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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Environment, 2012, Vol.60, p.51(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.06.018 Byline: Nadine Eickenscheidt, Rainer Brumme Abstract: European temperate forest soils have been exposed to elevated nitrogen (N) and acid depositions for decades. High nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions have been reported from these forests. Since the 1980s, a decline in atmospheric deposition rates has been occurring. Our study addressed the question as to how N oxide fluxes and N turnover processes have changed in response to the declining N depositions in a N-enriched spruce stand (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Studies were conducted at the Solling roof site under a control-roof with ambient depositions and under a reduced-N-input-roof where N and acid depositions have been reduced to a pre-industrial level for 16-17 years. Open dynamic and closed chamber methods were used to determine NO.sub.x and N.sub.2O fluxes, respectively, and in situ incubation studies were conducted to measure net N mineralisation. Under the reduced deposition roof, net nitrification and nitrate in soil solution were reduced to undetectable levels causing the soil to change from a net source for NO.sub.x (0.62 [+ or -] 0.24 kg N ha.sup.-1 yr.sup.-1) into a net sink (-0.33 [+ or -] 0.01 kg N ha.sup.-1 yr.sup.-1). The uptake of NO.sub.x was exclusively controlled by the NO.sub.x concentrations of the forest air. Reversal of N enrichment did not affect annual N.sub.2O fluxes (0.08 kg N ha.sup.-1 yr.sup.-1) due to restricted denitrification in the well-aerated organic layer, but the origin of nitrate for denitrification changed from mainly soil-borne N to exclusively deposited N. It was demonstrated that less than two decades of reduced N and acid depositions are sufficient to reduce the surplus N and NO.sub.x emissions of this soil. Author Affiliation: Soil Science of Tropical and Subtropical Ecosystems, Buesgen Institute, University of Goettingen, Buesgenweg 2, 37077 Goettingen, Germany Article History: Received 22 January 2012; Revised 28 May 2012; Accepted 1 June 2012
    Keywords: Nitric Oxide ; Acid Deposition ; Air Pollution Control ; Nitrification ; Forest Soils ; Denitrification ; Nitrous Oxide ; Atmospheric Deposition
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, August, 2013, Vol.369(1-2), p.515
    Description: Aims: Low gas diffusivity of the litter layer is held responsible for high seasonal nitrous oxide (N sub(2)O) and low nitric oxide (NO) emissions from acid beech forest soils with moder type humus. The objectives were (i) to evaluate whether these beech forest soils generally exhibit high seasonal N sub(2)O emissions and (ii) to assess the influence of gas diffusivity and nitrogen (N) mineralisation on N oxide fluxes. Methods: We measured N sub(2)O and NO sub(x) (NO + NO sub(2)) fluxes in six German beech stands and determined net N turnover rates and gas diffusivity of soil samples taken at each chamber. Results: High N sub(2)O emissions (up to 113 mu gN m super(-2)h super(-1)) were only observed at one beech stand. Net nitrification of the organic layer and soil gas diffusivity explained 77 % of the variation in N sub(2)O fluxes (P=0.001). Fluxes of NO sub(x) were low (-6.3 to 12.3 mu gN m super(-2)h super(-1)) and appeared to be controlled by NO sub(x) concentrations in the forest air. Conclusions: Low soil gas diffusivity and high N turnover rates promoted high N sub(2)O losses in times of high soil respiration but were not necessarily associated with moder type humus. High seasonal emissions are probably less common in German beech forests than previously assumed.
    Keywords: Nitrogen Oxides -- Chemical Properties ; Nitrogen Oxides -- Environmental Aspects ; Nitrogen Oxides -- Identification And Classification ; Forest Soils -- Chemical Properties ; Forest Soils -- Composition ; Forest Soils -- Environmental Aspects ; Soil Chemistry -- Research
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 15735036
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental monitoring and assessment, January 2014, Vol.186(1), pp.257-75
    Description: The consistency of visual assessment of tree defoliation, which represents the most widely used indicator for tree condition, has frequently been in the focus of scientific criticism. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the consistency of the defoliation data from the annual national training courses for the forest condition survey in Germany from 1992 to 2012. Defoliation assessments were carried out in stands of beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur and Quercus petraea), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and pine (Pinus sylvestris). Among the observer teams, the absolute deviation from the observer mean of all years was ±4.4 % defoliation and the standard deviation of defoliation was ±5.5 %. On average, 94 % of the assessments were located within the ±10 % interval of deviation from the mean. Tree species-specific differences did not occur when all years were considered. A trend towards increasing consistency was observed from 1992 to 2012, in particular for oak and spruce. The deviation of defoliation assessments depended non-linearly on the level of defoliation with highest deviations at intermediate defoliations. In spite of high correlations and agreements among observers, systematic errors were determined in nearly every year. However, within-observer variances were higher than between-observer variances. The present study applied a three-way evaluation approach for the assessment of consistency and demonstrated that the visual defoliation assessment at the national training courses in general produced consistent data within Germany from 1992 to 2012.
    Keywords: Environmental Monitoring -- Methods ; Forestry -- Education ; Trees -- Physiology
    ISSN: 01676369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.362(1), pp.67-77
    Description: Aims: Decomposition of leaf litterfall plays a major role for nitrogen (N) dynamics in soils. However, little is known as to which extent beech leaf litter contributes to N turnover and nitrous oxide (N sub(2) O) emissions within one decade after litterfall. Methods: In 1997, we exchanged recently fallen leaf litter by super(15) N-labelled litter in a beech stand (Fagus sylvatica ) at the Solling, Germany. Measurements were conducted 2-3 and 10-11 years after litter exchange. Results: Two years after litter exchange, 92 % of added super(15) N was recovered in the surface 10 cm of the soil. The labelled N was primarily found in the upper part of the F layer of the moder type humus. Eleven years after litter exchange, 73 % of the added super(15) N was lost and the remaining 27 % was mainly recovered in the lower part of the F layer indicating N sequestration. The remaining leaf litter N was subject to measurable N mineralisation (2-3 % of litter N) and N sub(2) O production (0.02 %). Between 0.3 % (eleventh year) and 0.6 % (second year) of total annual N sub(2) O emissions were attributed to beech leaf litter of a single year. Conclusions: Most of the annual N sub(2) O emissions (1.33-1.54 kg N ha super(-1) yr super(-1) ) were probably derived from older soil N pools.
    Keywords: Nitrous oxide ; Beech leaf litter ; N isotope technique ; N mineralisation ; Litter N dynamics
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric environment, 2012, Vol.60, pp.51-58
    Description: European temperate forest soils have been exposed to elevated nitrogen (N) and acid depositions for decades. High nitrous oxide (N₂O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions have been reported from these forests. Since the 1980s, a decline in atmospheric deposition rates has been occurring. Our study addressed the question as to how N oxide fluxes and N turnover processes have changed in response to the declining N depositions in a N-enriched spruce stand (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Studies were conducted at the Solling roof site under a control-roof with ambient depositions and under a reduced-N-input-roof where N and acid depositions have been reduced to a pre-industrial level for 16–17 years. Open dynamic and closed chamber methods were used to determine NOₓ and N₂O fluxes, respectively, and in situ incubation studies were conducted to measure net N mineralisation. Under the reduced deposition roof, net nitrification and nitrate in soil solution were reduced to undetectable levels causing the soil to change from a net source for NOₓ (0.62 ± 0.24 kg N ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) into a net sink (−0.33 ± 0.01 kg N ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹). The uptake of NOₓ was exclusively controlled by the NOₓ concentrations of the forest air. Reversal of N enrichment did not affect annual N₂O fluxes (0.08 kg N ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) due to restricted denitrification in the well-aerated organic layer, but the origin of nitrate for denitrification changed from mainly soil-borne N to exclusively deposited N. It was demonstrated that less than two decades of reduced N and acid depositions are sufficient to reduce the surplus N and NOₓ emissions of this soil. ; p. 51-58.
    Keywords: Forest Soils ; Emissions ; Soil Solution ; Nitric Oxide ; Atmospheric Deposition ; Nitrous Oxide ; Nitrates ; Atmospheric Chemistry ; Nitrogen ; Nitrification ; Denitrification ; Mineralization ; Air ; Temperate Forests ; Picea Abies
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Environment, December 2012, Vol.60, pp.51-58
    Description: European temperate forest soils have been exposed to elevated nitrogen (N) and acid depositions for decades. High nitrous oxide (N O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions have been reported from these forests. Since the 1980s, a decline in atmospheric deposition rates has been occurring. Our study addressed the question as to how N oxide fluxes and N turnover processes have changed in response to the declining N depositions in a N-enriched spruce stand ( (L.) Karst.). Studies were conducted at the Solling roof site under a control-roof with ambient depositions and under a reduced-N-input-roof where N and acid depositions have been reduced to a pre-industrial level for 16–17 years. Open dynamic and closed chamber methods were used to determine NO and N O fluxes, respectively, and in situ incubation studies were conducted to measure net N mineralisation. Under the reduced deposition roof, net nitrification and nitrate in soil solution were reduced to undetectable levels causing the soil to change from a net source for NO (0.62 ± 0.24 kg N ha  yr ) into a net sink (−0.33 ± 0.01 kg N ha  yr ). The uptake of NO was exclusively controlled by the NO concentrations of the forest air. Reversal of N enrichment did not affect annual N O fluxes (0.08 kg N ha  yr ) due to restricted denitrification in the well-aerated organic layer, but the origin of nitrate for denitrification changed from mainly soil-borne N to exclusively deposited N. It was demonstrated that less than two decades of reduced N and acid depositions are sufficient to reduce the surplus N and NO emissions of this soil. ► We investigated long-term reduction of N depositions in a spruce stand. ► Net nitrification and nitrate in soil solution were reduced to undetectable levels. ► The soil changed from a net source for NO into a net sink. ► NO uptake was controlled by the NO concentrations of the forest air. ► N O fluxes did not change due to limited denitrification in the well-aerated soil.
    Keywords: Nox Consumption ; Nox Production ; Nitrous Oxide ; N Deposition ; Net Nitrification ; Solling Roof Project ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    E-ISSN: 1873-2844
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.369(1), pp.515-529
    Description: Low gas diffusivity of the litter layer is held responsible for high seasonal nitrous oxide (N2O) and low nitric oxide (NO) emissions from acid beech forest soils with moder type humus. The objectives were (i) to evaluate whether these beech forest soils generally exhibit high seasonal N2O emissions and (ii) to assess the influence of gas diffusivity and nitrogen (N) mineralisation on N oxide fluxes. We measured N2O and NO^sub x^ (NO + NO2) fluxes in six German beech stands and determined net N turnover rates and gas diffusivity of soil samples taken at each chamber. High N2O emissions (up to 113 [mu]gN m^sup -2^h^sup -1^) were only observed at one beech stand. Net nitrification of the organic layer and soil gas diffusivity explained 77 % of the variation in N2O fluxes (P=0.001). Fluxes of NO^sub x^ were low (-6.3 to 12.3 [mu]gN m^sup -2^h^sup -1^) and appeared to be controlled by NO^sub x^ concentrations in the forest air. Low soil gas diffusivity and high N turnover rates promoted high N2O losses in times of high soil respiration but were not necessarily associated with moder type humus. High seasonal emissions are probably less common in German beech forests than previously assumed.[PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Soil gas diffusivity ; Nitrous oxide ; Nitric oxide ; N mineralisation ; Seasonal emission patterns ; Penman-Millington-Quirk model
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1 January 2013, Vol.362(1/2), pp.67-77
    Description: Aims Decomposition of leaf litterfall plays a major role for nitrogen (N) dynamics in soils. However, little is known as to which extent beech leaf litter contributes to N turnover and nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions within one decade after litterfall. Methods In 1997, we exchanged recently fallen leaf litter by ¹⁵N-labelled litter in a beech stand (Fagus sylvaticd) at the Soiling, Germany. Measurements were conducted 2-3 and 10-11 years after litter exchange. Results Two years after litter exchange, 92 % of added ¹⁵N was recovered in the surface 10 cm of the soil. The labelled N was primarily found in the upper part of the F layer of the moder type humus. Eleven years after litter exchange, 73 % of the added ¹⁵N was lost and the remaining 27 % was mainly recovered in the lower part of the F layer indicating N sequestration. The remaining leaf litter Í was subject to measurable N mineralisation (2-3 % of litter N) and N₂O production (0.02 %). Between 0.3 % (eleventh year) and 0.6 % (second year) of total annual N₂O emissions were attributed to beech leaf litter of a single year. Conclusions Most of the annual N₂O emissions (1.33-1.54 kg N ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) were probably derived from older soil N pools.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Applied sciences -- Materials science -- Materials ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical elements ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences
    ISSN: 0032079X
    E-ISSN: 15735036
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 9
    In: iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 338-348 (2019)
    Description: Spatio-temporal modelling of tree defoliation data of German forest condition survey is presented. In the present study generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the spatio-temporal trends of defoliation of the main tree species from 1989 to 2015 and to examine the suitability of different...
    Keywords: Statistics - Applications
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 December 2018, Vol.429, pp.336-350
    Description: Mast seeding, the synchronised occurrence of large amounts of fruits and seeds at irregular intervals, is a reproductive strategy in many wind-pollinated species. Although a series of studies have investigated mast year (MY) patterns in European forest tree species at the regional scale, there are few recent evaluations at a European scale on the impact of weather variables (weather cues) and resource dynamics on mast behaviour. Thus the main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of specific weather conditions, as environmental drivers for MYs, on resources in L., ( , L., (L.) . and L. at a European level and to explore the robustness of the relationships in smaller regions within Europe. Data on seed production originating from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) were analysed. Three beta regression models were applied to investigate the impact of seasonal weather variables on MY occurrence, as well as the influence of fruiting intensity levels in the years prior to MYs. Resource dynamics are analysed at three different spatial scales (continent, countries and ecoregions). At a European scale, important weather cues for beech MYs were a cold and wet summer two years before a MY, a dry and warm summer one year before a MY and a warm spring in the MY. For spruce, a cold and dry summer two years prior to a MY and a warm and dry summer in the year before the MY showed the strongest associations with the MY. For oak, high spring temperature in the MY was the most important weather cue. For beech and spruce, and to some extent also for oak species, the best fitting models at European scale were well reflected by those found at smaller scales. For pine, best fitting models were highly diverse concerning weather cues. Fruiting levels were high in all species two years before the MY and also high one year before the MY in the oak species and in pine. In beech, fruiting levels one year before the MY were not important and in spruce, they were inconsistent depending on the region. As a consequence, evidence of resource depletion could only be seen in some regions for spruce.
    Keywords: Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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