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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 February 2018, Vol.115(9), pp.E2020-E2029
    Description: The increasing resistance of human pathogens severely limits the efficacy of antibiotics in medicine, yet many animals, including solitary beewolf wasps, successfully engage in defensive alliances with antibiotic-producing bacteria for millions of years. Here, we report on the in situ production of 49 derivatives belonging to three antibiotic compound classes (45 piericidin derivatives, 3 streptochlorin derivatives, and nigericin) by the symbionts of 25 beewolf host species and subspecies, spanning 68 million years of evolution. Despite a high degree of qualitative stability in the antibiotic mixture, we found consistent quantitative differences between species and across geographic localities, presumably reflecting adaptations to combat local pathogen communities. Antimicrobial bioassays with the three main components and in silico predictions based on the structure and specificity in polyketide synthase domains of the piericidin biosynthesis gene cluster yield insights into the mechanistic basis and ecoevolutionary implications of producing a complex mixture of antimicrobial compounds in a natural setting.
    Keywords: Philanthus ; Streptomyces Philanthi ; Antibiotic Resistance ; Defensive Symbiosis ; Protective Mutualism ; Symbiosis ; Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Chemistry ; Indoles -- Chemistry ; Nigericin -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Oxazoles -- Chemistry ; Pyridines -- Chemistry ; Streptomyces -- Drug Effects ; Wasps -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Animal Behaviour, 2011, Vol.82(2), pp.321-328
    Description: Microorganisms are ubiquitous and key selective agents in parental care behaviour. Various animal species have thus evolved diverse means to prevent and combat detrimental effects of microbial competitors and pathogens on their offspring. The European beewolf, , is a solitary crabronid wasp that stores paralysed honeybees as larval provisions in subterranean nests. In the soil the highly nutritious provisions can be attacked by a large number of microorganisms. We investigated the effect of fungal infestations of larval provisions on the reproductive success of beewolves. Although fungal infestations reduced larval survival, female beewolves largely eliminated this effect by embalming larval provisions with ample amounts of hydrocarbons. However, this came at the cost of a reduced ability to apply hydrocarbons to the provisions of future offspring. This reduced investment in embalming resulted in a higher risk of mould infestations. Embalming of the prey in thus meets the criterion of parental investment and females have to balance this investment of hydrocarbons in current and future offspring to maximize their lifetime reproductive success.
    Keywords: Antifungal ; Antimicrobial ; Beewolf ; Competition ; Fungus ; Mould ; Multifaceted Parental Investment ; Pathogen ; Philanthus Triangulum ; Postpharyngeal Gland ; Veterinary Medicine ; Zoology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    E-ISSN: 1095-8282
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    In: Nachrichten aus der Chemie, October 2018, Vol.66(10), pp.957-960
    Description: Antibiotika können einen Befall mit Mikroorganismen heilen oder ihm vorbeugen. Obwohl immer mehr Resistenzen gegen Antibiotika entstehen, lassen sich diese Mittel unter bestimmten Bedingungen über einen langen Zeitraum nutzen. Eine Gruppe von Grabwespen tut dies seit 68 Millionen Jahren.
    Keywords: Antibiotika ; Antibiotikaresistenz ; Schimmelpilz ; Insekt ; Chemische Zusammensetzung ; Wirkstoffentwicklung ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 1439-9598
    E-ISSN: 1868-0054
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Animal Behaviour, 2017, Vol.124, pp.221-227
    Description: Mate choice is essential in most animals, as a good choice of mating partner largely determines reproductive success. Much evidence shows that olfactory cues play an important role in mate choice. However, the integration of chemical, visual and acoustic cues, often used when both partners meet, makes...
    Keywords: Indirect Sperm Transfer ; Sex Pheromone ; Sexual Chemical Communication ; Spermatophore ; Springtails ; Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics ; Animal Science And Zoology
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    Source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Animal Behaviour, February 2017, Vol.124, pp.221-227
    Description: Mate choice is essential in most animals, as a good choice of mating partner largely determines reproductive success. Much evidence shows that olfactory cues play an important role in mate choice. However, the integration of chemical, visual and acoustic cues, often used when both partners meet, makes it hard to test whether olfaction alone can mediate reproductive decisions. Interestingly, several invertebrates have adopted a mating system where males deposit their sperm (packed in spermatophores) in the environment for females to pick up with no visual contact between the sexes. In this case the male cue is conveyed by the spermatophore only. Earlier studies on a species with indirect sperm transfer, the soil arthropod , showed that, even in these animals, female choice exists. In this study, we tested whether chemical cues provided by the spermatophores mediate this female choice. Chemical analysis of spermatophore extracts revealed that ( )-14-tricosenol is the main compound in the male spermatophores and this compound attracted females in olfactometer bioassays. Our finding suggests that ( )-14-tricosenol is thus a pheromone component, which is sufficient for female attraction. This is the first report of a spermatophore-associated sex pheromone in a species performing indirect sperm transfer.
    Keywords: Indirect Sperm Transfer ; Sex Pheromone ; Sexual Chemical Communication ; Spermatophore ; Springtails ; Veterinary Medicine ; Zoology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    E-ISSN: 1095-8282
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  • 6
    In: Molecular Ecology, April 2018, Vol.27(8), pp.2095-2108
    Description: Microbial symbionts of insects provide a range of ecological traits to their hosts that are beneficial in the context of biotic interactions. However, little is known about insect symbiont‐mediated adaptation to the abiotic environment, for example, temperature and humidity. Here, we report on an ancient clade of intracellular, bacteriome‐located Bacteroidetes symbionts that are associated with grain and wood pest beetles of the phylogenetically distant families Silvanidae and Bostrichidae. In the saw‐toothed grain beetle we demonstrate that the symbionts affect cuticle thickness, melanization and hydrocarbon profile, enhancing desiccation resistance and thereby strongly improving fitness under dry conditions. Together with earlier observations on symbiont contributions to cuticle biosynthesis in weevils, our findings indicate that convergent acquisitions of bacterial mutualists represented key adaptations enabling diverse pest beetle groups to survive and proliferate under the low ambient humidity that characterizes dry grain storage facilities.
    Keywords: Bacteroidetes ; Cuticle ; Desiccation Resistance ; Grain Pest Beetles ; Symbiosis
    ISSN: 0962-1083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
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  • 7
    In: Functional Ecology, April 2014, Vol.28(2), pp.315-327
    Description: In all stages of their life cycle, insects are threatened by a multitude of predators, parasites, parasitoids and pathogens. The lifestyles and feeding ecologies of some hymenopteran taxa render them especially vulnerable to pathogen infestation. Specifically, development in sub‐terranean brood cells, mass provisioning of resources for the offspring and the life of social insects in large communities can enhance the risk of pathogen infestation and/or the spread of disease among conspecifics. To counteract these threats, insects have evolved mechanical, chemical and behavioural defences as well as a complex immune system. In addition to the host's own defences, some Hymenoptera are associated with protective symbionts. Leaf‐cutting ants, solitary digger wasps, bees and bumblebees engage in symbiotic interactions with bacteria that protect the adult host, the developing offspring or the food resources against microbial infections. In the well‐studied cases of ants and wasps, the protective activity is mediated by the production of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In other symbiotic interactions, however, competitive exclusion and immune priming may also play an important role in enhancing protection. Phylogenetic studies indicate that the defensive associations in Hymenoptera are generally more dynamic than the intimate nutritional mutualisms, with horizontal transfer or de novo uptake of the symbionts from the environment occurring frequently. Mutualistic micro‐organisms can also significantly influence the outcome of host‐parasitoid interactions. Some insects are protected by symbiont‐produced toxins against parasitic wasps. Ichneumonid and braconid parasitoids, on the other hand, are associated with symbiotic viruses that are injected into the caterpillar host during oviposition and suppress its immune system to the advantage of the parasitoid. The increasing affordability of next‐generation sequencing technologies will greatly facilitate the analysis of insect‐associated microbial communities and undoubtedly uncover a plethora of as yet unknown protective symbioses. However, a detailed understanding of the host's natural history is indispensable for elucidating the fitness benefits of the symbionts and the molecular basis of symbiont‐conferred protection. Lay
    Keywords: Ctinobacteria ; Beewolf ; Defensive Mutualism ; Honeybee ; Immune System ; Leaf‐Cutting Ants ; Parasitoid ; Pathogen Defence ; Polydnavirus ; Protective Symbiosis
    ISSN: 0269-8463
    E-ISSN: 1365-2435
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  • 8
    In: Natural Product Reports, 2018, Vol.35(5), pp.386-397
    Description: Covering: up to 2018 Pheromones serve as chemical signals between individuals of the same species and play important roles for mate localization and mate choice as well as other social interactions in insects. A growing body of literature indicates that microbial symbionts can modulate their hosts' chemical profiles, mate choice decisions and social behavior. This modulation can occur by the direct biosynthesis of pheromone components or the provisioning of precursors, or through general changes in the metabolite pool of the host and its resource allocation into pheromone production. Here we review and discuss the contexts in which microbial modulation of intraspecific communication in insects occurs and emphasize cases in which microbes are known to affect the involved chemistry. The described examples for a symbiotic influence on mate attraction and mate choice, aggregation, nestmate and kin recognition highlight the context-dependent costs and benefits of these symbiotic interactions and the potential for conflict and manipulation among the interacting partners. However, despite the increasing number of studies reporting on symbiont-mediated effects on insect chemical communication, experimentally validated connections between the presence of specific symbionts, changes in the host's chemistry, and behavioral effects thereof, remain limited to very few systems, highlighting the need for increased collaborative efforts between symbiosis researchers and chemical ecologists to gain more comprehensive insights into the influence of microbial symbionts on insect pheromones.
    Keywords: Symbiosis ; Insecta -- Physiology ; Pheromones -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 0265-0568
    E-ISSN: 1460-4752
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  • 9
    In: European Journal of Entomology, 1/1/2016, Vol.113, pp.271-277
    Description: Mass provisioning insects have to cope with microbial spoilage of their food supplies. As their fitness is directly linked to the availability of high quality food for their offspring, they have evolved various mechanisms for preserving these resources. The European beewolf, Philanthus triangulum, uses several mechanisms to not only preserve the food for their larvae, paralyzed workers of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, but also protect the larvae that develop on the stored food. To assess the spectrum of fungi that pose a threat to beewolf brood cells, we manipulated brood cells by removing the insect defenses. We monitored the subsequent fungal infestations that would have been prevented by the beewolf defense mechanisms and isolated and identified the mold fungi. The cosmopolitan and highly competitive species of Aspergillus, in particular A. flavus, dominated the mold in beewolf brood cells. All other infestations could also be attributed to generalist mold fungi that are commonly found in soil and also on insects. Our findings indicate that beewolf brood cells can be colonized by a broad range of opportunistic soil mold fungi. Thus, it seems highly adaptive that beewolves employ general, broad spectrum defense mechanisms.
    Keywords: Zoology;
    ISSN: 12105759
    E-ISSN: 18028829
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Footwear Science, 01 September 2016, Vol.8(3), pp.129-137
    Description: Excessive foot loading has been considered as a contributing factor for fatigue fractures of the metatarsal bones and may thus be potentially limiting the individual's training capacity and athletic performance. This study investigated the fatiguing effects of long-distance running on foot...
    Keywords: Foot Loading ; Prevention of Running Injuries ; Fatigue ; Stress Fractures ; Plantar Pressures ; Pedobarography ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1942-4280
    E-ISSN: 1942-4299
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