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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, August 15, 2014, Vol.490, p.191(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.110 Byline: Hermann Rugner, Marc Schwientek, Marius Egner, Peter Grathwohl Abstract: Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to mobilization of suspended particles which typically occurs during floods. Since the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in rivers can be monitored by turbidity measurements this may be used as a proxy for the total concentration of particle associated pollutants such as PAHs, PCBs, etc. and several heavy metals. Online turbidity measurements (e.g. by optical backscattering sensors) would then also allow for an assessment of particle and pollutant flux dynamics if once calibrated against TSS and total pollutant concentrations for a given catchment. In this study, distinct flood and thus turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in three contrasting sub-catchments of the River Neckar in Southwest Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, Steinlach) as well as in the River Neckar itself and investigated for the total amount of PAHs and TSS in water; turbidity (NTU) and grain size distributions of suspended solids were determined as well. Laboratory experiments were performed with natural river bed sediments from different locations (Ammer) to investigate PAH concentrations, TSS and turbidity during sedimentation of suspended particles under controlled conditions (yielding smaller and smaller suspended particles and TSS with time). Laboratory and field results agreed very well and showed that turbidity and TSS were linearly correlated over an extended turbidity range up to 2000NTU for the field samples and up to 8000NTU in lab experiments. This also holds for total PAH concentrations which can be reasonably well predicted based on turbidity measurements and TSS vs. PAHs relationships -- even for high turbidity values observed during flood events (〉2000NTU). Total PAH concentrations on suspended solids were independent of grain size of suspended particles. This implies that for the rivers investigated the sorption capacity of particles did not change significantly during the observed events. Article History: Received 17 March 2014; Revised 25 April 2014; Accepted 25 April 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: D. Barcelo
    Keywords: Rivers ; Heavy Metals ; Proxy ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Sediments (Geology)
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 August 2014, Vol.490, pp.191-198
    Description: Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to mobilization of suspended particles which typically occurs during floods. Since the amount of total suspended solids ( ) in rivers can be monitored by turbidity measurements this may be used as a proxy for the total concentration of particle associated pollutants such as PAHs, PCBs, etc. and several heavy metals. Online turbidity measurements (e.g. by optical backscattering sensors) would then also allow for an assessment of particle and pollutant flux dynamics if once calibrated against and total pollutant concentrations for a given catchment. In this study, distinct flood and thus turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in three contrasting sub-catchments of the River Neckar in Southwest Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, Steinlach) as well as in the River Neckar itself and investigated for the total amount of PAHs and in water; turbidity (NTU) and grain size distributions of suspended solids were determined as well. Laboratory experiments were performed with natural river bed sediments from different locations (Ammer) to investigate PAH concentrations, and turbidity during sedimentation of suspended particles under controlled conditions (yielding smaller and smaller suspended particles and with time). Laboratory and field results agreed very well and showed that turbidity and were linearly correlated over an extended turbidity range up to 2000 NTU for the field samples and up to 8000 NTU in lab experiments. This also holds for total PAH concentrations which can be reasonably well predicted based on turbidity measurements and vs. PAHs relationships — even for high turbidity values observed during flood events (〉 2000 NTU). Total PAH concentrations on suspended solids were independent of grain size of suspended particles. This implies that for the rivers investigated the sorption capacity of particles did not change significantly during the observed events.
    Keywords: Pollutant Fluxes in Rivers ; Turbidity ; Total Suspended Solids ; Particle Facilitated Transport ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemical reviews, 08 June 2016, Vol.116(11), pp.6305-22
    Description: Solving structures or structural ensembles of large macromolecular systems in solution poses a challenging problem. While NMR provides structural information at atomic resolution, increased spectral complexity, chemical shift overlap, and short transverse relaxation times (associated with slow tumbling) render application of the usual techniques that have been so successful for medium sized systems (〈50 kDa) difficult. Solution X-ray scattering, on the other hand, is not limited by molecular weight but only provides low resolution structural information related to the overall shape and size of the system under investigation. Here we review how combining atomic resolution structures of smaller domains with sparse experimental data afforded by NMR residual dipolar couplings (which yield both orientational and shape information) and solution X-ray scattering data in rigid-body simulated annealing calculations provides a powerful approach for investigating the structural aspects of conformational dynamics in large multidomain proteins. The application of this hybrid methodology is illustrated for the 128 kDa dimer of bacterial Enzyme I which exists in a variety of open and closed states that are sampled at various points in the catalytic cycles, and for the capsid protein of the human immunodeficiency virus.
    Keywords: Models, Molecular ; Proteins -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00092665
    E-ISSN: 1520-6890
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