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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Int. J. of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 2010, Vol 1 Issue 4, pp 382 - 397
    Description: In current business literature, it has been shown in diverse contexts that committing oneself to maxims based on trust put in one's cooperation partner constitutes a successful entrepreneurial action. Against the backdrop of the growing interest in family firms, it seems worthwhile to ask whether or not this also holds true for this special group of firms. After a short introduction and a brief outline of the theoretical background of the effect of maxim-based trust on firm performance, we discuss the particularities of cooperation relationships of family firms and develop an argumentation on how these special characteristics might strengthen or weaken the performance contribution of maxim-based trust which results in the formulation of two hypotheses. A set of linear regression models and a Mann-Whitney U-test show that maxim-based trust significantly contributes to the performance of cooperating SME in Finland (n= 377), but no significant differences in this effect were detected between non-family firms and family firms. Thus, we can encourage family firms to engage in trust-based cooperation relationships, as this is obviously also an attractive strategy to enhance the performance in family firms.
    Keywords: inter-firm cooperation; maxim-based trust; firm performance; family business; comparison; Finland; family firms; cooperation relationships; SMEs; small and medium-sized enterprises.
    ISSN: 1742-5360
    ISSN: 17425360
    ISSN: 1742-5379
    ISSN: 17425379
    E-ISSN: 1742-5379
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Banking & Finance, March, 2013, Vol.37(3), p.927(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2012.10.023 Byline: Andrea Moro (a), Matthias Fink (b)(c) Keywords: Credit access; Relationship lending; SMEs; Trust Abstract: a* Trust reduces agency costs and transaction costs in banking relationships. a* When loan managers rely on trust they can better evaluate firm's creditworthiness. a* Benefits can be passed onto the SMEs in the form of increased credit. a* Benefits can be passed onto the SMEs in the form of reduced credit constraints. a* SMEs managers should nurture trusting relationships. Author Affiliation: (a) University of Leicester School of Management, Institute of Finance, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK (b) WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Institute for Small Business Management and Entrepreneurship, Augasse 2-6, A-1090 Vienna, Austria (c) Leuphana University Luneburg, Scharnhorststrasse 1, 21335 Luneburg, Germany Article History: Received 1 June 2012; Accepted 30 October 2012
    Keywords: Small And Medium Sized Companies
    ISSN: 0378-4266
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Venturing, September 2015, Vol.30(5), pp.655-673
    Description: This study draws on the Rubicon model of action phases to study the actions or lack of actions that follow the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Concurrently, it examines the roles of self-control and action-related emotions in explaining the intention–action gap using longitudinal survey data (N = 161). The results show that self-control positively moderates the relationship between intention and action, and that it counters the rise of action-related fear, doubt, and aversion. We also find evidence for interaction effects between action aversion, action doubt, and intention strength. Our results signal the importance of studying moderators of the intention–action relationship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship ; Entrepreneurial Intentions ; Entrepreneurial Action ; Self-Control ; Intention–Action-Gap ; Emotions ; Business ; Economics
    ISSN: 0883-9026
    E-ISSN: 1873-2003
    E-ISSN: 17418054
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Banking and Finance, March 2013, Vol.37(3), pp.927-936
    Description: ► Trust reduces agency costs and transaction costs in banking relationships. ► When loan managers rely on trust they can better evaluate firm’s creditworthiness. ► Benefits can be passed onto the SMEs in the form of increased credit. ► Benefits can be passed onto the SMEs in the form of reduced credit constraints. ► SMEs managers should nurture trusting relationships. Research on relationship lending pays only marginal attention to the role of loan managers’ trust in the managers of SMEs. Trust literature suggests that trust reduces agency costs. Thus, trust is expected to be positively related to the amount of short-term credit granted and negatively related to SMEs’ risk of being credit constrained. Results from six banks characterised by a German culture and three banks characterised by an Italian culture suggest that this is indeed the case: SMEs that enjoy a high level of trust from loan managers obtain more credit and are less credit constrained.
    Keywords: Credit Access ; Relationship Lending ; Smes ; Trust ; Business
    ISSN: 0378-4266
    E-ISSN: 1872-6372
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of banking & finance, 2013, Vol.37(3), pp. 927-936
    ISSN: 03784266
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 17 November 2015, Vol.112(46), pp.14197-201
    Description: Photons with a twisted phase front can carry a discrete, in principle, unbounded amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The large state space allows for complex types of entanglement, interesting both for quantum communication and for fundamental tests of quantum theory. However, the distribution of such entangled states over large distances was thought to be infeasible due to influence of atmospheric turbulence, indicating a serious limitation on their usefulness. Here we show that it is possible to distribute quantum entanglement encoded in OAM over a turbulent intracity link of 3 km. We confirm quantum entanglement of the first two higher-order levels (with OAM=± 1ħ and ± 2ħ). They correspond to four additional quantum channels orthogonal to all that have been used in long-distance quantum experiments so far. Therefore, a promising application would be quantum communication with a large alphabet. We also demonstrate that our link allows access to up to 11 quantum channels of OAM. The restrictive factors toward higher numbers are technical limitations that can be circumvented with readily available technologies.
    Keywords: Large Hilbert Space ; Photonic Orbital Angular Momentum ; Photonic Spatial Modes ; Quantum Communication ; Quantum Entanglement
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Nov 29, 2016, Vol.113(48), p.13648(6)
    Description: Spatial modes of light can potentially carry a vast amount of information, making them promising candidates for both classical and quantum communication. However, the distribution of such modes over large distances remains difficult. Intermodal coupling complicates their use with common fibers, while free-space transmission is thought to be strongly influenced by atmospheric turbulence. Here we show the transmission of orbital angular momentum modes of light over a distance of 143 kilometers between two Canary Islands, which is 50 times greater than the maximum distance achieved previously. As a demonstration of the transmission quality, we use superpositions of these modes to encode a short message. At the receiver, an artificial neural network is used for distinguishing between the different twisted light superpositions. The algorithm is able to identify different mode superpositions with an accuracy of more than 80% up to the third mode order, and decode the transmitted message with an error rate of 8.33%. Using our data, we estimate that the distribution of orbital angular momentum entanglement over more than 100 kilometers of free space is feasible. Moreover, the quality of our free-space link can be further improved by the use of state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. Comment: 12 pages, 4 figures
    Keywords: Physics - Optics ; Quantum Physics;
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 17 November 2015, Vol.112(46), pp.14202-5
    Description: As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.
    Keywords: Entanglement ; Quantum ; Repeater ; Swapping ; Teleportation
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Technological forecasting & social change : an international journal, 2013, Vol.80(2), pp. 243-252
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2011.10.001 Byline: Matthias Fink, Richard Lang, Rainer Harms Keywords: Institutional analysis; Local development; Restructuring; Social innovation; Theory informed case studies; Disruptive technologies Abstract: In this article, we investigate into local economic restructuring in rural areas that are affected by disruptive technologies. Drawing on an institutionalist framework we apply systematic theory-informed case study analysis of two rural communities in Austria and identify practices that are crucial for a sustainable development of local communities and find that disruptive technologies have to be accompanied by social innovations in the affected communities which consider the capacities and the needs of the local community and establish vertical linkages to policies on the regional and national level. We contribute to the theoretical discussion by presenting a feasible framework for contextual analysis of economic restructuring. Further, we show how this institutionalist perspective can generate insights that support entrepreneurs and policy makers in designing strategies and policies to handle disruptive technologies in rural areas. Article History: Received 1 January 2011; Revised 21 July 2011; Accepted 27 September 2011
    Keywords: Technischer Fortschritt ; Sozialer Wandel ; Innovation ; Wirtschaftsförderung ; Institutionenökonomik ; Österreich
    ISSN: 00401625
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Ethics, 2012, Vol.109(4), pp.569-581
    Description: The governance of nanotechnology seeks to limit its risks, without constraining opportunities. The literature on the effectiveness of approaches to governance has neglected approaches that impact directly on the behavior of a researcher. We analyze the effectiveness of legal regulations versus regulation via self-commitment. Then, we refine this model by analyzing competition and autonomy as key contingency factors. In the first step, qualitative interviews with nanotechnology researchers are conducted to reflect this model. In the second step, its empirical relevance is tested using a survey of 90 nanotech researchers. The results indicate that legal regulations, as well as self-commitment to an informal CoC reduce the scope of behavior. Finally, that competition and autonomy affect the relative strength of these governance factors.
    Keywords: Code of conduct ; Governance ; Legal regulation ; Nanotechnology ; Research behavior ; Self-commitment
    ISSN: 0167-4544
    E-ISSN: 1573-0697
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