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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Auk April 2010, Vol.127(2), pp.387-393
    Description: Abstract The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is an annual roadside survey used to estimate population change in 〉420 species of birds that breed in North America. Roadside sampling has been criticized, in part because traffic noise can interfere with bird counts. Since 1997, data have been collected on the numbers of vehicles that pass during counts at each stop. We assessed the effect of traffic by modeling total vehicles as a covariate of counts in hierarchical Poisson regression models used to estimate population change. We selected species for analysis that represent birds detected at low and high abundance and birds with songs of low and high frequencies. Increases in vehicle counts were associated with decreases in bird counts in most of the species examined. The size and direction of these effects remained relatively constant between two alternative models that we analyzed. Although this analysis indicated only a small effect of incorporating traffic effects when modeling roadside counts of birds, we suggest that continued evaluation of changes in traffic at BBS stops should be a component of future BBS analyses. Received 6 April 2009, accepted 23 September 2009.
    Keywords: Bird Populations -- Surveys ; Cluster Sampling -- Methods;
    ISSN: 00048038
    E-ISSN: 19384254
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2015, Vol.10(7), pp.e0131839
    Description: Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p〈0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease.
    Keywords: Cat Diseases -- Diagnosis ; Joint Diseases -- Veterinary
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PeerJ, Jan 25, 2017, Vol.5, p.e2926
    Description: Objective The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the validity of ultrasonographic (US) muscle measurements as compared to the gold standard of computed tomography (CT) in the canine. Design This was a prospective study. Population Twenty-five, client-owned dogs scheduled for CT as part of a diagnostic work-up for the management of their primary disease process were included. Materials and Methods Specific appendicular (cubital flexors and extensors, coxofemoral flexors and extensors) and axial (temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, lumbar epaxials) muscle groups were selected for quantitative measure based on CT planning and patient position. Prior to CT scan, the skin over the muscle sites was shaved and marked with a permanent marker. Patient body position was determined based on the patient's CT plan; positioning was consistent between CT and US imaging. To ensure identical imaging position for both CT and US measurements, radio-opaque fiducial markers were placed directly over the skin marks once the dog was positioned. Quantitative measurements (cm) for both lean muscle mass (LMM) and subcutaneous adipose (SQA) were recorded. Statistical comparisons between CT and US values were done separately for each site and type. Results Muscle groups and associated SQA measured by US and CT were not statistically different based on an adjusted p-value using Bonferroni's correction (p0.0031). In addition, all LMM and SQA sites had good reliability and agreement (Cronbachs [alpha]=0.8-1.0) between the two metrics, excluding the coxofemoral extensor muscle group (Cronbachs [alpha]=0.73232). Linear regression analysis of muscle measures indicated close agreement (slope range 0.93-1.09) and minimal bias of variation (intercept range 0.05-0.11) between CT versus US modalities, with the exception of the coxofemoral extensor muscle. Similarly, SQA CT and US measures indicated close agreement with the slope range of 0.88-1.02 and minimal bias of variation with an intercept range of 0.021-0.098, excluding the cubital flexor and extensor groups. Additionally, the R.sup.2 values for these remaining LMM and SQA sites are reported as 0.897 for LLM and 〉0.8289 for SQA. Conclusions Ultrasound imaging of selected appendicular and axial muscle groups in dogs can provide comparable assessment of muscle thickness to the current gold standard, CT. In consideration of both statistical reliability to CT and cage-side accessibility, the temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and lumbar epaxial LMM sites are considered the most useful targets for US LMM assessment in the canine. Our findings support the potential utility of US as a clinical tool in veterinary medicine to assess LMM status in patients. Additional studies are indicated to develop standardized protocols of its use in a cage-side setting and to elucidate the benefit of this modality, in conjunction with nutritional interventions, to manage body LLM stores in compromised patients.
    Keywords: Ionizing Radiation -- Comparative Analysis ; Dogs -- Comparative Analysis ; Skin -- Comparative Analysis ; Medical Research -- Comparative Analysis ; Cat Scans -- Comparative Analysis
    ISSN: 2167-8359
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Viruses, 03 July 2018, Vol.10(7)
    Description: Environmental enrichment is critical for alleviating stress in laboratory felines. However, there is a paucity of information about suitable enrichment for cats. This study aimed to determine preferred enrichment options of individually-housed, castrated male domestic short hair cats () used in a longitudinal study of the effects of chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection, and to determine if the FIV status of the cats affected enrichment preferences. Preference testing was performed with two types of grooming brushes, three different interactive play options, including a laser, ball, and petting interaction with a familiar investigator, and two types of toenail conditioning objects. We found that cats elected to be brushed, preferred social interaction and play with the laser to the ball, and preferred to scratch on an inclined-box toenail conditioning object compared to a horizontal, circular toenail conditioning object. There were individual preferences for enrichment opportunities. There were no differences in preferences between FIV-infected and sham-infected cats. These enrichment preferences may be used to advise laboratory animal facilities and researchers about how to best accommodate the behavioral needs of laboratory cats.
    Keywords: Fiv ; Enrichment ; Feline ; Laboratory Animal ; Welfare ; Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- Virology ; Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline -- Physiology
    E-ISSN: 1999-4915
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Veterinary Journal, February 2014, Vol.199(2), pp.245-250
    Description: Feasibility and inter-session repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing (QST) were assessed in 24 normal dogs. Cold thermal latencies were evaluated using a thermal probe (0 °C) applied to three pelvic limb sites. Mechanical thresholds were measured using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer (EVF) and a blunt-probed pressure algometer (PA) applied to the dorsal aspect of the metatarsus. All QST trials were performed with dogs in lateral recumbency. Collection of cold QST data was easy (feasible) in 19/24 (79%) dogs. However, only 18.4%, 18.9% and 13.2% of cold QST trials elicited a response at the medial tibia, third digital pad and plantar metatarsal regions, respectively. Collection of mechanical QST data was easy (feasible) in 20/24 (83%) dogs for both EVF and PA. At consecutive sampling times, approximately 2 weeks apart, the average EVF sensory thresholds were 414 ± 186 g and 379 ± 166 g, respectively, and the average PA sensory thresholds were 1089 ± 414 g and 1028 ± 331 g, respectively. There was no significant difference in inter-session or inter-limb threshold values for either mechanical QST device. The cold QST protocol in this study was achievable, but did not provide consistently quantifiable results. Both mechanical QST devices tested provided repeatable, reliable sensory threshold measurements in normal, client-owned dogs. These findings contribute to the validation of the EVF and PA as tools to obtain repeated QST data over time in dogs to assess somatosensory processing changes.
    Keywords: Canine ; Quantitative Sensory Testing ; Pressure Algometer ; Electronic Von Frey Anesthesiometer ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 1090-0233
    E-ISSN: 1532-2971
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of veterinary medical education, 2014, Vol.41(3), pp.243-52
    Description: Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a required, one-credit-hour course at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM), which meets once weekly during veterinary students' first semester. Lectures in this course are presented by one or more veterinarians representing diverse career areas. A voluntary, anonymous survey was distributed before the first class meeting in 2011 (PRE) and at the end of the semester (POST) to assess if students' career interests changed during the semester. The survey collected basic demographic data and students' preferences (on a Likert scale) for 17 veterinary career paths. Out of 63 students, 36 (57%) in the POST survey said that their career interests had changed during the semester, and 17 of the 26 students (65%) who gave a reason credited the careers course as one factor in reconsidering their career choice. Only 3 of the 17 career paths had statistically significant PRE/POST survey differences in Likert response frequency (equine practice, pathology, and wildlife medicine), but both informal discussions with students and responses to open-ended survey questions indicated that many students valued the introduction to unfamiliar veterinary career areas. Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a vital component of recent career-planning initiatives in the college, which will be especially important to veterinary students as they face continued changes in the profession, such as the increased debt load of the new graduate and the threat of veterinary workforce oversupply.
    Keywords: Lifelong Learning ; Veterinary Career Changes ; Veterinary Career Planning ; Veterinary Careers ; Veterinary Student Career Choices ; Attitude of Health Personnel ; Education, Veterinary ; Students, Health Occupations -- Psychology
    ISSN: 0748-321X
    E-ISSN: 19437218
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 2017, Vol.53(3), pp.143-149
    Description: Epilepsy is a common problem in dogs, and management of this chronic disorder requires a substantial commitment on the part of the pet owner. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of epilepsy in dogs on their owners, utilizing an online survey tool. A questionnaire was developed to explore a variety of factors, including seizure history, treatment, outcome, quality of life, costs associated with therapy, and sources of support. A total of 225 responses were obtained. The majority of respondents reported positive scores for overall quality of life, although scores were significantly lower for dogs with poorly controlled epilepsy and medication-related adverse effects. The median monthly expenditure for antiepileptic medication was $51-75. Despite the considerable financial burden placed on the dog owner, monthly medication cost was not associated with quality of life score. Few published reports follow dogs with epilepsy after diagnosis, and there is a growing need to understand the issues associated with long-term management of this population. The results of this study provide useful information that can help veterinary professionals educate owners and set expectations regarding treatment of seizures and quality of life for dogs with epilepsy.
    Keywords: Caregivers ; Dog Diseases -- Drug Therapy ; Epilepsy -- Veterinary
    ISSN: 0587-2871
    E-ISSN: 15473317
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PeerJ, August 1, 2019, Vol.7, p.e7061
    Description: An ideal suture material supports healing, minimizes inflammation, and decreases the likelihood of secondary infection. While there are published recommendations for suture materials in some invertebrates, there are no published recommendations for Limulus polyphemus or any chelicerate. This study evaluates the histological reaction of horseshoe crabs to five commonly used suture materials: monofilament nylon, silk, poliglecaprone, polydioxanone, and polyglycolic acid. None of the materials were superior with regards to holding nor was there any dehiscence. Nylon evoked the least amount of tissue reaction. This work also provides a histopathological description of the soft membrane at the hinge area between the opisthosoma and telson (telson ligament) and comments on euthanasia with intracardiac eugenol.
    Keywords: Nylon -- Health Aspects ; Euthanasia -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 2167-8359
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  • 9
    In: Veterinary Surgery, November 2014, Vol.43(8), pp.903-911
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2014.12189.x/abstract Byline: Joanne L. Tuohy, Denis J. Marcellin-Little, Emily H. Griffith Objective To evaluate the influence of epidemiologic, surgical, and mechanical factors on the durations of bone consolidation and external fixation after distraction osteogenesis in dogs. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Sample Population Dogs (n=115) that had corrective osteotomy with circular external fixation (CEF; n=152) Methods Medical and radiographic records (1992-2012) of dogs that had corrective osteotomies were reviewed. Putative variables included age, weight, gender, and breed. Surgery date, delay before distraction, rate and duration of distraction, mechanical complications, and frame removal date were recorded. Radiographic data included bone operated, bone length, osteotomy site, bone and limb size at osteotomy site, distraction distance, and CEF frame size and stiffness. Results Mean[+ or -]SD bone consolidation period was 56[+ or -]33 days. Mean duration of external fixation was 77[+ or -]35 days. Twelve fixation failures occurred. Radii healed faster than tibiae (P〈.001). Failure of fixation (P=.002) and stiff frames (P=.033) increased duration of bone consolidation. For the tibia, durations of bone consolidation and external fixation decreased with larger bone size relative to limb size (P=.004). For the radius, bone consolidation duration decreased as distraction amount increased (P=.03). Conclusion Radii healed faster than tibiae. Wearing frames with low or moderate stiffness, the absence of mechanical complications, a larger distraction distance, and a larger bone size accelerated bone consolidation. Optimizing these factors should accelerate bone consolidation and reduce the duration of external fixation.
    Keywords: Dogs;
    ISSN: 0161-3499
    E-ISSN: 1532-950X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Surgery, Nov, 2014, Vol.43(8), p.903(9)
    Description: To evaluate the outcome in terms of progression-free interval (PFI) and overall survival time (ST) after curative-intent resection of oral melanoma in dogs. Retrospective case series. 70 client-owned dogs. An electronic medical record search and review was performed for dogs that underwent curative-intent resection of oral melanoma (May 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011). Information gathered included signalment, oral location of tumor, staging results, type of surgery, type of adjuvant therapy, findings on histologic evaluation, and outcome. 36 (51.4%), 16 (22.9%), 13 (18.6%), and 1 (1.4%) of 70 dogs had tumors classified as stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively; tumor stage could not be determined for 4 (5.7%) dogs because of the lack of tumor size information. Fifty-one (72.9%) dogs had tumors completely excised. Twenty-nine (41.4%) dogs received adjuvant therapy. Median PFI and ST were 508 and 723 days, respectively. Thirty-two (45.7%) dogs had disease progression. Significant associations with PFI or ST were found for administration of adjuvant therapy, presence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, higher tumor stage (III or IV), increased tumor size (〉 3 cm), and sexually intact female dogs. Administration of adjuvant treatment was associated with a 130% increased hazard (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 5.0) of disease progression; the presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis was associated with a 281% increased hazard (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.6) of death. Results indicated that dogs with oral melanoma can have a long PFI and ST after resection with wide margins.
    Keywords: Dogs
    ISSN: 0161-3499
    ISSN: 00031488
    E-ISSN: 1943569X
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