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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 14 December 2010, Vol.107(50), pp.21376-81
    Description: Sundaland, a tropical hotspot of biodiversity comprising Borneo and Sumatra among other islands, the Malay Peninsula, and a shallow sea, has been subject to dramatic environmental processes. Thus, it presents an ideal opportunity to investigate the role of environmental mechanisms in shaping species distribution and diversity. We investigated the population structure and underlying mechanisms of an insular endemic, the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mtDNA sequences from 211 wild orangutans covering the entire range of the species indicate an unexpectedly recent common ancestor of Bornean orangutans 176 ka (95% highest posterior density, 72-322 ka), pointing to a Pleistocene refugium. High mtDNA differentiation among populations and rare haplotype sharing is consistent with a pattern of strong female philopatry. This is corroborated by isolation by distance tests, which show a significant correlation between mtDNA divergence and distance and a strong effect of rivers as barriers for female movement. Both frequency-based and Bayesian clustering analyses using as many as 25 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed a significant separation among all populations, as well as a small degree of male-mediated gene flow. This study highlights the unique effects of environmental and biological features on the evolutionary history of Bornean orangutans, a highly endangered species particularly vulnerable to future climate and anthropogenic change as an insular endemic.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Ice Cover ; Population ; Rivers ; Pongo Pygmaeus -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Animal Behaviour, 2010, Vol.79(1), pp.187-193
    Description: Compared to other mammals, sexual signals occur particularly often within the primate order. Nevertheless, little is known so far about the pressures under which these signals evolved. We studied loud calls in wild crested macaques to examine whether these are used as a sexual signal, particularly as a signal of dominance, in this species. Since the structure of loud calls may be influenced by the context in which they are uttered, we tested for contextual differences in call structure. Only males uttered loud calls and analysis of 194 loud calls given by 15 males showed that call structure encoded the caller's identity as well as his social status. Dominance rank was also reflected in the frequency with which males called with alpha males calling most often. The structure of loud calls, however, was not influenced by context. Our findings consolidate the assumption that, in crested macaques, loud calls serve as a signal of dominance, most probably used to prevent contests between males for mates. We herewith provide the first direct evidence for a signal of dominance in a tolerant primate species and discuss why this signal occurs in only one sex.
    Keywords: Crested Macaque ; Dominance Signal ; Loud Call ; Macaca Nigra ; Sexual Selection ; Sexual Signal ; Social Style ; Veterinary Medicine ; Zoology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    E-ISSN: 1095-8282
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Animal Behaviour, January 2017, Vol.123, pp.411-426
    Description: Social bonds between group members affect individual fitness and wellbeing. While the impact of bond strength is well studied, the consequences of bond predictability and equitability are often overlooked. Similarly, whether bonds reflect short-term contingencies and/or long-term social strategies remains understudied. We investigated these questions in female crested macaques, , which display a tolerant social style within a nepotistic hierarchical social structure. We analysed the structure of social bonds by testing whether similarity within dyads (in kinship, dominance and age) predicted the strength, predictability and equitability of bonds. We then tested the value of social bonds by analysing the effect of their characteristics on three fitness-related behaviours: coalitionary support, feeding-in-proximity and aggression. We found that the bond characteristics of females differed substantially from those of other species with comparable data: bonds were of average strength, of moderate endurance and relatively balanced. Stronger bonds were more equitable but less predictable than weaker bonds. Closely ranked females, but not kin or age peers, had stronger, more predictable and more equitable bonds than others. Coalitionary support was not related to any of the bond characteristics, feeding-in-proximity was positively associated with strength and predictability and aggression was positively linked to strength and negatively to equitability. These results highlight the complex picture of the benefits of social bonds in this species. They reflect the degrees of freedom tolerant macaque females can express in their social relationships within their stable social structure, a pattern that may not be given enough consideration in stable nepotistic hierarchical societies. Comparative research is necessary to establish whether these patterns are more general than previously thought or a specific feature of tolerant macaques. Investigating various characteristics of bonds together is paramount to appreciate the dynamics of social relationships and to better understand the social components of fitness.
    Keywords: Behavioural Strategy ; Equitability ; Predictability ; Primates ; Social Bonds ; Social Dynamics ; Strength ; Veterinary Medicine ; Zoology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    E-ISSN: 1095-8282
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2011, Vol.59(2), pp.311-319
    Description: . ► We present the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of the leaf monkey genus . ► We detected two periods of radiation (late Miocene and early/middle Pleistocene). ► Our findings support the revision of the current classification. The langurs of the genus inhabit tropical rainforests of Sundaland, and with more than 50 color variants grouped in up to eleven species, is one of the most diverse Old World monkey genera. The number of taxa and their phylogenetic relationships however remain controversial. To address these issues, we analyzed a 1.8 kb long fragment of the mitochondrial genome, including the cytochrome b gene, the hypervariable region I of the D-loop and the intermediate tRNAs, from individuals representing nine species. Based on our data, we obtained various well-supported terminal clades, which refer mainly to described taxa. Relationships among these clades are not fully resolved, suggesting at least two radiations in the evolutionary history of the genus. According to divergence age estimates, radiations occurred in the late Miocene and the early to middle Pleistocene. Our findings support the revision of the current classification of the genus and enable us to discuss implications for conservation. However, further studies including nuclear sequence data are necessary to completely understand the evolutionary history of the genus, and to address possible hybridization events among taxa.
    Keywords: Colobinae ; Cytochrome B ; D-Loop ; Sundaland ; Asia ; Taxonomy ; Presbytis ; Indonesia ; Conservation ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2016, Vol.70(8), pp.1117-1130
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-016-2116-0 Byline: Daphne Kerhoas (1,2,3,4,5), Lars Kulik (1,2), Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah (6,7), Muhammad Agil (8), Antje Engelhardt (3,4), Anja Widdig (1,2) Keywords: Male-infant interactions; Paternal care; Paternity uncertainty; Infant survival; Crested macaques Abstract: Abstract In promiscuous primates, interactions between adult males and infants have rarely been investigated. However, recent evidence suggests that male affiliation towards infants has an influence on several aspects of the infants' life. Furthermore, affiliations may be associated with male reproductive strategy. In this study, we examined which social factors influenced male-infant affiliation initiated by either male or infant, in wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra). We combined behavioral data and genetic paternity analysis from 30 infants living in three wild groups in Tangkoko Reserve, Indonesia. Our results indicate that adult males and infants do not interact at random, but rather form preferential associations. The social factors with the highest influence on infant-initiated interactions were male rank and male association with the infant's mother. While infants initiated affiliations with males more often in the absence of their mothers, adult males initiated more affiliations with infants when their mothers were present. Furthermore, males initiated affiliations more often when they were in the same group at the time the infant was conceived, when they held a high dominance rank, or when they had a close relationship with the mother. Interestingly, paternity did not affect male-infant affiliation despite being highly skewed in this species. Overall, our results suggest that adult males potentially associate with an infant to secure future mating with the mother. Infants are more likely to associate with a male to receive better support, suggesting a strategy to increase the chance of infant survival in a primate society with high infant mortality. Significance statement We explore social relationships between males and infants in a promiscuous primate, the wild crested macaque. Our novel approach addresses the nature of affiliations both from males' and infants' perspectives. The results show that males and infants form preferential associations. Male-female affiliation, but not paternity, was a significant predictor of interactions initiated both by males and infants. Males initiated more interactions towards infants when the mother was in proximity, while infants initiated more interactions in her absence. Finally, high-ranking males were more likely to initiate interactions towards infants. We demonstrated that paternity is not a good predictor of male-infant affiliations, even in a species with a high reproductive skew and a relatively high confidence of paternity. Our paper is one of the first to show that infants are active agents in establishing and maintaining preferential relationships with males. Author Affiliation: (1) Jr. Research Group of Primate Kin Selection, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany (2) Research Group of Behavioural Ecology, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Bioscience, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig, Talstrasse 33, 04103, Leipzig, Germany (3) Jr. Research Group of Primate Sexual Selection, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077, Goettingen, Germany (4) Courant Research Centre for the Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University, Kellnerweg 6, 37077, Goettingen, Germany (5) Department of Conservation Science, Bristol Zoological Society, Clifton, BS8 3HA, Bristol, UK (6) Primate Research Centre, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Lodaya II/5, 16151, Bogor, Indonesia (7) Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, IPB Darmaga, Jl. Raya Darmaga, 16680, Bogor, Indonesia (8) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Jl. Raya Darmaga, 16680, Bogor, Indonesia Article History: Registration Date: 31/03/2016 Received Date: 24/07/2015 Accepted Date: 30/03/2016 Online Date: 28/04/2016 Article note: Communicated by E. Huchard Antje Engelhardt and Anja Widdig equally contributed as senior author Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00265-016-2116-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Male-infant interactions ; Paternal care ; Paternity uncertainty ; Infant survival ; Crested macaques
    ISSN: 0340-5443
    E-ISSN: 1432-0762
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral ecology and sociobiology, 2016, Vol.70, pp.1117-1130
    Description: In promiscuous primates, interactions between adult males and infants have rarely been investigated. However, recent evidence suggests that male affiliation towards infants has an influence on several aspects of the infants' life. Furthermore, affiliations may be associated with male reproductive strategy. In this study, we examined which social factors influenced male-infant affiliation initiated by either male or infant, in wild crested macaques (). We combined behavioral data and genetic paternity analysis from 30 infants living in three wild groups in Tangkoko Reserve, Indonesia. Our results indicate that adult males and infants do not interact at random, but rather form preferential associations. The social factors with the highest influence on infant-initiated interactions were male rank and male association with the infant's mother. While infants initiated affiliations with males more often in the absence of their mothers, adult males initiated more affiliations with infants when their mothers were present. Furthermore, males initiated affiliations more often when they were in the same group at the time the infant was conceived, when they held a high dominance rank, or when they had a close relationship with the mother. Interestingly, paternity did not affect male-infant affiliation despite being highly skewed in this species. Overall, our results suggest that adult males potentially associate with an infant to secure future mating with the mother. Infants are more likely to associate with a male to receive better support, suggesting a strategy to increase the chance of infant survival in a primate society with high infant mortality. We explore social relationships between males and infants in a promiscuous primate, the wild crested macaque. Our novel approach addresses the nature of affiliations both from males' and infants' perspectives. The results show that males and infants form preferential associations. Male-female affiliation, but not paternity, was a significant predictor of interactions initiated both by males and infants. Males initiated more interactions towards infants when the mother was in proximity, while infants initiated more interactions in her absence. Finally, high-ranking males were more likely to initiate interactions towards infants. We demonstrated that paternity is not a good predictor of male-infant affiliations, even in a species with a high reproductive skew and a relatively high confidence of paternity. Our paper is one of the first to show that infants are active agents in establishing and maintaining preferential relationships with males.
    Keywords: Crested Macaques ; Infant Survival ; Male-Infant Interactions ; Paternal Care ; Paternity Uncertainty
    ISSN: 0340-5443
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: AIDS Care, 01 November 2011, Vol.23(11), pp.1500-1504
    Description: Current guidelines for HIV therapy recommend initiating treatment at a CD4 cell count of 500 cells/mm 3 . However, a large proportion of patients with HIV infection begin antiretroviral treatment at a more advanced stage. In the CASTLE study, patients with...
    Keywords: Advanced HIV-1 Disease ; Atazanavir ; Lopinavir ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0954-0121
    E-ISSN: 1360-0451
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  • 8
    In: Behavioral Ecology, 2014, Vol. 25(5), pp.1164-1172
    Description: Better to live in a big group if you want your offspring to survive! Using a multivariate approach, we show how the interplay of ecological and social factors influences fetus and infant survival in wild crested macaques. Offspring are more likely to survive in bigger groups, but seasonality also influences their survival. Fetus survival is higher for higher ranking mothers, whereas the main determinant of infants’ death is an alpha-male takeover by an immigrant male. Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques ( Macaca nigra ) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population.
    Keywords: Between - Group Encounters ; Female Reproductive Success ; Macaca Nigra ; Offspring Loss ; Proportional Hazards Model ; Socioecology.
    ISSN: 1045-2249
    E-ISSN: 1465-7279
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Research, 2018, Vol.33(4), pp.799-810
    Description: N ickel (Ni) agromining aims to phytoextract heavy metals using hyperaccumulators whilst at the same time rehabilitating ultramafic soils. After removing the bioavailable metal, ultramafic soils are improved in terms of their agronomic properties with the aim of future agricultural uses. The low fertility of ultramafic soils can be compensated by integrating legumes already used in traditional agro-systems because of their importance in soil nitrogen enrichment. However, few studies have evaluated the potential profits of legumes on Ni agromining and their potential benefits on soil biological fertility. Here, we characterized the effect of a crop rotation with two plants, a legume ( Vicia sativa ) and a hyperaccumulator ( Alyssum murale ), on the phytoextraction efficiency and on soil structure and biofunctioning. A pot experiment was set up in controlled conditions to grow A. murale and four treatments were tested: rotation with V. sativa ( Ro ), fertilized mono-culture ( FMo ), non-fertilized mono-culture ( NFMo ) and bare soil without plants ( BS ). No significant difference was found between the Ro and NFMo treatments for the dry biomass yield. However, the Ro treatment showed the highest Ni concentrations ([Ni]) in A. murale shoots compared to FMo and NFMo treatments. The Ro treatment plants had more than twice as many leaves [Ni] compared to FMo . Soil physico-chemical analyses showed that the Ro treatment was better structured and showed the highest presence of bacterial micro-aggregates, as well as less non-aggregated particles. Legumes integration in Ni-agromining systems could be a pioneering strategy to reduce chemical inputs and to improve soil biofunctioning and thus fertility.
    Keywords: Nickel ; Alyssum murale ; Legume ; Soil fertility ; Soil fractionation ; Ultrastructural characterization ; Agromining ; Crop rotation
    ISSN: 0912-3814
    E-ISSN: 1440-1703
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The American Naturalist, 01 July 2017, Vol.190(1), pp.131-143
    Description: Living organisms are constrained by both resource quantity and quality. Ecological stoichiometry offers important insights into how the elemental composition of resources affects their consumers. If resource quality decreases, consumers can respond by shifting their body stoichiometry, avoiding low-quality resources, or up-regulating feeding rates to maintain the supply of required elements while excreting excess carbon (i.e., compensatory feeding). We analyzed multitrophic consumer body stoichiometry, biomass, and feeding rates along a resource-quality gradient in the litter of tropical forest and rubber and oil-palm plantations. Specifically, we calculated macroinvertebrate feeding rates based on consumer metabolic demand and assimilation efficiency. Using linear mixed effects models, we assessed resource-quality effects on macroinvertebrate detritivore and predator communities. We did not detect shifts in consumer body stoichiometry or decreases in consumer biomass in response to declining resource quality, as indicated by increasing carbon-to-nitrogen ratios. However, across trophic levels, we found a strong indication of decreasing resource quality leading to increased consumer feeding rates through altered assimilation efficiency and community body size structure. Our study reveals the influence of resource quality on multitrophic consumer feeding rates and suggests compensatory feeding to be more common across consumer trophic levels than was formerly known.
    Keywords: Resource Quality Depletion ; Ecological Stoichiometry ; Consumer Feeding Rates ; Consumer Resource Interaction ; Multitrophic Communities
    ISSN: 00030147
    E-ISSN: 15375323
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