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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Primatology, April 2001, Vol.53(4), pp.177-178
    Description: Review of by Karen B. Strier. Boston, Allyn and Bacon, 2000, viii + 392 pp, 216 fig., 15 tab., $37.00.
    Keywords: Primates ; Behavioural Sciences ; Ecology ; Students ; Anthropology;
    ISSN: 0275-2565
    E-ISSN: 1098-2345
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  • 2
    In: American Journal of Primatology, May 2012, Vol.74(5), pp.423-432
    Description: Until recently, the Bale monkey (), an arboreal primate endemic to the southern Ethiopian highlands, remained virtually unstudied, and its distribution pattern inadequately documented. To broaden our knowledge of the species’ distribution and abundance, we carried out interviews with local people and total count surveys for Bale monkeys across 67 fragmented forest sites in human‐dominated landscapes in the Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Regions, Ethiopia. From January 2010 to May 2011, we discovered 26 new Bale monkey populations inhabiting forest fragments at elevations ranging from 2,355 to 3,204 m asl. Across these populations, we recorded 37 groups ranging in size from 9 to 29 individuals (Mean = 19.5, SD = 4.5), for a total of 722 individuals. Black‐and‐white colobus monkeys () were sympatric with Bale monkeys at all sites, while grivet monkeys () were found only at sites where Bale monkeys did not occur. All of the newly discovered Bale monkey sites once contained bamboo forest, though at 35% of the sites bamboo forest had been eliminated during the past two decades. The persistence of Bale monkeys at fragmented sites lacking bamboo suggests greater habitat flexibility for the species than previously thought, though the long‐term viability of populations both with and without bamboo remains uncertain. Human hunting in response to crop raiding, a behavior the monkeys engaged in at all sites, represents a major threat facing the newly discovered Bale monkey populations. Furthermore, despite their current lack of sympatry, apparently hybrid individuals between Bale monkeys and grivets were noted at three sites, posing yet another potential obstacle to Bale monkey conservation. Community conservation programs aimed at (1) protecting remaining habitat fragments, (2) planting bamboo and trees within and between fragments, and (3) reducing crop raiding represent the only hope for survival of the newly discovered Bale monkey populations. Am. J. Primatol. 74:423‐432, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Chlorocebus Djamdjamensis ; Conservation ; Crop Raiding ; Distribution ; Forest Fragmentation ; Hybridization
    ISSN: 0275-2565
    E-ISSN: 1098-2345
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  • 3
    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, September 2014, Vol.155(1), pp.1-16
    Description: Recent evidence suggests that several extinct primates, including contemporaneous and in East Africa, fed largely on grasses and sedges (i.e., graminoids). As the only living primate graminivores, gelada monkeys () can yield insights into the dietary strategies pursued by extinct grass‐ and sedge‐eating primates. Past studies of gelada diet were of short duration and occurred in heavily disturbed ecosystems. We conducted a long‐term study of gelada feeding ecology in an intact Afroalpine ecosystem at Guassa, Ethiopia. Geladas at Guassa consumed ≥56 plant species, ≥20 invertebrate species, one reptile species, and the eggs of one bird species over a 7‐year period. The annual diet consisted of 56.8% graminoid parts, 37.8% forb parts, 2.8% invertebrates, and 2.6% other items, although geladas exhibited wide variability in diet across months at Guassa. Edible forbs were relatively scarce at Guassa but were strongly selected for by geladas. Tall graminoid leaf and tall graminoid seed head consumption correlated positively, and underground food item consumption correlated negatively, with rainfall over time. Geladas at Guassa consumed a species‐rich diet dominated by graminoids, but unlike geladas in more disturbed habitats also ate a diversity of forbs and invertebrates along with occasional vertebrate prey. Although graminoids are staple foods for geladas, underground food items are important “fallback foods.” We discuss the implications of our study, the first intensive study of the feeding ecology of the only extant primate graminivore, for understanding the dietary evolution of the theropith and hominin putative graminivores, and . Am J Phys Anthropol 155:1–16, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Fallback Foods ; Forbs ; Graminivory ; Habitat Disturbance ; Paranthropus Boisei ; Theropithecus Gelada ; Theropithecus Oswaldi
    ISSN: 0002-9483
    E-ISSN: 1096-8644
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Human Evolution, October 2016, Vol.99, pp.1-9
    Description: As the only extant graminivorous primate, gelada monkeys ( ) offer unique insights into how hominins and other extinct primates with strong C isotopic signatures may have subsisted on graminoid-rich diets. Fossil species sharing a strong C signal (i.e., , , and ) have been reconstructed as predominantly graminivorous and potentially in ecological competition with contemporaneous hominins. However, inferring the breadth and variation of diet in these species (and therefore hominins) has proven problematic. Understanding how ecological variation within extant geladas impacts microwear and isotopic signatures may contribute to reconstructions of diet in fossil . Here, we build on a recent study at an ecologically intact tall grass ecosystem (Guassa, Ethiopia) that expanded the known diversity of gelada diets by demonstrating lower reliance on graminoids, greater consumption of forbs, and greater dietary species richness than previously described at disturbed sites. We used dental microwear texture analysis to explore how dietary variation among extant geladas may inform our understanding of the diets of fossil . First, we compared the dental microwear textures of geladas at Guassa to those of geladas from other sites. The microwear textures of geladas at Guassa exhibited more complexity, less anisotropy, and more variance in anisotropy and heterogeneity, reflecting the greater dietary diversity of Guassa geladas. Comparing microwear texture variables among this expanded gelada sample to those for , , and yielded no significant differences. These results raise the intriguing possibility that data on how ecological variation and diet impact dental microwear and (possibly) isotopic signatures in extant geladas can be used to reconstruct the diets of extinct theropiths and, more broadly, hominins with strong C isotopic signatures. We conclude that extant gelada populations offer a powerful analog for inferring dietary variation among predominantly graminivorous fossil primates.
    Keywords: Dental Microwear Texture Analysis ; Dietary Diversity ; Graminivory ; Hominin ; Theropithecus ; Anthropology ; Biology
    ISSN: 0047-2484
    E-ISSN: 1095-8606
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Mammalogy, 2015, Vol.96(1), p.129(9)
    Description: Mixed-species associations generally form to increase foraging success or to aid in the detection and deterrence of predators. While mixed-species associations are common among mammals, those involving carnivorous predators and potential prey species are seldom reported. On the Guassa Plateau, in the Ethiopian highlands, we observed solitary Ethiopian wolves {Canis simensis) foraging for rodents among grazing gelada monkey (Theropithecus gelada) herds. The tolerant and sometimes prolonged (〉 1 h) associations contrasted with the defensive behaviors exhibited by geladas toward other potential predators. Ethiopian wolves spent a higher proportion of time foraging and preyed more successfully on rodents when among geladas than when alone, providing evidence that gelada herds increase the vulnerability of subterranean rodents to predation. Ethiopian wolves appear to habituate gelada herds to their presence through nonthreatening behavior, thereby foregoing opportunistic foraging opportunities upon vulnerable juvenile geladas in order to feed more effectively on rodents. For Ethiopian wolves, establishing proximity to geladas as foraging commensals could be an adaptive strategy to elevate foraging success. The novel dynamics documented here shed light on the ecological circumstances that contribute to the stability of mixed groups of predators and potential prey. Key words: Afroalpine, Canis simensis, Ethiopia, interspecific association, rodents, Theropithecus gelada DOI: 10.1093/jmammal/gyu013
    Keywords: Predation (Biology) – Identification and Classification ; Gray Wolf – Behavior ; Rodents – Health Aspects ; Monkeys – Behavior
    ISSN: 0022-2372
    E-ISSN: 15451542
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  • 6
    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, September 2014, Vol.155(1), pp.17-32
    Description: Chewing efficiency has been associated with fitness in mammals, yet little is known about the behavioral, ecological, and morphological factors that influence chewing efficiency in wild animals. Although research has established that dental wear and food material properties independently affect chewing efficiency, few studies have addressed the interaction among these factors. We examined chewing efficiency, measured as mean fecal particle size, as a function of seasonal shifts in diet (and corresponding changes in food fracture toughness) in a single breeding population of a grazing primate, the gelada monkey, at Guassa, Ethiopia. We also measured dental topographic traits (slope, angularity, and relief index) and relative two‐ and three‐dimensional shearing crest lengths in a cross‐sectional wear series of gelada molars. Chewing efficiency decreased during the dry season, a pattern corresponding to the consumption of foods with higher fracture toughness. Older individuals experienced the most pronounced decreases in chewing efficiency between seasons, implicating dental wear as a causal factor. This pattern is consistent with our finding that dental topographic metrics and three‐dimensional relative shearing crest lengths were lowest at the last stage of wear. Integrating these lines of behavioral, ecological, and morphological evidence provides some of the first empirical support for the hypothesis that food fracture toughness and dental wear together contribute to chewing efficiency. Geladas have the highest chewing efficiencies measured thus far in primates, and may be analogous to equids in their emphasis on dental design as a means of particle size reduction in the absence of highly specialized digestive physiology. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:17–32, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Food Mechanical Properties ; Fecal Particle Size ; Dental Topography ; Fallback Foods
    ISSN: 0002-9483
    E-ISSN: 1096-8644
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2014, Vol.155(1)
    Description: Chewing efficiency has been associated with fitness in mammals, yet little is known about the behavioral, ecological, and morphological factors that influence chewing efficiency in wild animals. Although research has established that dental wear and food material properties independently affect chewing efficiency, few studies have addressed the interaction among these factors. We examined chewing efficiency, measured as mean fecal particle size, as a function of seasonal shifts in diet (and corresponding changes in food fracture toughness) in a single breeding population of a grazing primate, the gelada monkey, at Guassa, Ethiopia. We also measured dental topographic traits (slope, angularity, and relief index) and relative two- and three-dimensional shearing crest lengths in a cross-sectional wear series of gelada molars. Chewing efficiency decreased during the dry season, a pattern corresponding to the consumption of foods with higher fracture toughness. Older individuals experienced the most pronounced decreases in chewing efficiency between seasons, implicating dental wear as a causal factor. This pattern is consistent with our finding that dental topographic metrics and three-dimensional relative shearing crest lengths were lowest at the last stage of wear. Integrating these lines of behavioral, ecological, and morphological evidence provides some of the first empirical support for the hypothesis that food fracture toughness and dental wear together contribute to chewing efficiency. Geladas have the highest chewing efficiencies measured thus far in primates, and may be analogous to equids in their emphasis on dental design as a means of particle size reduction in the absence of highly specialized digestive physiology.
    Keywords: Mastication – Research ; Physical Anthropology – Analysis ; Morphology (Biology) – Research
    ISSN: 0002-9483
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Primatology, 01 January 2012, Vol.74(1), pp.77-90
    Description: As natural forest cover declines, planted forests have come to occupy an increasing percentage of the earth's surface, yet we know little about their suitability as alternative habitat for wildlife. Although some primate species use planted forests, few studies have compared primate populations in natural and nearby planted forests. From March 2006 to July 2010, we conducted line transect surveys and assessed group sizes and compositions in natural and nearby 60–70 year old mixed indigenous planted forest to determine the densities of diurnal primate species (, , ) in these two forest types at Isecheno, Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Line transect data were analyzed using the Encounter Rate, Whitesides, and Distance sampling methods, which all provided broadly consistent results. We found that all three diurnal primate species occupy both natural and planted forest at Isecheno. However, group densities of the two species were 42–46% lower in planted than in natural forest. achieved comparable group densities in the two forest types, although the species is found in smaller groups, and thus at lower (35%) individual density, in planted than in natural forest. Following a logging episode in the planted forest mid‐way through our study, group densities fell by 60% while and group densities remained stable over the next two years. Overall, our results suggest that while primate species vary in their response to habitat disturbance, planted forest has the potential to contribute to the conservation of some African monkey species. Even for the relatively flexible taxa in our study, however, 60–70 year old mixed indigenous planted forest failed to support densities comparable to those in nearby natural forest. From the perspective of Kakamega's primates, planted forests may supplement natural forest, but are not an adequate replacement for it. Am. J. Primatol. 73:1–14, 2011.  © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Census ; Cercopithecus ; Colobus ; Density ; Logging ; Natural Forest ; Planted Forest
    ISSN: 0275-2565
    E-ISSN: 1098-2345
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Primatology, May, 2011, Vol.73(5), p.405-409
    Keywords: Gelada -- Protection And Preservation ; Gelada -- Research ; Thanatology -- Research ; Animal Social Behavior -- Research ; Chimpanzees -- Research
    ISSN: 0275-2565
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, 2004, Vol.120(4), pp.449-459
    Description: Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkm. is a secondary forest canopy tree species that has been declining over much of its geographical range in sub- Saharan Africa during recent decades due to unsustainable harvesting of its bark for the international medicinal plant trade. One of the locations where the species is experiencing rapid mortality is Isecheno study site in the Kakamega Forest, Kenya where this study was conducted. Between 1997 and 2003, 21% of the P. africana ([gt-or-equal, slanted]10 cm DBH) at Isecheno died and an additional 9% experienced [gt-or-equal, slanted]50% canopy dieback. However, scars from bark harvesting on P. africana were relatively small and scarred trees were not more likely to be dead or dying than unscarred trees, suggesting that bark exploitation is not causing P. africana mortality at Isecheno. Other possible causes that require further evaluation include disease, insect attack, nutrient deficiency, and/or climatic fluctuation. The poor regeneration of P. africana at Isecheno can likely be explained by the relative lack of recent disturbance coupled with the thick undergrowth layer at this site. P. africana mortality is of concern not only because the species is listed as Vulnerable by IUCN, but also because black and white colobus monkeys [Colobus guereza (Rueppell, 1835)] at Isecheno exploit it as their top food species and are particularly reliant on its leaves during times of 'preferred' Moraceae fruit scarcity. The anticipated continued decline of P. africana may have adverse effects on C. guereza feeding habits, intergroup relations, and population density at Isecheno. Conservation of P. africana offers a formidable challenge since the species appears to require disturbance for regeneration, yet at sites where disturbance is occurring, P. africana is often a target of bark harvesters engaging in unsustainable levels of exploitation.
    Keywords: Prunus Africana ; Colobus Guereza ; Medicinal Plant ; Bark Harvesting ; Fallback Resource ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    E-ISSN: 18732917
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