puerperal metritis (PM). A prospective cohort study was conducted in one commercial Holstein dairy herd in which 400 cows were sampled between 24 and 48 h after parturition. Three bacteriological samples were obtained from the uterus of each cow and were cultured for identification of . One sample was cultured in a commercial bacteriology laboratory according to standard procedures for identification of and was considered as the reference test. The two other samples were cultured on the farm using the Tri-Plate (University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN) and Petrifilm systems, and plate readings were done after 24 and 48 h of incubation (variables: Tri24h, Tri48h, Petri24h, Petri48h). Participating cows were followed until 21 days in milk to diagnose PM. The prevalence of PM and (from the reference test) in the cow population was 15.0 and 33.5%, respectively. Both on-farm culture systems were accurate compared with the reference test. The sensitivity and specificity were 97 and 100%, 99 and 100%, 100 and 92%, and 100 and 89% for Tri24h, Tri48h, Petri24h, and Petri48h, respectively. On-farm results for Tri24h, Tri48h, Petri24h, and Petri48h were associated with subsequent occurrence of PM. The results from this study support the use of the Tri-Plate and Petrifilm culture systems on dairy farms to identify the presence of in the uterus of postpartum cows.
    Keywords: Escherichia Coli ; Bacteriology ; Metritis ; Dairy Cow ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0022-0302
    E-ISSN: 1525-3198
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2011, Vol.65(8), pp.1615-1627
    Description: In mammals, when females are clumped in space, male access to receptive females is usually determined by a dominance hierarchy based on fighting ability. In polygynandrous primates, as opposed to most mammalian species, the strength of the relationship between male social status and reproductive success varies greatly. It has been proposed that the degree to which paternity is determined by male rank decreases with increasing female reproductive synchrony. The priority-of-access model (PoA) predicts male reproductive success based on female synchrony and male dominance rank. To date, most tests of the PoA using paternity data involved nonseasonally breeding species. Here, we examine whether the PoA explains the relatively low reproductive skew in relation to dominance rank reported in the rhesus macaque, a strictly seasonal species. We collected behavioral, genetic, and hormonal data on one group of the free-ranging population on Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) for 2 years. The PoA correctly predicted the steepness of male reproductive skew, but not its relationship to male dominance: the most successful sire, fathering one third of the infants, was high but not top ranking. In contrast, mating success was not significantly skewed, suggesting that other mechanisms than social status contributed to male reproductive success. Dominance may be less important for paternity in rhesus macaques than in other primate species because it is reached through queuing rather than contest, leading to alpha males not necessarily being the strongest or most attractive male. More work is needed to fully elucidate the mechanisms determining paternity in rhesus macaques.
    Keywords: Dominance ; Reproductive skew ; Mating skew ; Priority-of-access model ; Genetic paternity analysis ; Primates ; Rhesus macaques
    ISSN: 0340-5443
    E-ISSN: 1432-0762
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Hormones and Behavior, May 2012, Vol.61(5), pp.696-705
    Description: In contrast to most mammalian species, female sexual activity is not limited to the fertile phase of the ovarian cycle in anthropoid primates, which has long been proposed to conceal the timing of ovulation to males. It is now generally believed that females are still most attractive during the fertile phase, leading to high-ranking males successfully mate-guarding them specifically during this period. While studies conducted in species exhibiting exaggerated sexual swellings (probabilistic signal of the fertile phase) have generally supported this hypothesis, mixed support comes from others. Here, we investigated whether high-ranking males timed mate-guarding effort towards female fertile phases in rhesus macaques ( ). In this species, adult females do not exhibit sexual swellings, but undergo facial skin colour variation, an alternative oestrogen-dependent graded-signal of female reproductive status. We collected behavioural, hormonal and genetic paternity data during two mating seasons for one group of the free-ranging population of Cayo Santiago. Our results show that mate-guarding by top-ranking males did not completely cover the entire female fertile phase and that this tactic accounted for only 30–40% of all fertilisations observed. Males tended to prolong mate-guarding into the luteal phase (null probability of fertilisation), which mirrors the pattern of male attraction to female facial colour reported in an earlier study. These findings suggest that males may have limited knowledge regarding the exact timing of females' fertile phase in rhesus macaques, which presumably allows females to gain more control over reproduction relative to other anthropoid primate species. ► In anthropoid primate females, the fertile phase of the cycle may be concealed. ► Males need to time their investment into mate-guarding to this period. ► In rhesus macaques, mate-guarding is not precisely timed with the fertile phase. ► Consequently, only a third of paternities could be attributed to this tactic. ► Female rhesus macaques might have some control over their own reproduction.
    Keywords: Prolonged Sexual Receptivity ; Concealed Ovulation ; Mate-Guarding ; Faecal Steroids ; Reproductive Strategies ; Fertile Phase ; Genetic Paternity Analysis ; Primates ; Rhesus Macaques ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0018-506X
    E-ISSN: 1095-6867
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 30 June 2015, Vol.112(26), pp.8058-63
    Description: Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (iciHHV-6) results in the germ-line transmission of the HHV-6 genome. Every somatic cell of iciHHV-6+ individuals contains the HHV-6 genome integrated in the telomere of chromosomes. Whether having iciHHV-6 predisposes humans to diseases remains undefined. DNA from 19,597 participants between 40 and 69 years of age were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the presence of iciHHV-6. Telomere lengths were determined by qPCR. Medical records, hematological, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements and telomere lengths were compared between iciHHV-6+ and iciHHV-6- subjects. The prevalence of iciHHV-6 was 0.58%. Two-way ANOVA with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on continuous outcomes. Two-way logistic regression with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on disease prevalence. Of 50 diseases monitored, a single one, angina pectoris, is significantly elevated (3.3×) in iciHHV-6+ individuals relative to iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.017; 95% CI, 1.73-6.35). When adjusted for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, percent body fat, and systolic blood pressure), the prevalence of angina remained three times greater in iciHHV-6+ subjects (P = 0.015; 95%CI, 1.23-7.15). Analyses of telomere lengths between iciHHV-6- without angina, iciHHV-6- with angina, and iciHHV-6+ with angina indicate that iciHHV-6+ with angina have shorter telomeres than age-matched iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.006). Our study represents, to our knowledge, the first large-scale analysis of disease association with iciHHV-6. Our results are consistent with iciHHV-6 representing a risk factor for the development of angina.
    Keywords: Hhv-6 ; Angina ; Chromosomal Integration ; Cihhv-6 ; Telomere ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Angina Pectoris -- Virology ; Herpesvirus 6, Human -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 8
    Language: French
    In: European Psychiatry, November 2014, Vol.29(8), pp.631-631
    Description: L’enjeu de cette présentation sera précisément de contester, non pas l’usage ni l’importance de la notion de « consentement », mais l’idée selon laquelle puisse s’exprimer, à travers le consentement à des soins psychiatriques, une quelconque préférence du patient, comme c’est le cas dans d’autres domaines du soin. Cette idée nous semble critiquable pour plusieurs raisons. Premièrement, un patient « consentant », s’il peut renoncer à ce qu’il vit au moment où il consent, est incapable de connaître ses vécus futurs et peut donc difficilement les préférer à ses vécus présents. Deuxièmement, ses dispositions à accepter ou à refuser les soins qu’il reçoit évoluent au gré des traitements qu’il reçoit de sorte que son consentement à un moment t ne saurait l’engager pour un moment t+1. Troisièmement, à donner au consentement le sens d’une préférence, le risque est grand de lui donner la valeur d’un simple quitus affranchissant le soignant de son devoir d’attention au malade et à ses réticences (explicites ou implicites) et enjoignant le patient à s’y soumettre, tout cela du seul fait que ce dernier aurait un jour consenti à des soins pour son propre bien. Enfin, identifier le consentement à l’expression d’une préférence revient à considérer les personnes jugées inaptes à consentir comme des êtres sans préférences.Pour ces raisons, il nous semblerait à la fois plus juste et plus loyal envers les patients de reconnaître que, dans le cas de la psychiatrie, le consentement s’apparente davantage toujours à une concession à des demandes, des besoins et des attentes extérieures, éventuellement contraires à ses préférences, qu’à l’expression d’une préférence.
    Keywords: Consentement ; Préférence ; Concession ; Vision Du Bien ; Consentement Anticipé ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0924-9338
    E-ISSN: 1778-3585
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Approximation Theory, 2011, Vol.163(8), pp.966-987
    Description: For any subdivision scheme, we define its de Rham transform, which generalizes the de Rham and Chaikin corner cutting. The main property of the de Rham transform is that it preserves a sum rule. This allows comparison of the Hölder regularity of a given subdivision scheme with that of its de Rham transform. A graphical comparison is made for three different families of subdivision schemes, the last one being the generalized four-point scheme.
    Keywords: Subdivision Schemes ; Corner Cutting ; Hölder Regularity ; (Joint and Generalized) Spectral Radius ; Mathematics
    ISSN: 0021-9045
    E-ISSN: 1096-0430
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Constructive Approximation, 2013, Vol.37(1), pp.19-39
    Description: We introduce a family of three-point subdivision schemes related to palindromic pairs of matrices of order 2. We apply the Mößner theorem on palindromic matrices to the C 0 convergence of these subdivision schemes. We study the Hölder regularity of their limit functions. The Hölder exponent which is found in the regular case is sharp for most limit functions. In the singular case, the modulus of continuity of the limit functions is of order δ log δ . These results can be used for studying the C 1 convergence of the Merrien family of Hermite subdivision schemes.
    Keywords: Subdivision schemes ; Hölder regularity ; Joint spectral radius ; Matrix norms ; Hermite interpolation
    ISSN: 0176-4276
    E-ISSN: 1432-0940
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