Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, October 2010, Vol.164(2), pp.499-510
    Description: As anthropogenic N deposition has been suspected to be the main reason for the decline of macromycetous sporocarp production in forest ecosystems, various N-fertilization experiments were started in the mid 1990s. The dynamics of ectomycorrhizal (root-inhabiting) and terricolous saprobic (litter-inhabiting) fungal communities were studied by exhaustive sporocarp inventories in a substitution Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest in two 256-m(2) plots sampled for periods of 1 week at 1-m(2) resolution between 1994 and 2007. N was added to the soil twice per year in one plot from the fourth year onwards. The effects of N input and time on aboveground fungal communities were assessed using redundancy analysis, principal response curves and non-parametric multivariate ANOVA. Results of this long-term experiment revealed that both ectomycorrhizal and saprobic fungal communities responded to an increase in soil N input. The ectomycorrhizal community reacted by a fast decrease in sporocarp production and in species richness, whereas the saprobic community was less affected. The response was highly species specific, especially for the saprobic community. The difference in species composition between control and fertilized plots was significant after 1 year of N addition for ectomycorrhizal fungi and only after 3 years for saprobic fungi. An aging effect affected sporocarp production in the whole area. For both communities, this unidirectional drift in species composition was as important as the treatment effect. This result highlights the importance of considering the respective role of treatment and year effects in long-term field experiments on fungal communities.
    Keywords: Ecosystem ; Nitrogen ; Picea ; Soil Microbiology ; Mycorrhizae -- Growth & Development
    ISSN: 00298549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2011, Vol.167(1), pp.219-228
    Description: Fires shape fundamental properties of many forest ecosystems and climate change will increase their relevance in regions where fires occur infrequently today. In ecosystems that are not adapted to fire, post-fire tree recruitment is often sparse, a fact that might be attributed to a transient lack of mycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi play an important role for recruitment by enhancing nutrient and water uptake of their hosts. The questions arise whether and for how long the EcM community is transformed by fire. We investigated the resistance and resilience of EcM fungal communities on a chronosequence of 12 Pinus sylvestris stands in Valais (Switzerland) and Val d’Aosta (Italy) affected by fire between 1990 and 2006. Soil samples from burnt and non-burnt forests were analyzed with respect to EcM fungi by means of a bioassay. The number of EcM species was significantly lower in samples from recently (2–5 years) burnt sites than non-burnt forest, and increased with time since fire reaching levels of adjacent forests after 15–18 years. Community composition changed after fire but did not converge to that of non-burnt sites over the 18 year period. Only Rhizopogon roseolus and Cenococcum geophilum were abundant in both burnt sites and adjacent forest. Our data indicate fire resistance of some EcM fungal species as well as rapid resilience in terms of species number, but not in species composition. As long as the function of different EcM species for seedling establishment is unknown, the consequences of long-term shifts in EcM community composition for tree recruitment remain unclear.
    Keywords: Fire disturbance ; Recruitment ; Resilience ; Resistance ; Scots pine
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    In: Global Change Biology, September 2013, Vol.19(9), pp.2785-2794
    Description: Disentangling biotic and abiotic drivers of wild mushroom fruiting is fraught with difficulties because mycelial growth is hidden belowground, symbiotic and saprotrophic supply strategies may interact, and myco‐ecological observations are often either discontinuous or too short. Here, we compiled and analyzed 115 417 weekly fungal fruit body counts from permanent Swiss inventories between 1975 and 2006. Mushroom fruiting exhibited an average autumnal delay of 12 days after 1991 compared with before, the annual number of fruit bodies increased from 1801 to 5414 and the mean species richness doubled from 10 to 20. Intra‐ and interannual coherency of symbiotic and saprotrophic mushroom fruiting, together with little agreement between mycorrhizal yield and tree growth suggests direct climate controls on fruit body formation of both nutritional modes. Our results contradict a previously reported declining of mushroom harvests and propose rethinking the conceptual role of symbiotic pathways in fungi‐host interaction. Moreover, this conceptual advancement may foster new cross‐disciplinary research avenues, and stimulate questions about possible amplifications of the global carbon cycle, as enhanced fungal production in moist mid‐latitude forests rises carbon cycling and thus increases greenhouse gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Forest Ecology ; Fungi‐Host Interaction ; Global Carbon Cycle ; Plant Phenology ; Tree Growth
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, July, 2014, Vol.74, p.21(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.02.014 Byline: Monika Welc, Emmanuel Frossard, Simon Egli, Else K. Bunemann, Jan Jansa Abstract: The abundance, distribution and functions of soil fungi in alpine ecosystems remain poorly understood. We aimed at linking the fungal community structure with soil enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of several plants associating with mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular, ecto- and ericoid) and growing along a soil developmental gradient on the forefield of an alpine glacier. Fungal communities in roots and in rhizosphere soils were assessed using a site-tailored set of quantitative PCR assays with fluorescent hydrolysis probes. Enzymatic activities of mycorrhizal roots and rhizosphere soils were assessed using fluorogenic substrates. In this study we addressed: i) whether and how the structure of fungal communities and enzymatic activities in rhizosphere soils change along the soil developmental gradient, ii) whether the type of mycorrhiza shows a clear relationship to the pattern of enzymatic activities in the rhizosphere, and iii) how the structure of fungal communities and enzymatic activities in rhizosphere soils is related to plant species abundances along the soil chronosequence. The results suggest that plant identity affected the structure of both ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in rhizosphere soil and roots, whereas the community of non-mycorrhizal fungi was rather dictated by the soil developmental stage. Both plant identity and associated mycorrhizal fungi affected the enzymatic activity in the rhizosphere soil. Species-specific elevations of rhizosphere enzyme activities were detected for Salix helvetica (chitinase and [alpha]-glucosidase), Rhododendron ferrugineum ([alpha]-glucosidase and sulfatase), and Agrostis gigantea (phosphatase and xylosidase). These results indicate different functional roles played by different types of mycorrhizal symbiosis in a young alpine ecosystem. Author Affiliation: (a) Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, FMG C 18, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau, ZH, Switzerland (b) Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zurcherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, ZH, Switzerland (c) Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, VideAska 1083, 14220, Praha 4, KrA, Czech Republic Article History: Received 20 August 2013; Revised 17 February 2014; Accepted 20 February 2014
    Keywords: Alpine Ecosystems ; Enzymes ; Plants (Organisms) ; Hydrolysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 04 September 2012, Vol.109(36), pp.14488-93
    Description: In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970-2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function.
    Keywords: Climate ; Global Warming ; Seasons ; Agaricales -- Growth & Development ; Fruiting Bodies, Fungal -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2011, Vol.338(1), pp.411-421
    Description: In a shadehouse experiment we tested the effects of light, nutrients and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) on the growth of Vatica albiramis van Slooten (Dipterocarpaceae) seedlings. We hypothesised that it is more advantageous for plants to form connections with EMF and to trade carbon for nutrients with EMF under high light than low light. The relationship between seedling growth and the proportion of ectomycorrhizal root tips was expected as positive in high light and as negative in low light. Light conditions simulated the forest understory (low; 3% full sunlight), a small gap (medium; 11%) and a large gap (high; 33%) and a fully factorial combination of nutrients (F−/+) and ectomycorrhizal colonization (EMF−/+) treatments were applied within light conditions. The application of EMF and nutrients did significantly alter seedling growth across the range of forest floor light conditions, however the key hypothesis was rejected as seedling growth under low light was not affected by increased EMF colonization of root tips (light:EMF colonization χ 2  = 2.97, p  = 0.23). In addition, the lack of difference in morphotype abundance across light conditions indicated that light changes may not favour the association to specific EMF in seedlings of this particular dipterocarp species. Our results suggest that antagonistic (non-beneficial to the plant) effects due to ectomycorrhizal colonization under a light constrained environment may not affect seedling growth of Vatica albiramis .
    Keywords: Vatica albiramis ; Dipterocarp ; Borneo ; Ectomycorrhizal colonization ; Soil solarization
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    In: Ecology Letters, March 2014, Vol.17(3), pp.303-313
    Description: Direct effects of climate change on animal physiology, and indirect impacts from disruption of seasonal synchrony and breakdown of trophic interactions are particularly severe in Arctic and Alpine ecosystems. Unravelling biotic from abiotic drivers, however, remains challenging because high‐resolution animal population data are often limited in space and time. Here, we show that variation in annual horn growth (an indirect proxy for individual performance) of 8043 male Alpine ibex () over the past four decades is well synchronised among eight disjunct colonies in the eastern Swiss Alps. Elevated March to May temperatures, causing premature melting of Alpine snowcover, earlier plant phenology and subsequent improvement of ibex food resources, fuelled annual horn growth. These results reveal dependency of local trophic interactions on large‐scale climate dynamics, and provide evidence that declining herbivore performance is not a universal response to global warming even for high‐altitude populations that are also harvested.
    Keywords: Alpine Ungulates ; Body Size ; Climate Change ; Ecological Response ; European Alps ; Horn Growth ; Phenotypic Plasticity ; Plant Phenology ; Spatial Synchrony ; Trophic Interaction
    ISSN: 1461-023X
    E-ISSN: 1461-0248
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    In: Molecular Ecology, April 2014, Vol.23(8), pp.2118-2135
    Description: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi () are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real‐time PCR with taxon‐specific markers for six widespread species. To identify the key determinants of community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well‐supported dependencies between abundances of certain taxa and soil properties such as , soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied.
    Keywords: Biotest ; Community Profiling ; Field Soil ; Quantitative Real‐Time Pcr ; Switzerland ; Variation Partitioning
    ISSN: 0962-1083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Forest Science, 2011, Vol.68(1), pp.81-88
    Description: times Introduction : Fruit-body production of mushrooms is not well understood to date as many factors interact with mushroom growth in nature. Weather conditions play a key role, but they do not completely explain the growth and productivity of wild mushrooms. Mycorrhizal fungi depend on photosynthetically fixed carbon produced by their associated trees, and the physiological state of host trees may well drive the growth of these fungi. We raise the question of whether mycorrhizal fungi can be used as indicators for tree health. times Discussion : In the 1980s, a decline in the species richness and abundance of ectomycorrhizal species was observed in Europe, which was then seen as reflecting the degree of forest dieback. An analysis of the results of a long-term study over 32 years in the fungus reserve La Chaneaz confirms this decline: since 1975, the mycorrhizal species have considerably decreased in abundance in relation to the other species. We discuss potential causes of this development and raise questions about a possible relationship between a decrease in mycorrhizal fungi and the health of the associated forest trees. times Conclusion : We do not yet know enough about forest mushrooms to be able to use them as bio-indicators of tree health. More research is needed, especially about the functional significance of ectomycorrhizal fungi on a species level.
    Keywords: Wild forest mushrooms ; Tree growth ; Biodiversity ; Forest management ; Fruit-body production ; Bio-indicator
    ISSN: 1286-4560
    E-ISSN: 1297-966X
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(4), p.e35275
    Description: Many trees species form symbiotic associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, which improve nutrient and water acquisition of their host. Until now it is unclear whether the species richness of ECM fungi is beneficial for tree seedling performance, be it during moist conditions or drought. We performed a pot experiment using Pinus sylvestris seedlings inoculated with four selected ECM fungi ( Cenococcum geophilum , Paxillus involutus , Rhizopogon roseolus and Suillus granulatus ) to investigate (i) whether these four ECM fungi, in monoculture or in species mixtures, affect growth of P. sylvestris seedlings, and (ii) whether this effect can be attributed to species number per se or to species identity. Two different watering regimes (moist vs. dry) were applied to examine the context-dependency of the results. Additionally, we assessed the activity of eight extracellular enzymes in the root tips. Shoot growth was enhanced in the presence of S. granulatus , but not by any other ECM fungal species. The positive effect of S. granulatus on shoot growth was more pronounced under moist (threefold increase) than under dry conditions (twofold increase), indicating that the investigated ECM fungi did not provide additional support during drought stress. The activity of secreted extracellular enzymes was higher in S. granulatus than in any other species. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ECM fungal species composition may affect seedling performance in terms of aboveground biomass.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Microbiology ; Plant Biology ; Ecology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages