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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Sept 18, 2015, Vol.10(9)
    Description: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, most often HPV16 and HPV18, causes all cervical and most anal cancers, and a subset of vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Two prophylactic virus-like particle (VLPs)-based vaccines, are available that protect against vaccine type-associated persistent infection and associated disease, yet have no therapeutic effect on existing lesions or infections. We have generated recombinant live-attenuated influenza A viruses expressing the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7 as experimental immunotherapeutic vaccine candidates. The influenza A virus life cycle lacks DNA intermediates as important safety feature. Different serotypes were generated to ensure efficient prime and boost immunizations. The immune response to vaccination in C57BL/6 mice was characterized by peptide ELISA and IFN-[gamma] ELISpot, demonstrating induction of cell-mediated immunity to HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine efficacy was analyzed in the murine HPV16-positive TC-1 tumor challenge model. Subcutaneous (s.c.) prime and boost vaccinations of mice with recombinant influenza A serotypes H1N1 and H3N2, followed by challenge with TC-1 cells resulted in complete protection or significantly reduced tumor growth as compared to control animals. In a therapeutic setting, s.c. vaccination of mice with established TC-1 tumors decelerated tumor growth and significantly prolonged survival. Importantly, intralesional vaccine administration induced complete tumor regression in 25% of animals, and significantly reduced tumor growth in 50% of mice. These results suggest recombinant E6E7 influenza viruses as a promising new approach for the development of a therapeutic vaccine against HPV-induced disease.
    Keywords: Papillomavirus Infections – Prevention ; Papillomavirus Infections – Research ; Cervical Cancer – Causes of ; Cervical Cancer – Prevention ; Cervical Cancer – Research ; Influenza Viruses – Physiological Aspects ; Influenza Viruses – Research
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(9)
    Description: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, most often HPV16 and HPV18, causes all cervical and most anal cancers, and a subset of vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Two prophylactic virus-like particle (VLPs)-based vaccines, are available that protect against vaccine type-associated persistent infection and associated disease, yet have no therapeutic effect on existing lesions or infections. We have generated recombinant live-attenuated influenza A viruses expressing the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7 as experimental immunotherapeutic vaccine candidates. The influenza A virus life cycle lacks DNA intermediates as important safety feature. Different serotypes were generated to ensure efficient prime and boost immunizations. The immune response to vaccination in C57BL/6 mice was characterized by peptide ELISA and IFN-γ ELISpot, demonstrating induction of cell-mediated immunity to HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine efficacy was analyzed in the murine HPV16-positive TC-1 tumor challenge model. Subcutaneous (s.c.) prime and boost vaccinations of mice with recombinant influenza A serotypes H1N1 and H3N2, followed by challenge with TC-1 cells resulted in complete protection or significantly reduced tumor growth as compared to control animals. In a therapeutic setting, s.c. vaccination of mice with established TC-1 tumors decelerated tumor growth and significantly prolonged survival. Importantly, intralesional vaccine administration induced complete tumor regression in 25% of animals, and significantly reduced tumor growth in 50% of mice. These results suggest recombinant E6E7 influenza viruses as a promising new approach for the development of a therapeutic vaccine against HPV-induced disease.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(6), p.e39921
    Description: The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV) enables the virus to disarm the host cell type 1 IFN defense system. Mutation or deletion of the NS1 gene leads to attenuation of the virus and enhances host antiviral response making such live-attenuated influenza viruses attractive vaccine candidates. Sublingual (SL) immunization with live influenza virus has been found to be safe and effective for inducing protective immune responses in mucosal and systemic compartments. Here we demonstrate that SL immunization with NS1 deleted IAV (DeltaNS1 H1N1 or DeltaNS1 H5N1) induced protection against challenge with homologous as well as heterosubtypic influenza viruses. Protection was comparable with that induced by intranasal (IN) immunization and was associated with high levels of virus-specific antibodies (Abs). SL immunization with DeltaNS1 virus induced broad Ab responses in mucosal and systemic compartments and stimulated immune cells in mucosa-associated and systemic lymphoid organs. Thus, SL immunization with DeltaNS1 offers a novel potential vaccination strategy for the control of influenza outbreaks including pandemics.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Immunology ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(4), p.e18577
    Description: H5N1 influenza vaccines, including live intranasal, appear to be relatively less immunogenic compared to seasonal analogs. The main influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) was shown to be more susceptible to acidic pH treatment than that of human or low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The acidification machinery of the human nasal passageway in response to different irritation factors starts to release protons acidifying the mucosal surface (down to pH of 5.2). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of H5 HA to the acidic environment might be the reason for the low infectivity and immunogenicity of intranasal H5N1 vaccines for mammals. ; We demonstrate that original human influenza viruses infect primary human nasal epithelial cells at acidic pH (down to 5.4), whereas H5N1 HPAIVs lose infectivity at pH≤5.6. The HA of A/Vietnam/1203/04 was modified by introducing the single substitution HA2 58K→I, decreasing the pH of the HA conformational change. The H5N1 reassortants containing the indicated mutation displayed an increased resistance to acidic pH and high temperature treatment compared to those lacking modification. The mutation ensured a higher viral uptake as shown by immunohistochemistry in the respiratory tract of mice and 25 times lower mouse infectious dose. Moreover, the reassortants keeping 58K→I mutation designed as a live attenuated vaccine candidate lacking an NS1 gene induced superior systemic and local antibody response after the intranasal immunization of mice. ; Our finding suggests that an efficient intranasal vaccination with a live attenuated H5N1 virus may require a certain level of pH and temperature stability of HA in order to achieve an optimal virus uptake by the nasal epithelial cells and induce a sufficient immune response. The pH of the activation of the H5 HA protein may play a substantial role in the infectivity of HPAIVs for mammals.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Immunology ; Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 February 2010, Vol.201(3), pp.354-62
    Description: BACKGROUND. The nonstructural protein NS1 of influenza virus counteracts the interferon-mediated immune response of the host. By deleting the open reading frame of NS1, we have generated a novel type of influenza vaccine. We studied the safety and immunogenicity of an influenza strain lacking the NS1 gene (DeltaNS1-H1N1) in healthy volunteers. METHODS. Healthy seronegative adult volunteers were randomized to receive either a single intranasal dose of the DeltaNS1-H1N1 A/New Caledonia vaccine at 1 of 5 dose levels (6.4, 6.7, 7.0, 7.4, and 7.7 log(10) median tissue culture infective dose) (n = 36 recipients) or placebo (n = 12 recipients). RESULTS. Intranasal vaccination with the replication-deficient DeltaNS1-H1N1 vaccine was well tolerated. Rhinitis-like symptoms and headache were the most common adverse events identified during the 28-day observation period. Adverse events were similarly distributed between the treatment and placebo groups. Vaccine-specific local and serum antibodies were induced in a dose-dependent manner. In the highest dose group, vaccine-specific antibodies were detected in 10 of 12 volunteers. Importantly, the vaccine also induced neutralizing antibodies against heterologous drift variants. CONCLUSIONS. We show that vaccination with an influenza virus strain lacking the viral interferon antagonist NS1 induces statistically significant levels of strain-specific and cross-neutralizing antibodies despite the highly attenuated replication-deficient phenotype. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these results translate into protection from influenza virus infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00724997 .
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus, H1n1 Subtype -- Immunology ; Influenza Vaccines -- Immunology ; Influenza, Human -- Prevention & Control ; Vaccines, Attenuated -- Immunology ; Viral Nonstructural Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Virological Methods, 2010, Vol.167(1), pp.17-22
    Description: Various virus-like particles (VLPs) have been shown to induce cytotoxic T-cell immune response as well as B-cell immune response. This makes VLPs promising candidates for antigen-carrier platforms for various epitopes. Influenza A VLPs were produced displaying a 20 amino acid sequence from early secretory antigenic target 6 protein (ESAT-6). As this sequence is known to comprise a potent T-cell epitope it was chosen as a model for a foreign epitope to be presented on an influenza VLP scaffold. The ESAT-6 epitope was engineered into the antigenic region B of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) from strain A/New Caledonia/20/99. VLPs were expressed in insect cells and subjected to immunization studies in mice. High serum antibody titers detected against recombinant ESAT-6 demonstrated the feasibility of influenza A VLPs serving as an efficient platform for epitope presentation.
    Keywords: Influenza A ; Virus-Like Particles ; Mycobacterium Tuberculosis ; Surface Display ; Baculovirus Expression System ; Biology
    ISSN: 0166-0934
    E-ISSN: 1879-0984
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Clinical chemistry, August 2006, Vol.52(8), pp.1575-83
    Description: Suspension array technology has surpassed ELISA for automated, simultaneous detection and quantification of soluble biomarkers such as virus-specific antibodies. We describe assays in which antigens are attached to a lipid bilayer surrounding color-coded particles. We used layer-by-layer technology to establish a multiplex suspension array with distinguishable microbeads coated with authentic viral surfaces to catch and quantify virus-specific antibodies in a flow cytometric analysis. Antigenic surfaces were generated by chimeric and wild-type baculoviruses plus 2 different influenza A virus subtypes fused to a lipid bilayer surrounding distinctly colored particles. Specificity of binding of chosen antibodies and sera was detected by immunofluorescence. Results of multiplex analysis were compared with results of ELISA. Titrations of virus-specific antibodies in the multiplex suspension array demonstrated specific binding to the viral surface proteins. The multiplex suspension array gave positive results for up to log 5-diluted primary antibodies with an approximately 5- to 10-fold reduced dynamic range compared with the respective ELISA. The bead-based multiplex suspension array is customizable and easy to establish. By displaying native influenza A virus surfaces and recombinant HIV-1 epitopes, the new assay provides a tool for the detection of major viral infections in humans.
    Keywords: Antibodies, Viral -- Blood ; Antigens, Viral -- Chemistry ; Baculoviridae -- Chemistry ; Immunoassay -- Methods ; Influenza A Virus -- Chemistry ; Lipid Bilayers -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0009-9147
    E-ISSN: 15308561
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biotechnology Journal, January 2010, Vol.5(1), pp.17-23
    Description: Recent outbreaks of influenza A highlight the importance of rapid and sufficient supply for pandemic and inter‐pandemic vaccines. Classical manufacturing methods for influenza vaccines fail to satisfy this demand. Alternatively, cell culture‐based production systems and virus‐like particle (VLP)‐based technologies have been established. We developed swine‐origin pandemic H1N1 influenza VLPs consisting of hemagglutinin (A/California/04/2009) and matrix protein. Hemagglutinin and matrix protein were co‐expressed in insect cells by the baculovirus expression system. VLPs were harvested from infection supernatants, purified and used for intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c mice. Immunization induced high serum antibody titers against A/California/04/2009 as well as hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies. Additionally, we compared VLP production in two different insect cell lines, Sf9 and BTI‐TN5B1‐4 (High Five™). Taken together VLPs represent a potential strategy for the fight against new pandemic influenza viruses.
    Keywords: H1n1 ; Influenza Vaccine ; Insect Cells ; Pandemic Influenza ; Virus‐Like Particle
    ISSN: 1860-6768
    E-ISSN: 1860-7314
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  • 10
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2006, Vol. 80(23), p.11621
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    Source: American Society of Microbiology
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