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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.84(6), pp.798-805
    Description: Harvests of crops, their trade and consumption, soil erosion, fertilization and recycling of organic waste generate fluxes of phosphorus in and out of the soil that continuously change the worldwide spatial distribution of total phosphorus in arable soils. Furthermore, due to variability in the properties of the virgin soils and the different histories of agricultural practices, on a planetary scale, the distribution of total soil phosphorus is very heterogeneous. There are two key relationships that determine how this distribution and its change over time affect crop yields. One is the relationship between total soil phosphorus and bioavailable soil phosphorus and the second is the relationship between bioavailable soil phosphorus and yields. Both of these depend on environmental variables such as soil properties and climate. We propose a model in which these relationships are described probabilistically and integrated with the dynamic feedbacks of cycling in the human ecosystem. The model we propose is a first step towards evaluating the large-scale effects of different nutrient management scenarios. One application of particular interest is to evaluate the vulnerability of different regions to an increased scarcity in mineral fertilizers. Another is to evaluate different regions’ deficiency in total soil phosphorus compared with the level at which they could sustain their maximum potential yield without external mineral inputs of phosphorus but solely by recycling organic matter to close the nutrient cycle.
    Keywords: Probabilistic Modeling ; Phosphorus Bioavailability ; Global Cycle ; Food Supply ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 2
    In: American Journal of Political Science, October 2017, Vol.61(4), pp.944-957
    Description: The institution of citizen suits is a decentralized form of public participation that allows citizens to influence the implementation of public laws in courts. How does this institution influence policymaking? This article proposes a model of citizen suits. It then analyzes how this institution influences legislative decisions. The legislature bargains to choose the budget, distributive spending, and spending on an ideologically contested public good (e.g., health care or environmental protection). I find that citizen suits enable courts to forge a compromise between opponents and proponents of the public good by responding to the diverse claims of citizens. Anticipating the mobilization of citizens in courts, legislators in turn craft more socially efficient bills, with less distributive spending, which better represent the distribution of preferences for the public good compared to when citizens have no role in the implementation of legislation.
    Keywords: Political Science;
    ISSN: 0092-5853
    E-ISSN: 1540-5907
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, April 2016, Vol.124, pp.175-184
    Description: Climate change mitigation requires sustainable energy transitions, but their political dynamics are poorly understood. This article presents a general dynamic model of renewable energy policy with long time horizons, endogenous electoral competition, and techno-political path dependence. We calibrate the model with data on the economics of contemporary renewable energy technologies. In doing so, we discover transition dynamics not present in economy-energy models, which ignore politics, or in formal political economy models, which ignore long-term technological dynamics. We show that the largest effects of partisan ideology on policy occur when the competing parties disagree on the importance of energy policy. In these cases, the less ideological party appeases the more ideological one, while the more ideological party attempts to appease the electorate. The results demonstrate that political dynamics could have large effects on the development of renewable energy and carbon dioxide emissions over time, influencing the ability of countries to reach various climate mitigation trajectories.
    Keywords: Dynamic Models ; Renewable Energy ; Sustainable Energy Transitions ; Political Economy ; Path Dependence ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology ; Economics
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    E-ISSN: 1873-6106
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological economics : the transdisciplinary journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics, 2016, pp. 175-184
    ISSN: 09218009
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: SSRN Electronic Journal, 2014
    ISSN: SSRN Electronic Journal
    E-ISSN: 1556-5068
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: SSRN Electronic Journal, 2014
    ISSN: SSRN Electronic Journal
    E-ISSN: 1556-5068
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Description: This dissertation analyzes how political competition and judicial institutions shape environmental governance in democratic societies. The three chapters frame environmental problems in several different ways. In the first chapter, environmental policy is framed as an ideologically contentious public good. In the second chapter, two conceptions are juxtaposed: the environment as just another policy domain subject to political haggling, or the environment as bringing about new fundamental commitments in society, prone to becoming constitutionalized through legal deliberation. In the third chapter, the dynamic properties of technological transitions toward more sustainable modes of production are emphasized. Different types of institutions are considered in the three chapters. The first two chapters examine how political and legal processes interact. They also consider the different ways in which they channel the inputs and wishes of civil society. Chapter one is a formal model of the institution of citizen suits – a prevalent institution in environmental governance – and its interaction with the legislature. It shows that the reshaping of laws by citizens and courts after their enactment by the legislature might improve the decision process of the legislature and the public good outcomes that ensue. Chapter two is an empirical analysis of the dynamics of environmental legal rules. It uses the network of citations to legal precedent to test whether the dynamic body of law governing the environment is driven by political shifts in power or follows a process that is autonomous from these shifts in power. The results suggest that environmental law is now constitutionalized – its main principles entrenched in democratic culture rather than subject to the ebb and flow of democratic turnover of power. Chapter three also considers the dynamic aspects of governance. It uses a computational model to examine how political parties with different ideological commitments towards renewable energy might strategically use the path-dependence of technological transitions to shape policy over the long-term. It also examines how electoral pressures might constrain or help them in this endeavor.
    Keywords: Environmental Law ; Environmental Policy ; Political Science ; Sustainability
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Phosphorus, Food, and Our Future, Chapter 3
    Description: This chapter investigates where and in what form phosphorus occurs on Earth. It describes the major geological dimensions of phosphorus. It measures the quantities extractable phosphorus occurs and explores the past and current trends of phosphorus usage; looks into the prediction of future trends and determines the reliability; and discusses the role of economics in phosphorus reserves, and how resources are geologically determined. It also explains the issue of the shortage of phosphorus.
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Phosphorus ; Extractable Phosphorus ; Phosphorus Usage ; Geological Dimensions ; Phosphorus Reserves
    ISBN: 9780199916832
    Source: Oxford Scholarship Online (Oxford University Press)
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  • 9
    Description: Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches. First, in the context of population genetics, we show that a horizontally-transmissible element that increases fitness, such as viral DNA, spreads superexponentially through a population, more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in the context of behavioral epidemiology, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to superexponential fixation in the population. Third, in the context of dynamic social networks, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce superexponential fixation, but preferences for local assortativity halt epidemics by disconnecting the infected from the susceptible. We conclude that the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics are characterized by the rapid spread of beneficial elements, which is facilitated in biological systems by horizontal transmission and in social systems by active spreading behavior of infected individuals. Comment: The original version of this paper [v1] was produced, from conception of idea, to execution, to writing, by a team in just 72 hours (see Appendix of [v1]). This is a revised version
    Keywords: Physics - Physics And Society ; Computer Science - Multiagent Systems ; Computer Science - Social And Information Networks ; Nonlinear Sciences - Adaptation And Self-Organizing Systems ; Quantitative Biology - Populations And Evolution
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 22 March 2005, Vol.102(12), pp.4649-54
    Description: The carpel is the female reproductive organ specific to flowering plants. We aim to define the genes that controlled carpel development in the common ancestor of this group as a step toward determining the molecular events that were responsible for the evolution of the carpel. CRABS CLAW (CRC) and TOUSLED (TSL) control important aspects of carpel development in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. The basal angiosperm species Amborella trichopoda and Cabomba aquatica very likely represent the two most early diverging groups of flowering plants. We have identified putative orthologues of CRC and TSL from A. trichopoda and C. aquatica, respectively. We demonstrate the expression patterns of these genes in carpels to be very highly conserved, both spatially and temporally, with those of their Arabidopsis orthologues. We argue that CRC and TSL in Arabidopsis are likely to have conserved their respective roles in carpel development since the common ancestor of the living flowering plants. We conclude that a divergent role shown for the CRC orthologue in rice, DROOPING LEAF, most probably arose specifically in the monocot lineage. We show that, in addition to its expression in carpels, the TSL orthologue of C. aquatica is expressed in tissues that contribute to buoyancy and argue that its role in these tissues may have arisen later than its role in carpel development.
    Keywords: Evolution, Molecular ; Genes, Plant ; Magnoliopsida -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0027-8424
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