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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 06 January 2017, Vol.355(6320), pp.33
    Description: A physicist reveals the science behind familiar phenomena
    Keywords: Physicists ; Miscellaneous Sciences (So) ; (An);
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science, 07/18/2014, Vol.345(6194), pp.261-262
    Description: The Particle at the End of the Universe How the Hunt for the Higgs Boson Leads Us to the Edge of a New World Sean Carroll Penguin, 2012. 380 pp.
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: American Association for the Advancement of Science (via CrossRef)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 24 November 2015, Vol.112(47), pp.14408-9
    Description: Author contributions: N.E. wrote the paper.
    Keywords: Genomic Imprinting ; Germ Cells -- Metabolism ; RNA, Long Noncoding -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 03 July 2012, Vol.109(27), pp.11002-7
    Description: Animals living in social communities typically harbor a characteristic gut microbiota important for nutrition and pathogen defense. Accordingly, in the gut of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, a distinctive microbial community, composed of a taxonomically restricted set of species specific to social bees, has been identified. Despite the ecological and economical importance of honey bees and the increasing concern about population declines, the role of their gut symbionts for colony health and nutrition is unknown. Here, we sequenced the metagenome of the gut microbiota of honey bees. Unexpectedly, we found a remarkable degree of genetic diversity within the few bacterial species colonizing the bee gut. Comparative analysis of gene contents suggests that different species harbor distinct functional capabilities linked to host interaction, biofilm formation, and carbohydrate breakdown. Whereas the former two functions could be critical for pathogen defense and immunity, the latter one might assist nutrient utilization. In a γ-proteobacterial species, we identified genes encoding pectin-degrading enzymes likely involved in the breakdown of pollen walls. Experimental investigation showed that this activity is restricted to a subset of strains of this species providing evidence for niche specialization. Long-standing association of these gut symbionts with their hosts, favored by the eusocial lifestyle of honey bees, might have promoted the genetic and functional diversification of these bee-specific bacteria. Besides revealing insights into mutualistic functions governed by the microbiota of this important pollinator, our findings indicate that the honey bee can serve as a model for understanding more complex gut-associated microbial communities.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Bacteria -- Genetics ; Bees -- Microbiology ; Intestines -- Microbiology ; Metagenome -- Genetics ; Symbiosis -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The American Economic Review, 1 October 2011, Vol.101(6), pp.2796-2822
    Description: This paper examines optimal monetary policy in an open-economy two-country model with sticky prices. We show that currency misalignments are inefficient and lower world welfare. We find that optimal policy must target not only inflation and the output gap, but also the currency misalignment. However the interest rate reaction function that supports this targeting rule may involve only the CPI inflation rate. This result illustrates how examination of "instrument rules" may hide important trade-offs facing policymakers that are incorporated in "targeting rules". The model is a modified version of Clarida, Gali, and Gertler's (JME, 2002). The key change is that we allow pricing to market or local-currency pricing and consider the policy implications of currency misalignments. Besides highlighting the importance of the currency misalignment, our model also gives a rationale for targeting CPI, rather than PPI, inflation.
    Keywords: Economics -- Macroeconomics -- Money ; Business -- Business operations -- Commerce ; Economics -- Economic policy -- Monetary policy ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Applied economics ; Economics -- Macroeconomics -- Aggregate economy ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Applied economics ; Arts -- Applied arts -- Architecture ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology ; Business -- Business operations -- Commerce ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Applied economics
    ISSN: 00028282
    E-ISSN: 19447981
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Epilepsia, June 2011, Vol.52(6), pp.1195-7; discussion 1205-9
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03041.x Byline: Simon D. Shorvon Keywords: Epilepsy; Cause; Classification; Etiology; Idiopathic epilepsy; Symptomatic epilepsy; Provoked epilepsy Abstract: Summary The etiology of epilepsy is a major determinant of clinical course and prognosis, yet the current classifications of epilepsy do not list etiology in any detail. In this article, a classification (database) of the etiologies of epilepsy is proposed. In this scheme, the etiology of epilepsy is divided into four categories: idiopathic, symptomatic, provoked, and cryptogenic. These are defined and subcategories are proposed. A commentary addressing the following points is included: problems associated with assigning causation, symptomatic versus idiopathic epilepsy, focal versus generalized epilepsy, acquired epilepsy, acute symptomatic epilepsy, risk factor analysis, provoked epilepsy genetic and developmental epilepsy, and epilepsy as a disease not a symptom. Article History: Accepted January 24, 2011; Early View publication March 30, 2011. Article note: Address correspondence to Simon Shorvon, UCL Institute of Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, PO Box 5, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom. E-mail: s.shorvon@ion.ucl.ac.uk
    Keywords: Epilepsy -- Classification
    ISSN: 00139580
    E-ISSN: 1528-1167
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nature, March 17, 2011, Vol.471(7338), p.309(2)
    Keywords: Crystal Structure -- Research ; Crystallization -- Methods ; Crystallization -- Usage
    ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science, July 27, 2012, Vol.337(6093), p.453(5)
    Description: Predicting structure from the attributes of a material's building blocks remains a challenge and central goal for materials science. Isolating the role of building block shape for self-assembly provides insight into the ordering of molecules and the crystallization of colloids, nanoparticles, proteins, and viruses. We investigated 145 convex polyhedra whose assembly arises sorely from their anisotropic shape. Our results demonstrate a remarkably high propensity for thermodynamic self-assembly and structural diversity. We show that from simple measures of particle shape and local order in the fluid, the assembly of a given shape into a liquid crystal, plastic crystal, or crystal can be predicted. 10.1126/science.1220869
    Keywords: Polyhedrons -- Research ; Building Materials -- Mechanical Properties ; Building Materials -- Thermal Properties ; Thermodynamics -- Research ; Strength (Materials) -- Research
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 21 June 2013, Vol.340(6139), pp.1431-4
    Description: The design principles that support persistent electronic coherence in biological light-harvesting systems are obscured by the complexity of such systems. Some electronic coherences in these systems survive for hundreds of femtoseconds at physiological temperatures, suggesting that coherent dynamics may play a role in photosynthetic energy transfer. Coherent effects may increase energy transfer efficiency relative to strictly incoherent transfer mechanisms. Simple, tractable, manipulable model systems are required in order to probe the fundamental physics underlying these persistent electronic coherences, but to date, these quantum effects have not been observed in small molecules. We have engineered a series of rigid synthetic heterodimers that can serve as such a model system and observed quantum beating signals in their two-dimensional electronic spectra consistent with the presence of persistent electronic coherences.
    Keywords: Electromagnetic Phenomena ; Energy Transfer ; Fluoresceins -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Harvard Educational Review, 2011, Vol.81(4), p.625
    Description: In this essay, Susan Engel argues that curiosity is both intrinsic to children's development and unfolds through social interactions. Thus, it should be cultivated in schools, even though it is often almost completely absent from classrooms. Calling on well-established research and more recent...
    Keywords: Personality Traits ; Learning Activities ; Childhood Interests ; Teacher Student Relationship ; Interaction ; Social Development ; Student Interests ; Teaching Methods ; Novelty (Stimulus Dimension) ; Infants ; Toddlers ; Child Development ; Active Learning ; Discovery Learning ; Inquiry ; Young Children ; Education
    ISSN: 0017-8055
    E-ISSN: 1943-5045
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