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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 December 2017, Vol.406, pp.402-409
    Description: The Chernobyl fallout of 1986 contaminated soils in Southern Germany. Levels of Cs activity still remain high in forest soils. The contamination of forest food products still poses a serious problem for consumer health. Silvicultural interventions may offer an option to reduce the bioavailability of Cs. The objective of this study is to investigate a possible effect of canopy opening and clearcutting as well as the selection of conifers and broadleaves for stand regeneration on the vertical soil profile of Cs. The investigation uses a long-term silvicultural experiment on the artificial regeneration of a spruce stand 30 km southwest of the town Augsburg, Germany. 12 years after silvicultural intervention soil samples were taken horizon-wise and analysed to compare among the treatments. A suite of soil physical and chemical properties was determined per horizon including Cs radioactivity, total carbon, texture, and cation exchange capacity. The results show that (i) the Cs contamination at this site is high compared to other sites in Central Europe, (ii) regeneration cuttings did not markedly change the vertical Cs profile in general within one decade, (iii) clear cutting modified the boundary between the organic soil layer and the mineral soil with expectable effects on the future Cs bioavailability.
    Keywords: 137cs Activity ; Forest Soil ; Humus ; Organic Soil Horizons ; Clearcut ; Shelterwood ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 16 September 2016, Vol.232, pp.165-178
    Description: The objective was to develop a multi-criteria tool to compare fertilizing practices either based on mineral fertilizer (CONT + N) or repeated applications of exogenous organic matter (EOM) and considering the positive but also the negative impacts of these practices. Three urban composts (a municipal solid waste or MSW, a co-compost of sewage sludge and green waste (GWS), and biowaste (BIO)) and a farmyard manure (FYM) have been applied biennially over 14 years. Soils and crops were sampled repeatedly and 〉100 parameters measured. The development of different quality indices (QI) was used to provide a quantitative tool for assessing the overall effects of recycling different types of EOM. A minimum data set was determined and 7 indices of soil and crop quality were calculated using linear scoring functions: soil fertility, soil biodiversity, soil biological activities, soil physical properties, soil contamination (⿿available⿿ and ⿿total⿿) and crop productivity. All QI varied between 0 and 1, 1 being the best score. EOM amendments significantly increased soil biodiversity, biological activities and physical properties with intensity generally depending on their characteristics. FYM was the most efficient EOM to improve soil biological properties. EOM application lead to similar yields as mineral fertilizers but grain quality was slightly decreased. Thus, mineral fertilizers remained more efficient at improving crop productivity index (QI = 0.88) than EOM although BIO was not significantly different than CONT + N. All EOM improved soil fertility but only BIO was significantly higher (QI = 0.86). EOM added a range of nutrients but an excess of P (e.g. GWS) can negatively impact the soil fertility index. EOM negatively affected the soil contamination index when considering total concentrations but decreased available fractions and consequently the risks of transfer. BIO was the most efficient EOM for most indices including improving the index of ⿿available⿿ soil contamination. This study demonstrated the positive impact of repeated EOM applications on soil and crop quality in a loamy soil.
    Keywords: Compost ; Farmyard Manure ; Mineral Fertilizer ; Long Term Effect ; Quality Index ; Aggregated Method ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.244-244
    Keywords: Critical Zone Observatory ; Ammer Mountains and Prealpine Foreland ; Technische Universitaet Muenchen
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 2017, Vol.37(2), pp.1-21
    Description: The decrease of organic matter content in agricultural soils is a problem of great concern to farmers around the world. Indeed, it lowers soil fertility that directly impairs agricultural crop production and affects a number of other soil properties like water retention capacity, aggregation and structure formation, soil mechanical strength or compactibility. Scarcity in plant available water poses a risk to agriculture, especially in drought-prone areas. However, the increase of organic waste recycling in agriculture may also lead to an increase in soil organic matter contents and to changes in related soil properties. Here, we review 17 long-term field experiments (≥9 years) that investigated the effects of organic amendments on organic carbon and water availability in topsoils. We paid particular attention to the effects of added organic matter on soil bulk density or porosity and consequently on plant available water. Our main findings are that (1) plant available water generally improves after organic waste addition (relative changes from −10 to +30 vol%; p  = 0.052), (2) organic matter quality affects changes in organic carbon ( p  〈 0.05), (3) it is more suitable for plant available water quantification to use volumetric rather than gravimetric water contents, (4) the value of the matric potential defining field capacity is an issue, (5) pedotransfer functions developed for American soils adequately predicted most water contents at field capacity and wilting point, and (6) prevailing climate and initial organic carbon content may affect plant available water. This review confirms that organic amendments generally induce beneficial effects on plant available water and other soil properties. It also highlights the influence of organic matter quality on soil organic carbon. Compared with a previous review, this study reinforces reported trends of increasing plant available water with organic waste additions. This may be due to a more restrictive selection of recently published data and the use of volumetric water contents. Our findings are significant for sustainable agriculture regarding the sustainable use of organic wastes and water.
    Keywords: Long-term experiment ; Organic amendment ; Organic carbon ; Water retention ; Plant available water capacity ; Indicator of residual organic carbon
    ISSN: 1774-0746
    E-ISSN: 1773-0155
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2013, Vol.77(2), pp.403-411
    Description: The influence of clay content in soil-pore structure development and the relative importance of macroporosity in governing convective fluid flow are two key challenges toward better understanding and quantifying soil ecosystem functions. In this study, soil physical measurements (soil-water...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; GAS ; Models ; Consequences ; Porosity ; Air Permeability ; Parameters ; Transport ; Microtomography ; Quantification ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 1435-0661
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  • 6
    In: Marine Mammal Science, October 2016, Vol.32(4), pp.1501-1509
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mms.12326/abstract Byline: David N. Wiley, Charles A. Mayo, Eden Marie Maloney, Michael J. Moore ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    Keywords: Whales ; Marine Accidents;
    ISSN: 0824-0469
    E-ISSN: 1748-7692
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  • 7
    In: Soil Science, 2012, Vol.177(9), pp.527-534
    Description: ABSTRACT: Measurements of diffusive and convective gas transport parameters can be used to describe soil functional architecture and reveal key factors for soil structure development. Undisturbed 100-cm soil samples were sampled at the Long-term Research on Agricultural Systems experiment located at the University of California, Davis. The 18 plots used in this study represented fairly wide ranges in organic carbon (0. 0072–0.0153 kg kg) and clay (0.30–0.44 kg kg). Soil-air permeability, ka, and soil-gas diffusivity, DP/D0, were determined at field-moist conditions (fm) and, subsequently, after saturation and drainage to −100 cm of matric potential (pF2). Gas diffusivity in intact samples at fm conditions exhibited a general, linear relationship with air-filled porosity ([Latin Small Letter Open E]), independent of soil texture and treatment. Comparing intact and repacked samples drained to pF2, repacked soil displayed markedly lower DP/D0 values at similar air-filled porosity, illustrating soil structure effects on DP/D0. The Currie tortuosity-connectivity parameter, X = Log(DP/D0)/Log([Latin Small Letter Open E]), decreased with increasing bulk density in the intact samples at both moisture conditions, suggesting less tortuous and well-connected pathways for gas diffusion at higher bulk density. Pore organization, PO = ka / [Latin Small Letter Open E], showed a treatment effect with typically higher values for the organic plots, implying that an improved possibility for formation of organomineral soil aggregates resulted in better-connected macropore networks. Fitting a linear model to DP/D0 versus [Latin Small Letter Open E] measurements revealed different slopes at the two moisture conditions, suggesting short-term nonsingularity (hysteretic) effects after rewetting and drainage. Defining the ratio of slopes at the fm and pF2 moisture conditions as a nonsingularity index (α), the nonsingularity in DP/D0 increased with lower bulk density and higher organic carbon content.
    Keywords: Phase Transitions ; Soil Sciences ; Gases ; Moisture Content ; Porosity ; Soil Permeability ; Drainage;
    ISSN: 0038-075X
    E-ISSN: 15389243
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Cambridge University Press
    Language: English
    In: The Neuropsychiatry of Epilepsy, pp.46-56
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISBN: 9780521154697
    ISBN: 0521154693
    Source: Cambridge Core All Books (Cambridge University Press)〈img src=https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/CUP%20logo%20%282%29.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2013, Vol.77(3), pp.729-740
    Description: We constructed a new two-chamber device for gas diffusion measurements in the laboratory, where the diffusion process is followed by two counter-diffusing gases. One of the two chambers of the new apparatus is flushed with Ar, and the diffusion process is started by removing a metal slide separating...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Pore-Size Distribution ; Porous-Media ; Gaseous-Diffusion ; Microbial Activity ; Undisturbed Soil ; Organic-Matter ; Water-Content ; Compaction ; Diffusivities ; Tillage ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 1435-0661
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  • 10
    In: Soil Science, 2012, Vol.177(1), pp.1-11
    Description: ABSTRACT: It is important to understand the impact of texture and organic carbon (OC) on soil structure development. Only few studies investigated this for silt-dominated soils. In this study, soil physical properties were determined on samples from a controlled experiment (Static Fertilization Experiment, Bad Lauchstädt, Germany) on a loess soil that started more than 100 years ago with six different combinations of organic and mineral fertilizers. The parameters measured include soil texture, water retention curve, air-connected porosity, gas diffusion coefficient, air permeability, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The management resulted in a distinct gradient in OC. A bulk density gradient developed from differences in amount of clay not complexed with OC. This gradient in bulk density mainly affected content of pores larger than 3 μm. The air-connected porosity measured by a pycnometer was highly similar to the total air-filled porosity calculated from gravimetric water content. For all six treatments, diffusivities and permeabilities were quite similar; both suggested that air-filled pore space was inactive for gas transport for air saturation below 0.1, but became highly connected around 0.2 to 0.25. Furthermore, diffusion data from intact cores compared well with data from repacked samples measured at low air-filled porosities and another high-silt soil (Yolo silt loam, USA) measured at higher air-filled porosities. A two-parameter fitting model was used to analyze gas diffusion coefficient data; the model pore-connectivity factor was fairly constant, whereas the water blockage factor was markedly different. Water and air parameters both implied that change in bulk density was the major driver for diffusive and convective parameters in the experiment.
    Keywords: Soil Sciences ; Physical Properties ; Carbon ; Porosity ; Diffusion;
    ISSN: 0038-075X
    E-ISSN: 15389243
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