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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Mechanical Engineering-CIME, June, 2010, Vol.132(6), p.10(1)
    ISSN: 0025-6501
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Consumer Research, 01 August 2014, Vol.41(2), pp.436-450
    Description: The research examines how the attractiveness of children in need affects the empathy they evoke and the subsequent help they receive from unrelated adults. The authors find that attractive children are attributed desirable characteristics related to social competence, which is consistent with the “beautiful is good” stereotype. Ironically, the authors find that these attributions reduce the empathy evoked by attractive children and the help they receive from unrelated adults as long as their need is not severe. These effects are demonstrated in four experiments. The research identifies a significant cost of being beautiful and an important exception to the beautiful is good stereotype. The results also have practical implications for how children are portrayed in promotional materials for disaster relief agencies, children’s hospitals, and other charities.
    Keywords: Children ; Empathy ; Attractiveness ; Stereotypes ; Social Competence ; Charities ; Disaster Relief ; Hospitals ; Mass Phenomena; Collective Behavior ; Article;
    ISSN: 00935301
    E-ISSN: 15375277
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  • 3
    In: Epilepsia, November 2014, Vol.55(11), pp.1688-1688
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/epi.12829/abstract Byline: Robert S. Fisher ***** No abstract is available for this article. ***** Biographical information: Robert S. Fisher Department of Neurology & Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine.
    Keywords: Epilepsy – Surveys;
    ISSN: 0013-9580
    E-ISSN: 1528-1167
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  • 4
    In: Epilepsia, April 2014, Vol.55(4), pp.492-493
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/epi.12585/abstract Byline: Robert S. Fisher ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    Keywords: Epilepsy;
    ISSN: 0013-9580
    E-ISSN: 1528-1167
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  • 5
    In: Epilepsia, August 2014, Vol.55(8), pp.1153-1153
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/epi.12612/abstract Byline: Samuel Wiebe ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    Keywords: Epilepsy;
    ISSN: 0013-9580
    E-ISSN: 1528-1167
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Appetite, 2011, Vol.57(2), pp.365-376
    Description: ► Creation of a comprehensive inventory of 18 eating norms held by Americans. ► Discriminant validity with respect to eating attitudes. ► Nomological validity with respect to personality, social desirability, and healthiness. ► Predictive validity with respect to BMI, body satisfaction, and subjective health. What do American adults believe about what, where, when, how much, and how often it is appropriate to eat? Such normative beliefs originate from family and friends through socialization processes, but they are also influenced by governments, educational institutions, and businesses. Norms therefore provide an important link between the social environment and individual attitudes and behaviors. This paper reports on five studies that identify, develop, and validate measures of normative beliefs about eating. In study 1 we use an inductive method to identify what American adults believe are appropriate or desirable eating behaviors. Studies 2 and 3 are used to purify and assess the discriminant and nomological validity of the proposed set of 18 unidimensional eating norms. Study 4 assesses predictive validity and finds that acting in a norm-consistent fashion is associated with lower Body Mass Index (BMI), and greater body satisfaction and subjective health. Study 5 assesses the underlying social desirability and perceived healthiness of the norms.
    Keywords: Social Norms ; Eating Beliefs ; Eating Behaviors ; Socialization ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition
    ISSN: 0195-6663
    E-ISSN: 1095-8304
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Neurology, February 2012, Vol.71(2), pp.157-168
    Description: Therapeutic devices provide new options for treating drug‐resistant epilepsy. These devices act by a variety of mechanisms to modulate neuronal activity. Only vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), which continues to develop new technology, is approved for use in the United States. Deep brain stimulation of anterior thalamus for partial epilepsy recently was approved in Europe and several other countries. Responsive neurostimulation, which delivers stimuli to 1 or 2 seizure foci in response to a detected seizure, recently completed a successful multicenter trial. Several other trials of brain stimulation are in planning or underway. Transcutaneous magnetic stimulation (TMS) may provide a noninvasive method to stimulate cortex. Controlled studies of TMS are split on efficacy, which may depend on whether a seizure focus is near a possible region for stimulation. Seizure detection devices in the form of shake detectors via portable accelerometers can provide notification of an ongoing tonic–clonic seizure, or peace of mind in the absence of notification. Prediction of seizures from various aspects of electroencephalography (EEG) is in early stages. Prediction appears to be possible in a subpopulation of people with refractory seizures, and a clinical trial of an implantable prediction device is underway. Cooling of neocortex or hippocampus reversibly can attenuate epileptiform EEG activity and seizures, but engineering problems remain in its implementation. Optogenetics is a new technique that can control excitability of specific populations of neurons with light. Inhibition of epileptiform activity has been demonstrated in hippocampal slices, but use in humans will require more work. In general, devices provide useful palliation for otherwise uncontrollable seizures, but with a different risk profile than with most drugs. Optimizing the place of devices in therapy for epilepsy will require further development and clinical experience. Ann Neurol 2012;71:157–168
    Keywords: Cryotherapy–Instrumentation ; Cryotherapy–Methods ; Deep Brain Stimulation–Instrumentation ; Deep Brain Stimulation–Methods ; Electrodiagnosis–Instrumentation ; Electrodiagnosis–Methods ; Electroencephalography–Instrumentation ; Electroencephalography–Methods ; Electronics, Medical–Instrumentation ; Electronics, Medical–Methods ; Epilepsy–Diagnosis ; Epilepsy–Physiopathology ; Epilepsy–Therapy ; Humans–Utilization ; Implantable Neurostimulators–Instrumentation ; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation–Methods ; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation–Instrumentation ; Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation–Methods ; Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation–Instrumentation ; Vagus Nerve Stimulation–Methods ; Vagus Nerve Stimulation–Methods ; Brain ; Epilepsy;
    ISSN: 0364-5134
    E-ISSN: 1531-8249
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Medical Hypotheses, June 2015, Vol.84(6), pp.543-550
    Description: Electrical stimulation of the septal nuclei via deep brain stimulating electrodes is proposed as a potentially beneficial therapy for medication-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. In a multicenter study, stimulation of anterior thalamus was shown to reduce numbers of seizures, but decrease was only in the range of 40%. This might be improved with septal stimulation, which has strong and direct reciprocal connections with the hippocampal formation, the structure most involved in temporal lobe epilepsy. Medial septal neurons drive a 3–12 Hz theta rhythm in hippocampus of rodents. Theta rhythm is less obvious in human hippocampus, but it is present and it varies with cognitive tasks. The hippocampal theta rhythm is disrupted by seizures. In animal models, restoration of theta by sensory stimulation, septal electrical stimulation or cholinergic drugs infused into septum ameliorates seizures. Seizure activity in hippocampus is faithfully reflected in septal nuclei, and septum sometimes leads the seizure activity. A subset of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have structural enlargement of their septal nuclei. At high levels of intensity, septal stimulation is subjectively pleasurable and strongly reinforcing. Rats will repeatedly press a bar to stimulate their septum. Initial experience with human septal stimulation in the 1950s was not favorable, with ineffective therapy for schizophrenia and a high rate of surgical complications. Subsequent experience in 50–100 pain patients employing modern neurosurgical techniques was more favorable and demonstrated septal stimulation to be safe and tolerable. The current state of knowledge is sufficient to consider design of a clinical trial of medial septal stimulation in selected patients with medication-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0306-9877
    E-ISSN: 1532-2777
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 01 January 2011, Vol.54(1), pp.278-289
    Description: Measurement of changes in brain cortical thickness is useful for the assessment of regional gray matter atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions. A new longitudinal method, called CLADA (cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm), has been developed for the measurement of changes in cortical thickness in magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired over time. CLADA creates a subject-specific cortical model which is longitudinally deformed to match images from individual time points. The algorithm was designed to work reliably for lower resolution images, such as the MRIs with 1 × 1 × 5 mm voxels previously acquired for many clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). CLADA was evaluated to determine reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. Scan–rescan variability was 0.45% for images with 1 mm isotropic voxels and 0.77% for images with 1 × 1 × 5 mm voxels. The mean absolute accuracy error was 0.43 mm, as determined by comparison of CLADA measurements to cortical thickness measured directly in post-mortem tissue. CLADA's sensitivity for correctly detecting at least 0.1 mm change was 86% in a simulation study. A comparison to FreeSurfer showed good agreement (Pearson correlation = 0.73 for global mean thickness). CLADA was also applied to MRIs acquired over 18 months in secondary progressive MS patients who were imaged at two different resolutions. Cortical thinning was detected in this group in both the lower and higher resolution images. CLADA detected a higher rate of cortical thinning in MS patients compared to healthy controls over 2 years. These results show that CLADA can be used for reliable measurement of cortical atrophy in longitudinal studies, even in lower resolution images. ►CLADA is a new longitudinal method for measurement of changes in cortical thickness. ►CLADA is capable of reliable analysis from both low and high resolution MRIs. ►Validation tests suggest CLADA is accurate, reproducible, and sensitive to change. ►CLADA detected higher rate of cortical thinning in MS patients compared to controls. ►CLADA can be used to measure cortical atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions.
    Keywords: Mri ; Cortical Thickness ; Longitudinal Algorithm ; Multiple Sclerosis ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, May 2012, Vol.51(5), pp.506-517
    Description: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) (“respondent-based”), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) (“interviewer-based”), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) (“expert judgment”). Roughly equal numbers of males and females of white and African American ethnicity, aged 9 to 12 and 13 to 16 years, were recruited from primary care pediatric clinics. Participants (N = 646) were randomly assigned to receive two of the three interviews, in counterbalanced order. Five modules were used: any depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. At two sessions about 1 week apart, parent and child completed one of two interviews plus five screening questionnaires. When interviewed with the DAWBA, 17.7% of youth had one or more diagnoses, compared with 47.1% (DISC) and 32.4% (CAPA). The excess of DISC diagnoses was accounted for by specific phobias. Agreement between interview pairs was 0.13 to 0.48 for DAWBA-DISC comparisons, 0.21 to 0.61 for DISC-CAPA comparisons, and 0.23 to 0.48 for CAPA-DAWBA comparisons. DAWBA-only cases were associated with higher parent-report questionnaire scores than DISC/DAWBA cases, but equivalent child-report scores. The DAWBA is shorter and cases were probably more severe, making it a good choice for clinical trials, but the user cannot examine the data in detail. The DISC and CAPA are similar in length and training needs. Either would be a better choice where false-negative results must be avoided, as in case-control genetic studies, or when researchers need to study individual symptoms in detail.
    Keywords: Psychiatric Interview ; Diagnosis ; Disc ; Capa ; Dawba ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0890-8567
    E-ISSN: 1527-5418
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