Environmental Earth Sciences, April, 2014, Vol.71(7), p.3025(13)
Byline: Zhufeng Fang (1), Zhangshuan Hou (1), Guang Lin (2), Dave Engel (2), Yilin Fang (1), Paul Eslinger (1) Keywords: Carbon sequestration; Inversion; Monitoring network; Reservoir characterization Abstract: This study examined the impacts of reservoir properties on carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) migration after subsurface injection and evaluated the possibility of characterizing reservoir properties using CO.sub.2 monitoring data such as spatial--temporal distributions of gas pressure, which can be reasonably monitored in practice. The injection reservoir was assumed to be located 1,400--1,500 m below the ground surface such that CO.sub.2 remained in the supercritical state. The reservoir was assumed to contain layers with alternating conductive and resistive properties, which is analogous to actual geological formations such as the Mount Simon Sandstone unit. The CO.sub.2 injection simulation used a cylindrical grid setting in which the injection well was situated at the center of the domain, which extended out 8,000 m from the injection well. The CO.sub.2 migration was simulated using the latest version of the simulator, subsurface transport over multiple phases (the water--salt--CO.sub.2--energy module), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A nonlinear parameter estimation and optimization modeling software package, Parameter ESTimation (PEST), is adopted for automated reservoir parameter estimation. The effects of data quality, data worth, and data redundancy were explored regarding the detectability of reservoir parameters using gas pressure monitoring data, by comparing PEST inversion results using data with different levels of noises, various numbers of monitoring wells and locations, and different data collection spacing and temporal sampling intervals. This study yielded insight into the use of CO.sub.2 monitoring data for reservoir characterization and how to design the monitoring system to optimize data worth and reduce data redundancy. The feasibility of using CO.sub.2 saturation data for improving reservoir characterization was also discussed. Author Affiliation: (1) Earth Systems Science Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Post Office Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352, USA (2) Computational Science and Mathematics Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Post Office Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352, USA Article History: Registration Date: 17/07/2013 Received Date: 22/10/2012 Accepted Date: 17/07/2013 Online Date: 28/07/2013
Carbon Dioxide -- Discovery And Exploration ; Carbon Dioxide -- Analysis ; Greenhouse Effect -- Analysis ; Injection Wells -- Discovery And Exploration ; Injection Wells -- Analysis
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