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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Endeavour, June 2012, Vol.36(2), pp.69-76
    Description: In 1955, a paradigm shift in the conception of sex is said to have taken place, when psychologist John Money at Johns Hopkins's Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic argued that ‘hermaphroditic’ children could be assigned a sex contradictory to their biological sex. Rather than being born male or female, he claimed, these children to be boys or girls. Money was subsequently credited the invention of the term . However, Money only confirmed a practice that was established at the clinic several years before his intervention. The clinic's director Lawson Wilkins (1894–1963) had already recommended that certain children, virilized by congenital adrenal hyperplasia, should be raised in the male sex, even though they were by all medical standards of the time female. What mattered for him was assigning the sex that seemed ‘better’ for these children. What constituted the ‘better sex’ was contingent on the child's psyche and habitus, social expectations, and on the range of medical and surgical interventions available at the time.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 0160-9327
    E-ISSN: 1873-1929
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science, July 8, 2011, Vol.333(6039), p.233(6)
    Description: Cachexia is a multifactorial wasting syndrome most common in patients with cancer that is characterized by the uncontrolled toss of adipose and muscle mass. We show that the inhibition of lipolysis through genetic ablation of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) or hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) ameliorates certain features of cancer-associated cachexia (CAC). In wild-type C57BL/6 mice, the injection of Lewis lung carcinoma or B16 melanoma cells causes tumor growth, loss of white adipose tissue (WAT), and a marked reduction of gastrocnemius muscle. In contrast, Atgl-deficient mice with tumors resisted increased WAT lipolysis, myocyte apoptosis, and proteasomal muscle degradation and maintained normal adipose and gastrocnemius muscle mass. Hsl-deficient mice with tumors were also protected although to a lesser degree. Thus, functional lipolysis is essential in the pathogenesis of CAC. Pharmacological inhibition of metabolic lipases may help prevent cachexia. 10.1126/science.1198973
    Keywords: Lipase -- Health Aspects ; Cachexia -- Development And Progression ; Triglycerides -- Health Aspects ; Cancer -- Complications And Side Effects ; Adipose Tissue -- Health Aspects ; Adipose Tissue -- Chemical Properties
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 3
    In: Gender & History, November 2010, Vol.22(3), pp.692-707
    Description: The term ‘gender role’ was coined at Johns Hopkins's paediatric endocrinology clinic in the 1950s, where Dr Lawson Wilkins and psychologist John Money diagnosed, treated and evaluated intersexual children, most of them suffering from a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Going beyond existing discourses on the medicalisation of intersexuality, I reframe the emergence of gender as an element in the development of a specific medical treatment for an endocrinological condition and excavate the complex and contingent historical factors that led to the formulation of gender role in the Hopkins context. Using previously unavailable patient records from the clinic, this article follows the patients through their medical encounters and describes the process of normalisation around the diagnosis, treatment and management of CAH. By paying specific attention to the practices at the clinic, I show that diagnosing a child's sex often depended on the physicians’ skill, experience and techniques. Correct gender role was folded into the management of CAH as one aspect of successful treatment. Normalisation was a process, in which treating somatic effects and assuring psychological healthiness were deeply enmeshed in the conviction that a normal life would only be possible as a clearly gendered and sexed person.
    Keywords: Hermaphroditism;
    ISSN: 0953-5233
    E-ISSN: 1468-0424
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 08 July 2011, Vol.333(6039), pp.233-8
    Description: Cachexia is a multifactorial wasting syndrome most common in patients with cancer that is characterized by the uncontrolled loss of adipose and muscle mass. We show that the inhibition of lipolysis through genetic ablation of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) or hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) ameliorates certain features of cancer-associated cachexia (CAC). In wild-type C57BL/6 mice, the injection of Lewis lung carcinoma or B16 melanoma cells causes tumor growth, loss of white adipose tissue (WAT), and a marked reduction of gastrocnemius muscle. In contrast, Atgl-deficient mice with tumors resisted increased WAT lipolysis, myocyte apoptosis, and proteasomal muscle degradation and maintained normal adipose and gastrocnemius muscle mass. Hsl-deficient mice with tumors were also protected although to a lesser degree. Thus, functional lipolysis is essential in the pathogenesis of CAC. Pharmacological inhibition of metabolic lipases may help prevent cachexia.
    Keywords: Lipolysis ; Adipose Tissue, White -- Enzymology ; Cachexia -- Enzymology ; Lipase -- Metabolism ; Neoplasms -- Enzymology ; Neoplasms, Experimental -- Enzymology ; Sterol Esterase -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of the history of medicine, 2018, Vol.92(4), pp.604-633
    Description: This article complicates the history of the standardization of intersex case management developed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in the 1950s by focusing on clinical practices and logics and the transatlantic circulation of knowledge. Using patient records and published studies, I follow the exchanges between pediatric endocrinologists Lawson Wilkins (Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, Baltimore) and Andrea Prader (University Children's Hospital, Zürich) on cortisone treatment for children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), on psychosexuality and gender role, on choosing and changing the sex of intersex children, and on genital surgery. I argue that a focus on the transatlantic exchanges between these two clinics illuminates a more complex genealogy of modern intersex case management. It also provides insight into how physicians understood their clinical practice and sheds light on the messiness and pragmatic contingencies of what only in retrospect appears to have been a consistent treatment regime.
    Keywords: Gender Identity ; Psychosexual Development ; Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital -- History ; Disorders of Sex Development -- History ; Physicians -- History
    ISSN: 00075140
    E-ISSN: 1086-3176
    E-ISSN: 18963176
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  • 6
    In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 2018, Vol.92(4), pp.604-633
    Description: summary:This article complicates the history of the standardization of intersex case management developed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in the 1950s by focusing on clinical practices and logics and the transatlantic circulation of knowledge. Using patient records and published studies, I follow the exchanges between pediatric endocrinologists Lawson Wilkins (Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, Baltimore) and Andrea Prader (University Children’s Hospital, Zürich) on cortisone treatment for children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), on psychosexuality and gender role, on choosing and changing the sex of intersex children, and on genital surgery. I argue that a focus on the transatlantic exchanges between these two clinics illuminates a more complex genealogy of modern intersex case management. It also provides insight into how physicians understood their clinical practice and sheds light on the messiness and pragmatic contingencies of what only in retrospect appears to have been a consistent treatment regime.
    Keywords: Intersexuality -- Treatment -- History -- 20th Century ; Cortisone -- Therapeutic Use ; Technology Transfer -- History -- 20th Century
    ISSN: 0007-5140
    E-ISSN: 1086-3176
    Source: Project MUSE
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 04/15/2011, Vol.71(8 Supplement), pp.4081-4081
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2011, Vol.68(23), pp.3933-3947
    Description: Infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into the site of inflammation is critical in the progression of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Cell migration is dependent on the continuous organization of the actin cytoskeleton, which is regulated by members of the small Rho GTPase family (RhoA, Cdc42, Rac) that are also important for the regulation of signal transduction pathways. We have recently reported on reduced plaque formation in an atherosclerotic mouse model transplanted with bone marrow from adipose triglyceride lipase-deficient ( Atgl − / −) mice. Here we provide evidence that defective lipolysis in macrophages lacking ATGL, the major enzyme responsible for triacylglycerol hydrolysis, favors an anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophage phenotype. Our data implicate an as yet unrecognized principle that insufficient lipolysis influences macrophage polarization and actin polymerization, resulting in impaired macrophage migration. Sustained phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase [due to inactivation of its phosphatase by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)] results in defective Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA activation and in increased and sustained activation of Rac2. Inhibition of ROS production restores the migratory capacity of Atgl − / − macrophages. Since monocyte and macrophage migration are a prerequisite for infiltrating the arterial wall, our results provide a molecular link between lipolysis and the development of atherosclerosis.
    Keywords: Lipolysis ; Small Rho GTPases ; Adipose triglyceride lipase ; Macrophages ; Cytoskeleton ; Atherosclerosis
    ISSN: 1420-682X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9071
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2013, Vol.70(14), pp.2621-2621
    Description: Byline: Elma Aflaki (1), Nariman A. B. Balenga (2), Petra Luschnig-Schratl (2), Heimo Wolinski (3), Silvia Povoden (1), Prakash G. Chandak (1), Juliane G. Bogner-Strauss (4), Sandra Eder (3), Viktoria Konya (2), Sepp-Dieter Kohlwein (3), Akos Heinemann (2), Dagmar Kratky (1) Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center of Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Harrachgasse 21, 8010, Graz, Austria (2) Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, Universitatsplatz 4, 8010, Graz, Austria (3) Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Heinrichstrasse 31/Humboldtstrasse 50, 8010, Graz, Austria (4) Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 14, 8010, Graz, Austria Article History: Registration Date: 13/05/2013 Online Date: 25/05/2013 Article note: The online version of the original article can be found under doi: 10.1007/s00018-011-0688-4. The online version of the original article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-011-0688-4.
    Keywords: Medical Schools ; Macrophages;
    ISSN: 1420-682X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9071
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science, 2006, Vol.312(5774), pp.734-737
    Description: Fat tissue is the most important energy depot in vertebrates. The release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from stored fat requires the enzymatic activity of lipases. We showed that genetic inactivation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in mice increases adipose mass and leads to triacylglycerol deposition in multiple tissues. ATGL-deficient mice accumulated large amounts of lipid in the heart, causing cardiac dysfunction and premature death. Defective cold adaptation indicated that the enzyme provides FFAs to fuel thermogenesis. The reduced availability of ATGL-derived FFAs leads to increased glucose use, increased glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that ATGL is rate limiting in the catabolism of cellular fat depots and plays an important role in energy homeostasis. ; Includes references ; p. 734-737.
    Keywords: Body Fat ; Knockout Mutants ; Adipose Tissue ; Heart ; Lipids ; Triacylglycerol Lipase ; Phenotype ; Histochemistry ; Heart Diseases ; Lipolysis ; Cold Tolerance ; Mutagenesis ; Energy Metabolism ; Mortality ; Enzyme Deficiencies ; Atgl Gene ; Adipose Triglyceride Lipase
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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