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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Dec, 2013, Vol.67, p.133(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.08.003 Byline: Thimo Klotzbucher, Klaus Kaiser, Timothy R. Filley, Karsten Kalbitz Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a major process providing DOM in soils. Herein, we examine processes causing the commonly observed increase in contribution of aromatic compounds to WSOM during litter decomposition, and unravel the relationship between lignin degradation and the production of aromatic WSOM. We analysed amounts and composition of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) produced during 27 months of decomposition of leaves and needles (ash, beech, maple, spruce, pine). The contribution of aromatic compounds to WSOM, as indicated by the specific UV absorbance of WSOM, remained constant or increased during decomposition. However, the contribution of lignin-derived compounds to the total phenolic products of.sup.13C-labelled tetramethylammonium hydroxide (.sup.13C-TMAH) thermochemolysis increased strongly (by 〉114%) within 27 months of decomposition. Simultaneous changes in contents of lignin phenols in solid litter residues (cupric oxide method as well as.sup.13C-TMAH thermochemolysis) were comparably small (-39% to +21% within 27 months). This suggests that the increasing contribution of lignin-derived compounds to WSOM during decomposition does not reflect compositional changes of solid litter residues, but rather the course of decomposition processes. In the light of recently published findings, these processes include: (i) progressive oxidative alteration of lignin that results in increasing solubility of lignin, (ii) preferential degradation of soluble, non-lignin compounds that limits their contribution to WSOM during later phases of decomposition. Author Affiliation: (a) Soil Sciences, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany (b) Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and the Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA (c) Earth Surface Science, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Article History: Received 13 March 2013; Revised 19 July 2013; Accepted 3 August 2013
    Keywords: Control Equipment Industry -- Production Processes ; Lignin ; Global Temperature Changes ; Hydroxides ; Copper Oxides ; Aromatic Compounds
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Feb, 2013, Vol.57, p.496(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.09.007 Byline: Courtney A. Creamer (a), Timothy R. Filley (a), Thomas W. Boutton (b) Abstract: Soil organic matter in coarse-textured soils is more vulnerable to environmental disturbances due to reduced potential for soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in aggregates or organo-mineral complexes. In sandy loam soils from the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas, woody encroachment has resulted in the rapid accrual of root and leaf tissues derived from trees and shrubs into poorly physically protected (macroaggregate 〉250 [mu]m) and non-mineral associated (free light fraction 〈1.0 g cm.sup.-3) soil fractions. To determine the impact of changing plant input chemistry on potential degradability of accumulating SOC fractions, we measured the quantity and isotopic composition of respired CO.sub.2 from year-long incubations of the macroaggregate and free light soil fractions along a grassland to woodland successional chronosequence. During incubation of both fractions, the proportion of SOC respired from older woody stand soils ([approximately equal to]40-90 yrs) relative to recently established woody stands (〈40 yrs) and remnant grassland soils decreased. We interpreted this decrease with woody stand age to result from a change to plant input chemistry with more lignin and aliphatic structures combined with a progressive shift to more non-hydrolyzable, poorly accessible forms of soil organic nitrogen, resulting in a system with slower short-term decay dynamics. The [delta].sup.13C values of respired CO.sub.2 from all landscape elements indicated a selective release of older grassland-derived SOC in the first month of the macroaggregate incubation, possibly due to the disruption and rapid microbial utilization of grassland SOC after the soil fractionation process. Due to the sensitivity of these rapidly-cycling soil fractions to environmental disturbance and their capacity to influence longer-term SOC dynamics, understanding their decay dynamics is essential for understanding mechanisms of SOC stabilization. This is especially important in coarse-textured soils where large SOC stocks may be present in physical fractions that are relatively unprotected from decomposition. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47901, United States (b) Texas A&M University, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, College Station, TX 77843, United States Article History: Received 30 March 2012; Revised 15 August 2012; Accepted 6 September 2012
    Keywords: Soil Carbon ; Lignin ; Global Temperature Changes
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    In: New Phytologist, June 2014, Vol.202(4), pp.1257-1266
    Description: Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations can change chemistry and input rate of plant tissue to soil, potentially influencing above‐ and below‐ground biogeochemical cycles. Given the important role played by leaf and root litter chemistry in controlling ecosystem function and vulnerability to environmental stresses, we investigated the hydrolyzable amino acid distribution and concentration in leaf and fine root litter among control and elevated CO2 treatments at the Rhinelander free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (WI, USA). We extracted hydrolyzable amino acids from leaf litter and fine (〈 2 mm) roots at three depths for both control and elevated CO2 plots. We found that elevated CO2 decreased the proportion of total leaf amino acid carbon (C), but had no effect on total leaf amino acid nitrogen (N). There was no treatment effect for total root amino acid N or amino acid C for any depth. The decrease in leaf amino acids is probably a result of the shift of protein compounds to more structural compounds. Despite the decrease in leaf amino acid C concentrations, the overall increase in annual plant production under elevated CO2 would result in an increase in plant amino acids to the soil.
    Keywords: Amino Acids ; Carbon Dioxide ; Climate Change ; Free Air Enrichment ; Leaf ; Root
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Feb, 2014, Vol.69, p.212(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.10.043 Byline: Yini Ma, Timothy R. Filley, Katalin Szlavecz, Melissa K. McCormick Abstract: In this study, we examined the response of surface soils to increased leaf and wood litter input within adjacent successional forests recovering from agricultural disturbance at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC), Maryland, USA. Previous studies at this site demonstrated an arrested development of O-horizon, even after 130 years of forest growth, and an annual loss of leaf litter in forests with the highest abundance of invasive earthworms. Biogeochemical indices of plant biopolymer dynamics, i.e. extractable lignin and substituted fatty acids (SFAs), were applied to soil physical fractions in order to assess the fate of 5 years of increased Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) wood and leaf litter into O-horizon and mineral soil particles of purportedly different protection levels in this recovering forest system. Our results showed that in this continuously-disturbed recovering system the pattern of litter incorporation into soil varied with both litter type and forest age. For example, young successional forests, that also contained higher abundances of soil feeding endogeic earthworms, incorporated wood amendments deeper into soils and in a predominantly particulate organic matter (POM) form than older successional systems with predominantly litter and surface dwelling earthworms. Soil lignin concentration increased sharply with wood amendments in both forest stages, but young successional forests exhibited incorporation of fresher lignin into both POM and silt and clay (SC) fractions over 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths while old forests only increased in POM in the 0-5 cm depth. We attribute these differences to the higher rates of physical mixing from soil feeding endogeic species and potentially lower fungal activity in young successional forests. However, despite nearly 2.5 times of background annual leaf litter input over 5 years, neither total C content nor SFA concentration in soil fractions increased, a phenomenon we attribute to full decomposition of leaf litter amendments. These results demonstrate how the chemical trajectory of soils and litter layers in recovering forests can be a function of both legacy and current disturbance. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, IN 47907, USA (b) Purdue Climate Change Research Center, IN 47907, USA (c) Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, MD 21216, USA (d) Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, MD 21037, USA Article History: Received 12 August 2013; Revised 27 October 2013; Accepted 28 October 2013
    Keywords: Fatty Acids ; Forests ; Lignin ; Global Temperature Changes ; Air Pollution
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, Oct, 2014, Vol.193, p.197(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.06.013 Byline: Timothy D. Berry, Timothy R. Filley, Robert A. Blanchette Abstract: Although carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are becoming increasingly prevalent in manufacturing, there is little knowledge on the environmental fate of these materials. Environmental degradation of SWCNT is hindered by their highly condensed aromatic structure as well as the size and aspect ratio, which prevents intracellular degradation and limits microbial decomposition to extracellular processes such as those catalyzed by oxidative enzymes. This study investigates the peroxidase and laccase enzymatic response of the saprotrophic white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Phlebia tremellosa when exposed to SWCNTs of different purity and surface chemistry under different growth conditions. Both unpurified, metal catalyst-rich SWCNT and purified, carboxylated SWCNTs promoted significant changes in the oxidative enzyme activity of the fungi while pristine SWCNT did not. These results suggest that functionalization of purified SWCNT is essential to up regulate enzymes that may be capable of decomposing CNT in the environment. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, United States (b) Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, United States Article History: Received 18 February 2014; Revised 10 June 2014; Accepted 13 June 2014
    Keywords: Oxidases ; Environmental Degradation ; Fungi ; Enzymology ; Nanotubes
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, October 2014, Vol.193, pp.197-204
    Description: Although carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are becoming increasingly prevalent in manufacturing, there is little knowledge on the environmental fate of these materials. Environmental degradation of SWCNT is hindered by their highly condensed aromatic structure as well as the size and aspect ratio, which prevents intracellular degradation and limits microbial decomposition to extracellular processes such as those catalyzed by oxidative enzymes. This study investigates the peroxidase and laccase enzymatic response of the saprotrophic white-rot fungi and when exposed to SWCNTs of different purity and surface chemistry under different growth conditions. Both unpurified, metal catalyst-rich SWCNT and purified, carboxylated SWCNTs promoted significant changes in the oxidative enzyme activity of the fungi while pristine SWCNT did not. These results suggest that functionalization of purified SWCNT is essential to up regulate enzymes that may be capable of decomposing CNT in the environment. Single-walled carbon nanomaterials were found to stimulate oxidative enzyme activity in cultured white-rot fungi, dependent on the purity and surface chemistry of the nanomaterials.
    Keywords: Saprotrophic Fungi ; Enzymatics ; Carbon Nanomaterials ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, November 2012, Vol.54, pp.7-13
    Description: Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have the potential to slow litter decay and increase the accumulation of soil organic matter by repressing the activity of lignolytic soil microorganisms. We investigated the relationship between soil biochemical characteristics and enzymatic responses in a series of sugar maple ( )-dominated forests that have been subjected to 16 yrs of chronic N deposition (ambient + 3 g NO –N m  yr ), in which litter decay has slowed and soil organic matter has accumulated in sandy spodosols. Cupric-oxide-extractable lignin-derived phenols were quantified to determine the presence, source, and relative oxidation state of lignin-like compounds under ambient and experimental N deposition. Pools of respired C and mineralized N, along with rate constants for these processes, were used to quantify biochemically labile substrate pools during a 16-week laboratory incubation. Extracellular enzymes mediating cellulose and lignin metabolism also were measured under ambient and experimental N deposition, and these values were compared with proxies for the relative oxidation of lignin in forest floor and surface mineral soil. Chronic N deposition had no influence on the pools or rate constants for respired C and mineralized N. Moreover, neither the total amount of extractable lignin (forest floor,  = 0.260; mineral soil,  = 0.479), nor the relative degree of lignin oxidation in the forest floor or mineral soil (forest floor  = 0.680; mineral soil  = 0.934) was influenced by experimental N deposition. Given their biochemical attributes, lignin-derived molecules in forest floor and mineral soil appear to originate from fine roots, rather than leaf litter. Under none of the studied circumstances was the presence or relative oxidation of lignin correlated with the activity of cellulolytic and lignolytic extracellular enzymes. Although chronic atmospheric N deposition has slowed litter decay and increased organic matter in our experiment, it had little effect on biochemical composition of lignin-derived molecules in forest floor and surface mineral soil suggesting organic matter has accumulated by other means. Moreover, the specific dynamics of lignin phenol decay is decoupled from short-term organic matter accumulation under chronic N deposition in this ecosystem. ► In a long-term study, experimental N deposition slowed litter decay, which has occurred in concert with a reduction in lignolytic activity in forest floor and surface mineral soil. ► We quantified the biochemistry of lignin-like molecules in forest floor and surface mineral soil to determine whether experimental N deposition altered the end products of microbial decay. ► Experimental N deposition did not alter the amount or oxidation state of lignin-like molecules in either forest floor or surface mineral soil.
    Keywords: Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition ; Organic Matter Chemistry ; Lignin-Derived Phenols ; Respired C ; Mineralized N ; Extracellular Enzyme Activity ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.57, pp.496-503
    Description: Soil organic matter in coarse-textured soils is more vulnerable to environmental disturbances due to reduced potential for soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in aggregates or organo-mineral complexes. In sandy loam soils from the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas, woody encroachment has resulted in the rapid accrual of root and leaf tissues derived from trees and shrubs into poorly physically protected (macroaggregate 〉250 μm) and non-mineral associated (free light fraction 〈1.0 g cm⁻³) soil fractions. To determine the impact of changing plant input chemistry on potential degradability of accumulating SOC fractions, we measured the quantity and isotopic composition of respired CO₂ from year-long incubations of the macroaggregate and free light soil fractions along a grassland to woodland successional chronosequence. During incubation of both fractions, the proportion of SOC respired from older woody stand soils (∼40–90 yrs) relative to recently established woody stands (〈40 yrs) and remnant grassland soils decreased. We interpreted this decrease with woody stand age to result from a change to plant input chemistry with more lignin and aliphatic structures combined with a progressive shift to more non-hydrolyzable, poorly accessible forms of soil organic nitrogen, resulting in a system with slower short-term decay dynamics. The δ¹³C values of respired CO₂ from all landscape elements indicated a selective release of older grassland-derived SOC in the first month of the macroaggregate incubation, possibly due to the disruption and rapid microbial utilization of grassland SOC after the soil fractionation process. Due to the sensitivity of these rapidly-cycling soil fractions to environmental disturbance and their capacity to influence longer-term SOC dynamics, understanding their decay dynamics is essential for understanding mechanisms of SOC stabilization. This is especially important in coarse-textured soils where large SOC stocks may be present in physical fractions that are relatively unprotected from decomposition. ; p. 496-503.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Coarse-Textured Soils ; Lignin ; Organic Soils ; Leaves ; Shrubs ; Carbon Dioxide ; Nitrogen ; Soil Texture ; Organomineral Complexes ; Chemistry ; Chronosequences ; Grasslands ; Trees ; Grassland Soils ; Landscapes ; Fractionation ; Sandy Loam Soils
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2013, Vol.57, pp.496-503
    Description: Soil organic matter in coarse-textured soils is more vulnerable to environmental disturbances due to reduced potential for soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in aggregates or organo-mineral complexes. In sandy loam soils from the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas, woody encroachment has resulted in the rapid accrual of root and leaf tissues derived from trees and shrubs into poorly physically protected (macroaggregate 〉250 μm) and non-mineral associated (free light fraction 〈1.0 g cm ) soil fractions. To determine the impact of changing plant input chemistry on potential degradability of accumulating SOC fractions, we measured the quantity and isotopic composition of respired CO from year-long incubations of the macroaggregate and free light soil fractions along a grassland to woodland successional chronosequence. During incubation of both fractions, the proportion of SOC respired from older woody stand soils (∼40–90 yrs) relative to recently established woody stands (〈40 yrs) and remnant grassland soils decreased. We interpreted this decrease with woody stand age to result from a change to plant input chemistry with more lignin and aliphatic structures combined with a progressive shift to more non-hydrolyzable, poorly accessible forms of soil organic nitrogen, resulting in a system with slower short-term decay dynamics. The δ C values of respired CO from all landscape elements indicated a selective release of older grassland-derived SOC in the first month of the macroaggregate incubation, possibly due to the disruption and rapid microbial utilization of grassland SOC after the soil fractionation process. Due to the sensitivity of these rapidly-cycling soil fractions to environmental disturbance and their capacity to influence longer-term SOC dynamics, understanding their decay dynamics is essential for understanding mechanisms of SOC stabilization. This is especially important in coarse-textured soils where large SOC stocks may be present in physical fractions that are relatively unprotected from decomposition. ► We incubated soil physical fractions along a chronosequence of woody plant encroachment. ► Relative carbon loss during incubation was lowest from more established woody stands in both soil fractions. ► Litter chemistry and quantity combined with nutrient limitations may drive C accrual.
    Keywords: Biochemical Recalcitrance ; Long-Term Incubation ; Soil Fractionation ; Soil Organic Carbon Stabilization ; Stable Carbon Isotopes ; Woody Plant Encroachment ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, July, 2012, Vol.116, p.147(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.04.018 Byline: Jonathan S. Schilling (a), Jun Ai (a), Robert A. Blanchette (b), Shona M. Duncan (a), Timothy R. Filley (c), Ulrike W. Tschirner (a) Keywords: Bioconversion; White rot; Deconstruction; Wood; Biodegradation Abstract: a* Biomass saccharification yields were improved threefold by brown rot pretreatment. a* Hemicellulose removal and specific lignin modifications were predictive of yields. a* Dynamics in non-conifer substrates differed from spruce, lending mechanistic insight. a* Full sugars accounting demonstrated potential for mass balance and cost assessment. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2004 Folwell Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA (b) Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA (c) Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and the Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA Article History: Received 25 January 2012; Revised 12 March 2012; Accepted 4 April 2012
    Keywords: Lignin ; Fungi
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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