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  • 1
    In: Ecology Letters, October 2011, Vol.14(10), pp.993-1000
    Description: For more than a century, the scaling of animal metabolic rates with individual body masses and environmental temperature has predominantly been described by power-law and exponential relationships respectively. Many theories have been proposed to explain these scaling relationships, but were challenged by empirically documented curvatures on double-logarithmic scales. In the present study, we present a novel data set comprising 3661 terrestrial (mainly soil) invertebrate respiration rates from 192 independent sources across a wide range in body masses, environmental temperatures and phylogenetic groups. Although our analyses documented power-law and exponential scaling with body masses and temperature, respectively, polynomial models identified curved deviations. Interestingly, complex scaling models accounting for phylogenetic groups were able to remove curvatures except for a negative curvature at the highest temperatures (〉30 degree C) indicating metabolic down regulation. This might indicate that the tremendous differences in invertebrate body architectures, ecology and physiology may cause severely different metabolic scaling processes.Original Abstract: Ecology Letters (2011) 14: 993-1000
    Keywords: Body Mass ; Curvature ; Invertebrate ; Metabolic Rate ; Mte ; Phylogenetic Group ; Polynomial ; Respiration ; Temperature
    ISSN: 1461-023X
    E-ISSN: 1461-0248
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  • 2
    In: Oikos, October 2014, Vol.123(10), pp.1173-1181
    Description: Anthropogenic land use shapes the dynamics and composition of central European forests and changes the quality and availability of resources of the decomposer system. These changes likely alter the structure and functioning of soil animal food webs. Using stable isotope analysis (C, N) we investigated the trophic position and resource use of soil animal species in each of four forest types (coniferous, young managed beech, old managed beech and unmanaged beech forests) across three regions in Germany. Twenty‐eight species of soil invertebrates were analyzed covering three consumer levels and a representative spectrum of feeding types and morphologies. Data on stable isotope signatures of leaf litter, fine roots and soil were included to evaluate to which extent signatures of soil animals vary with those of local resources. Soil animal δN and δC signatures varied with the respective signatures of leaf litter and fine roots. After calibration to leaf litter signatures, soil animal stable isotope signatures of the different beech forests did not differ significantly. However, thick leaf litter layers, such as those in coniferous forests, were associated with low animal stable isotope signatures presumably due to reduced access of decomposer animals to root‐derived resources, suggesting that the decomposer food web is shifted towards leaf litter based energy pathways with the shift affecting all consumer levels. Variation in stable isotope signatures of soil animal species with litter quality parameters suggests that nutrition of third level but not first and second level consumers is related to litter quality, potentially due to microorganisms locking up litter resources thereby hampering their propagation to higher trophic levels.
    Keywords: Fine Roots ; Coniferous Forests ; Nutrition ; Food Animals ; Fagus ; Soil Invertebrates ; Food Webs ; Stable Isotopes ; Plant Litter ; Land Use ; Energy ; Microorganisms;
    ISSN: 0030-1299
    E-ISSN: 1600-0706
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Global change biology, 2011, Vol.17(3), pp.1301-1310
    Description: Predictions on the consequences of the rapidly increasing atmospheric CO₂ levels and associated climate warming for population dynamics, ecological community structure and ecosystem functioning depend on mechanistic energetic models of temperature effects on populations and their interactions. However, such mechanistic approaches combining warming effects on metabolic (energy loss of organisms) and feeding rates (energy gain by organisms) remain a key, yet elusive, goal. Aiming to fill this void, we studied the metabolic rates and functional responses of three differently sized, predatory ground beetles on one mobile and one more resident prey species across a temperature gradient (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C). Synthesizing metabolic and functional-response theory, we develop novel mechanistic predictions how predator-prey interaction strengths (i.e., functional responses) should respond to warming. Corroborating prior theory, warming caused strong increases in metabolism and decreases in handling time. Consistent with our novel model, we found increases in predator attack rates on a mobile prey, whereas attack rates on a mostly resident prey remained constant across the temperature gradient. Together, these results provide critically important information that environmental warming generally increases the direct short-term per capita interaction strengths between predators and their prey as described by functional-response models. Nevertheless, the several fold stronger increase in metabolism with warming caused decreases in energetic efficiencies (ratio of per capita feeding rate to metabolic rate) for all predator-prey interactions. This implies that warming of natural ecosystems may dampen predator-prey oscillations thus stabilizing their dynamics. The severe long-term implications; however, include predator starvation due to energetic inefficiency despite abundant resources. ; Includes references ; p. 1301-1310.
    Keywords: Global Warming -- Statistics ; Global Warming -- Analysis ; Beetles -- Statistics ; Beetles -- Analysis ; Ecosystems -- Statistics ; Ecosystems -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 13652486
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  • 4
    In: Oikos, December 2017, Vol.126(12), pp.1717-1725
    Description: With the world continuously warming, a mechanistic understanding of how temperature affects interaction strengths, which are fundamental to food‐web stability, is needed. As interaction strengths are determined by the flows of energy from resources to consumers, we investigated effects of temperature on animal energetics. We used newly compiled datasets on respiration rates and assimilation efficiencies to assess how temperature affects the energy use (respiration rates) and the efficiency of energy gain (assimilation efficiency) for different consumer types. Furthermore, we incorporated our findings in a simulation of temperature effects on maintenance feeding rates (i.e. energy consumption necessary to sustain life). Our analysis revealed a generally positive temperature dependence of assimilation efficiencies across consumer types thus implying a net energy gain with warming. The temperature scaling of respiration rates did not differ between consumer types. Based on these parameters we calculated maintenance feeding rates and compared them to empirically measured (realized) feeding rates. This comparison revealed that detritivores and herbivores have the potential to increase their biomasses under warming as their maintenance feeding rates increase less strongly than their realized feeding rates. For carnivores, however, we found a stronger increase of their maintenance feeding rates compared to their realized feeding rates, which should lead to decreased population sizes under warming. Overall, our results increase the understanding of climate change effects on ecosystems as they suggest profound energetic consequences for natural communities.
    Keywords: Energy Consumption – Analysis ; Climate Change – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0030-1299
    E-ISSN: 1600-0706
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  • 5
    In: Ecology, February 2014, Vol.95(2), pp.527-537
    Description: Ecological communities consist of small abundant and large non‐abundant species. The energetic equivalence rule is an often‐observed pattern that could be explained by equal energy usage among abundant small organisms and non‐abundant large organisms. To generate this pattern, metabolism (as an indicator of individual energy use) and abundance have to scale inversely with body mass, and cancel each other out. In contrast, the pattern referred to as biomass equivalence states that the biomass of all species in an area should be constant across the body‐mass range. In this study, we investigated forest soil communities with respect to metabolism, abundance, population energy use, and biomass. We focused on four land‐use types in three different landscape blocks (Biodiversity Exploratories). The soil samples contained 870 species across 12 phylogenetic groups. Our results indicated positive sublinear metabolic scaling and negative sublinear abundance scaling with species body mass. The relationships varied mainly due to differences among phylogenetic groups or feeding types, and only marginally due to land‐use type. However, these scaling relationships were not exactly inverse to each other, resulting in increasing population energy use and biomass with increasing body mass for most combinations of phylogenetic group or feeding type with land‐use type. Thus, our results are mostly inconsistent with the classic perception of energetic equivalence, and reject the biomass equivalence hypothesis while documenting a specific and nonrandom pattern of how abundance, energy use, and biomass are distributed across size classes. However, these patterns are consistent with two alternative predictions: the resource‐thinning hypothesis, which states that abundance decreases with trophic level, and the allometric degree hypothesis, which states that population energy use should increase with population average body mass, due to correlations with the number of links of consumers and resources. Overall, our results suggest that a synthesis of food web structures with metabolic theory may be most promising for predicting natural patterns of abundance, biomass, and energy use.
    Keywords: Abundance ; Allometric Scaling ; Biomass ; Body Mass ; Complex Food Webs ; Land Use ; Metabolic Rate ; Population Energy Use
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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  • 6
    In: Global Change Biology, August 2010, Vol.16(8), pp.2145-2157
    Description: Warming could strongly stabilize or destabilize populations and food webs by changing the interaction strengths between predators and their prey. Predicting the consequences of warming requires understanding how temperature affects ingestion (energy gain) and metabolism (energy loss). Here, we studied the temperature dependence of metabolism and ingestion in laboratory experiments with terrestrial arthropods (beetles and spiders). From this data, we calculated ingestion efficiencies (ingestion/metabolism) and interaction strengths in the short and long term. Additionally, we investigated if and how body mass changes these temperature dependencies. For both predator groups, warming increased metabolic rates substantially, whereas temperature effects on ingestion rates were weak. Accordingly, the ingestion efficiency (the ratio of ingestion to metabolism) decreased in all treatments. This result has two possible consequences: on the one hand, it suggests that warming of natural ecosystems could increase intrinsic population stability, meaning less fluctuations in population density; on the other hand, decreasing ingestion efficiencies may also lead to higher extinction risks because of starvation. Additionally, predicted long‐term interaction strengths decreased with warming, which suggests an increase in perturbation stability of populations, i.e., a higher probability of returning to the same equilibrium density after a small perturbation. Together, these results suggest that warming has complex and potentially profound effects on predator–prey interactions and food‐web stability.
    Keywords: Food Webs ; Global Warming ; Ingestion Efficiency ; Ingestion Rates ; Metabolic Theory ; Predation Theory ; Predator–Prey Dynamics
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Global Change Biology, August, 2010, Vol.16(8), p.2145(13)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02124.x Byline: BJORN C. RALL (*), OLIVERA VUCIC-PESTIC (*), ROSWITHA B. EHNES (*), MARK EMMERSON ([dagger][double dagger]), ULRICH BROSE (*) Keywords: food webs; global warming; ingestion efficiency; ingestion rates; metabolic theory; predation theory; predator-prey dynamics Abstract: Abstract Warming could strongly stabilize or destabilize populations and food webs by changing the interaction strengths between predators and their prey. Predicting the consequences of warming requires understanding how temperature affects ingestion (energy gain) and metabolism (energy loss). Here, we studied the temperature dependence of metabolism and ingestion in laboratory experiments with terrestrial arthropods (beetles and spiders). From this data, we calculated ingestion efficiencies (ingestion/metabolism) and per capita interaction strengths in the short and long term. Additionally, we investigated if and how body mass changes these temperature dependencies. For both predator groups, warming increased metabolic rates substantially, whereas temperature effects on ingestion rates were weak. Accordingly, the ingestion efficiency (the ratio of ingestion to metabolism) decreased in all treatments. This result has two possible consequences: on the one hand, it suggests that warming of natural ecosystems could increase intrinsic population stability, meaning less fluctuations in population density; on the other hand, decreasing ingestion efficiencies may also lead to higher extinction risks because of starvation. Additionally, predicted long-term per capita interaction strengths decreased with warming, which suggests an increase in perturbation stability of populations, i.e., a higher probability of returning to the same equilibrium density after a small perturbation. Together, these results suggest that warming has complex and potentially profound effects on predator-prey interactions and food-web stability. Author Affiliation: (*)Department of Biology, Darmstadt University of Technology, Schnittspahnstr. 10, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany ([dagger])Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Sciences, University College Cork, Distillery Fields, Cork, Ireland ([double dagger])Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Lee Road, Cork, Ireland Article History: Received 16 March 2009 and accepted 20 October 2009 Article note: Correspondence: Bjorn C. Rall, tel. +49 6151 16 5219, fax +49 6151 16 6111, e-mail: rall@bio.tu-darmstadt.de
    Keywords: Global Warming -- Analysis ; Extinction (Biology) -- Analysis ; Beetles -- Analysis ; Ecosystems -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1354-1013
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  • 8
    Keywords: Animal Energetics ; Feeding Interactions ; Temperature Effects
    ISSN: 0030-1299
    Source: DataCite
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(8), p.e43292
    Description: Very few principles have been unraveled that explain the relationship between soil properties and soil biota across large spatial scales and different land-use types. Here, we seek these general relationships using data from 52 differently managed grassland and forest soils in three study regions spanning a latitudinal gradient in Germany. We hypothesize that, after extraction of variation that is explained by location and land-use type, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in the abundance and diversity of soil biota. If the relationships between predictors and soil organisms were analyzed individually for each predictor group, soil properties explained the highest amount of variation in soil biota abundance and diversity, followed by land-use type and sampling location. After extraction of variation that originated from location or land-use, abiotic soil properties explained significant amounts of variation in fungal, meso- and macrofauna, but not in yeast or bacterial biomass or diversity. Nitrate or nitrogen concentration and fungal biomass were positively related, but nitrate concentration was negatively related to the abundances of Collembola and mites and to the myriapod species richness across a range of forest and grassland soils. The species richness of earthworms was positively correlated with clay content of soils independent of sample location and land-use type. Our study indicates that after accounting for heterogeneity resulting from large scale differences among sampling locations and land-use types, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in fungal and soil fauna abundance or diversity. However, soil biota was also related to processes that act at larger spatial scales and bacteria or soil yeasts only showed weak relationships to soil properties. We therefore argue that more general relationships between soil properties and soil biota can only be derived from future studies that consider larger spatial scales and different land-use types.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Microbiology ; Ecology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Dryad Digital Repository
    Keywords: Animal Energetics ; Feeding Interactions ; Temperature Effects
    Source: DataCite
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