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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 December 2011, Vol.108 Suppl 4, pp.21292-6
    Description: Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved.
    Keywords: Politics ; Social Change
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Chemical Physics, 21 June 2011, Vol.134(23)
    Description: Integral equation theory is applied to a coarse-grained model of water to study potential of mean force between hydrophobic solutes. Theory is shown to be in good agreement with the available simulation data for methane-methane and fullerene-fullerene potential of mean force in water; the potential of mean force is also decomposed into its entropic and enthalpic contributions. Mode coupling theory is employed to compute self-diffusion coefficient of water as well as diffusion coefficient of a dilute hydrophobic solute; good agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results is found.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-9606
    E-ISSN: 1089-7690
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Chemical Physics, 21 May 2011, Vol.134(19)
    Description: A self-consistent field theory study of lock and key type interactions between sterically stabilized colloids in polymer solution is performed. Both the key particle and the lock cavity are assumed to have cylindrical shape and their surfaces are uniformly grafted with polymer chains. The lock-key potential of mean force is computed for various model parameters, such as length of free and grafted chains, lock and key size matching, free chain volume fraction, grafting density, and various enthalpic interactions present in the system. The lock-key interaction is found to be highly tunable, which is important in the rapidly developing field of particle self-assembly.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-9606
    E-ISSN: 1089-7690
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Chemical Physics, 28 February 2011, Vol.134(8)
    Description: Mode-coupling theory is employed to study diffusion of nanoparticles in polymer melts and solutions. Theoretical results are directly compared with molecular dynamics simulation data for a similar model. The theory correctly reproduces the effects of the nanoparticle size, mass, particle–polymer interaction strength, and polymer chain length on the nanoparticle diffusion coefficient. In accord with earlier experimental, simulation, and theoretical work, it is found that when the polymer radius of gyration exceeds the nanoparticle radius, the Stokes–Einstein relation underestimates the particle diffusion coefficient by as much as an order of magnitude. Within the mode-coupling theory framework, a microscopic interpretation of this phenomenon is given, whereby the total diffusion coefficient is decomposed into microscopic and hydrodynamic contributions, with the former dominant in the small particle limit, and the latter dominant in the large particle limit. This interpretation is in agreement with previous mode-coupling theory studies of anomalous diffusion of solutes in simple dense fluids.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-9606
    E-ISSN: 1089-7690
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Chemical Physics, 07 October 2012, Vol.137(13)
    Description: In this work, two-dimensional lattice-based self-consistent field theory is used to study the free energy cost associated with the insertion of a nanoparticle into a polymer brush. The nanoparticle is modeled as a cylinder and the self-consistent field equations are formulated on a cylindrical lattice. The use of two-dimensional formalism makes it possible to take into account the distortion of the brush density profile due to the embedded nanoinclusion. The insertion free energy penalty is analyzed as a function of the particle size, the brush grafting density, and the solvent quality. In agreement with the earlier simulation work, we find that the insertion free energy cost increases both with the particle size and the brush grafting density and decreases with deteriorating solvent quality. For nanoparticles located deep inside the brush, the insertion free energy is shown to scale with either squared (good solvent) or cubed (poor solvent) monomer volume fraction profile, in agreement with the earlier theoretical results. For shallow nanoinclusions located close to the brush surface, the insertion free energy is shown to scale linearly with the monomer volume fraction profile under both good and theta solvent conditions, again in agreement with the earlier work.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-9606
    E-ISSN: 1089-7690
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron, 02 September 2012, Vol.68(35), pp.7122-7128
    Description: Novel highly functionalized chlorocyclopentenones derivatives with N-, O-, and C-substituents were synthesized.
    Keywords: Functionalized Cyclopentenones ; Synthesis ; Antiviral Carbocycles ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    E-ISSN: 1464-5416
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 December 2011, Vol.108, pp.21292-21296
    Description: Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved.
    ISSN: 00278424
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 December 2011, Vol.108, pp.21292-21296
    Description: Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved.
    Keywords: Behavioral sciences -- Sociology -- Human societies ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Public economics ; Mathematics -- Mathematical analysis -- Mathematical monotonicity ; Behavioral sciences -- Sociology -- Human societies ; Political science -- Politics -- Political power ; Behavioral sciences -- Leisure studies -- Recreation ; Political science -- Politics -- Political processes ; Applied sciences -- Research methods -- Research design ; Political science -- Government -- Political systems ; Political science -- Government -- Political systems
    ISSN: 00278424
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The American Economic Review, 1 June 2012, Vol.102(4), pp.1446-1476
    Description: In dynamic collective decision making, current decisions determine the future distribution of political power and influence future decisions. We develop a general framework to study this class of problems. Under acyclicity, we characterize dynamically stable states as functions of the initial state and obtain two general insights. First, a social arrangement is made stable by the instability of alternative arrangements that are preferred by sufficiently powerful groups. Second, efficiency-enhancing changes may be resisted because of further changes they will engender. We use this framework to analyze dynamics of political rights in a society with different types of extremist views.
    Keywords: Economics -- Economic theory -- Political processes ; Political science -- Politics -- Public economics ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Political power ; Political science -- Politics -- Economic costs and benefits ; Economics -- Microeconomics -- Human societies ; Behavioral sciences -- Sociology -- Axioms ; Mathematics -- Mathematical expressions -- Game theory ; Mathematics -- Applied mathematics -- Political systems ; Political science -- Government -- Logical postulates ; Philosophy -- Logic -- Logical postulates
    ISSN: 00028282
    E-ISSN: 19447981
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Psychiatry, 2014, Vol.29, pp.1-1
    Description: Alcoholism prevalence is three times higher in patients with schizophrenia than in general population. The aim of this study was to create two experimental models of dual disorders: schizophrenia and alcoholism. The study was carried out on 90 male Wistar rats. The first dopaminergic model of schizophrenia was conducted by means levodopa-carbidopa (LC) introduction: 300mg/kg for 5 days every month of the experiment. The second model was rat earlier isolation from 21 till 56 day after birth. During 4 month all experimental animals had 15% ethanol solution intermittent half-voluntary drinking. Alcohol preference was evaluated in the ‘two-bottle-test'. Behavior parameters and anxiety level was estimated in the ‘open field' test, Porsolt test and auditory stimulus reactions. LC rats have shown significantly higher alcohol intake in earlier experimental period, compared to water controls. Alcohol preference was higher exactly after LC administration (‘acute psychosis') than in three weeks (‘remission'). The LC rats have shown the reduced threshold sensitivity to auditory stimuli and no differences in locomotor and exploratory activity. Compared to control animals the early isolated rats have shown higher alcohol preference as well. After isolation rats have demonstrated the increased motor activity and anxiety in the open field. After the end of alcoholization the isolated rats have shown significantly less swimming time than controls in Porsolt test. Different mechanisms of alcoholism origin in different schizophrenia models are discussed: common sub-cortical DA transmission changes in schizophrenia and alcoholism in LC model and self-medication mechanisms in early isolation model.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0924-9338
    E-ISSN: 1778-3585
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