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  • 1
    Language: German
    In: Angst im neuen Wohlfahrtsstaat : kritische Blicke auf ein diffuses Phänomen, pp. 229-247
    ISBN: 3-8487-4554-2
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2016, Vol.46(12), pp.1939-1952
    Description: BACKGROUND: Runners at various levels of performance and specializing in different events (from 800m to marathons) wear compression socks, sleeves, shorts, and/or tights in attempt to improve their performance and facilitate recovery. Recently, a number of publications reporting contradictory results with regard to the influence of compression garments in this context have appeared.OBJECTIVES: To assess original research on the effects of compression clothing (socks, calf sleeves, shorts, and tights) on running performance and recovery.METHOD: A computerized research of the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science was performed in September of 2015, and the relevant articles published in peer-reviewed journals were thus identified rated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Studies examining effects on physiological, psychological, and/or biomechanical parameters during or after running were included, and means and measures of variability for the outcome employed to calculate Hedges'g effect size and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparison of experimental (compression) and control (non-compression) trials.RESULTS: Compression garments exerted no statistically significant mean effects on running performance (times for a (half) marathon, 15-km trail running, 5- and 10-km runs, and 400-m sprint), maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentrations, blood gas kinetics, cardiac parameters (including heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, and stroke volume), body and perceived temperature, or the performance of strength-related tasks after running. Small positive effect sizes were calculated for the time to exhaustion (in incremental or step tests), running economy (including biomechanical variables), clearance of blood lactate, perceived exertion, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and peak leg muscle power immediately after running, and markers of muscle damage and inflammation. The body core temperature was moderately affected by compression, while the effect size values for post-exercise leg soreness and the delay in onset of muscle fatigue indicated large positive effects.CONCLUSION: Our present findings suggest that by wearing compression clothing, runners may improve variables related to endurance performance (i.e., time to exhaustion) slightly, due to improvements in running economy, biomechanical variables, perception, and muscle temperature. They should also benefit from reduced muscle pain, damage, and inflammation.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2016, Vol.116(11), pp.2177-2186
    Description: (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae and/or non-USASCII text omitted; see image) Purpose The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes. Methods Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min-1 kg-1 peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90-95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output). The levels of sC, sT, their ratio (sT/sC) and sAA were determined before and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after each intervention. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress was characterized by blood lactate, blood pH, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (......), ventilation (V E) and ventilatory equivalent (V E/......). Results sC increased 30 and 60 min after HIIT. However, 180 min post exercise, sC decreased below baseline levels in both conditions. sT increased 0 and 30 min after HIIT and 0 min after HVT. sAA and sT/sC ratio did not change significantly over time in HIIT nor HVT. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress, evidenced by blood lactate, HR, ......, V E, and V E/...... was higher during HIIT compared to HVT. Conclusion The metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress during HIIT was higher compared to HVT, but based on salivary analyses (cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase), we conclude no strong acute catabolic effects neither by HIIT nor by HVT.
    Keywords: Saliva ; Cortisol ; Testosterone ; Alpha-amylase ; Exercise
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2017, Vol.31(7), pp.1994-1999
    Description: ABSTRACT: Altmann, S, Spielmann, M, Engel, FA, Neumann, R, Ringhof, S, Oriwol, D, and Haertel, S. Validity of single-beam timing lights at different heights. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1994–1999, 2017—The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different timing light heights on sprint time and the validity of measurement. Two single-beam timing gate systems were used to measure 30-m sprint time (splits at 5 and 10 m) in 15 healthy and physically active male subjects. System 1 was set up at a height of 0.64 m and system 2 at 0.25 m (initial timing light) and 1.00 m (each following timing light), respectively. Participants performed 3 valid trials. The recordings of a high-speed video camera were used as a reference. Sprint times of system 1 and system 2 differed significantly between each other and from the reference system at all distances (p 〈 0.001). Intraclass correlation coefficients and Pearsonʼs r values between both timing light systems and the reference system were low to moderate at 5 and 10 m and moderate to high at 30 m. Bland and Altman analysis revealed that the agreement intervals were considerably higher for the comparison between system 1 and the reference system than for system 2 and the reference system. A valid measurement of splits at 5 and 10 m via the systems used in this study is questionable, whereas 30-m times have an acceptable validity, especially when using system 2. This study confirms the influence of methodological approaches on sprint times. Coaches and researchers should consider that results gained by single-beam timing lights at different heights are not comparable.
    Keywords: Light ; Time ; Running -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 1064-8011
    E-ISSN: 15334287
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  • 5
    Language: German
    In: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 2014, Vol.164(11), pp.228-238
    Description: Um die Effektivität von (Hoch-)inten­sivem Intervalltraining (HIIT) im Nachwuchsleistungssport und bei untrainierten gesunden Kindern und Jugendlichen in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur einzuschätzen, wurde eine computerbasierte Literaturrecherche in den elektronischen Datenbanken PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus und Web of Science durchgeführt. Studien, welche die Auswirkungen von HIIT-Interventionen auf die Leistungsfähigkeit von Kindern und Jugendlichen (9–18 Jahre) anhand von Analysen der motorischen oder leistungsphysiologischen Kenngrößen der Probanden, vor und nach der Trainingsintervention, analysierten, wurden berücksichtigt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine Verbesserung aerober und anaerober Leistungsparameter bei einer Anwendung von zwei bis drei Einheiten HIIT pro Woche über einen Zeitraum von fünf bis zehn Wochen, zusätzlich zum normalen Training. Langzeitstudien zu HIIT, welche auf langfristige Trainingseffekte hinweisen, fehlen. Darüber hinaus wurde aufgrund von physiologischen Besonderheiten während HIIT-Protokollen eine verbesserte Ermüdungsresistenz bei Kindern im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen belegt, was als gute Voraussetzung für die Anwendbarkeit von HIIT bei Kindern interpretiert werden kann. A computer-based literature research during July 2013 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed to assess the effect of the high intensity interval training (HIIT) on sport performance in healthy children and adolescents. Studies examining the effect of HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic performance pre and post to HIIT-Interventions in children and adolescents (9–18 years) were included. The results indicate increased aerobic and anaerobic performance following two or three HIIT sessions per week for a period of five to ten weeks, additional to normal training. Results regarding long term effects following HIIT have not been documented so far. In addition, due to the physiological characteris-tics during HIIT protocols improved fatigue resistance has been demonstrated in children as compared to adults, which may be interpreted as a prerequisite for the applicability of HIIT in children.
    Keywords: High intensity training ; Endurance ; Adaptions ; Children and adolescents ; Performance improvements
    ISSN: 0043-5341
    E-ISSN: 1563-258X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(7), p.e0181081
    Description: The efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in cancer is limited by the occurrence of innate and acquired drug resistance. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying acquired cisplatin resistance, we have compared the adenocarcinoma-derived non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549 and its cisplatin-resistant sub-line A549rCDDP2000 with regard to cisplatin resistance mechanisms including cellular platinum accumulation, DNA-adduct formation, cell cycle alterations, apoptosis induction and activation of key players of DNA damage response. In A549rCDDP2000 cells, a cisplatin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was lacking and apoptosis was reduced compared to A549 cells, although equitoxic cisplatin concentrations resulted in comparable platinum-DNA adduct levels. These differences were accompanied by changes in the expression of proteins involved in DNA damage response. In A549 cells, cisplatin exposure led to a significantly higher expression of genes coding for proteins mediating G2/M arrest and apoptosis (mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC), stress inducible protein (SIP) and p21) compared to resistant cells. This was underlined by significantly higher protein levels of phosphorylated Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (pAtm) and p53 in A549 cells compared to their respective untreated control. The results were compiled in a preliminary model of resistance-associated signaling alterations. In conclusion, these findings suggest that acquired resistance of NSCLC cells against cisplatin is the consequence of altered signaling leading to reduced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung, 09/2016, Vol.85(3), pp.69-79
    Description: Zusammenfassung Nachhaltiger Konsum wird zumeist mit konsumstarken Mittelschichten und dort anzutreffenden Entwicklungen einer Sharing Economy in Verbindung gebracht. Demgegenüber nimmt der Beitrag die alltäglichen Wirtschaftsweisen von Familien im Grundsicherungsbezug (Hartz IV) in den Blick. Aufgrund ihrer geringen finanziellen Spielräume ist ihre Konsumteilhabe eingeschränkt und eine von Sparsamkeit bestimmte Lebensführung unausweichlich. Dies wirft die Frage auf, ob Formen nachhaltigen Konsums und einer Sharing Economy nicht gerade dort aufzufinden sind. An Fallbeispielen aus einer qualitativen Untersuchung wird aus einer praxistheoretischen Perspektive rekonstruiert, unter welchen Bedingungen Nachhaltigkeitsstrategien auch in armen Haushalten Anwendung finden und wie dies unter Suffizienzgesichtspunkten gegebenenfalls zu einer Verbesserung der Lebensqualität beiträgt. Deutlich wird auch, an welche Voraussetzungen nachhaltige Konsumpraktiken gebunden sind und welche Hemmnisse ihrer Verbreitung entgegenstehen. Summary: In public discourse sustainable consumption issues like the evolving sharing economy are mostly related to middle class consumerism. In contrast this paper makes the case of families living on welfare (Hartz IV) and their everyday economic practice. Limited in their financial means their participation in consumption is restricted and their lifestyle is necessarily related to frugality. This raises the question if they, unwillingly, have to draw on sustainable practices among them sharing". Based on qualitative research, the issue is looked at from a practice theoretical perspective. Case studies reveal under which conditions sustainable strategies are applied by poor households and how this-under the criterion of sufficency-contributes to their wellbeing. It is discussed which preconditions have to be fulfilled to implement sustainability practices and which constraints might impede their dissemination. JEL Classification: I32, Q01, Z13
    Keywords: Business;
    ISSN: 0340-1707
    E-ISSN: 1861-1559
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Commercial Motor, Dec 21, 2017, p.50(6)
    ISSN: 0010-3063
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    In: Ahmad, Aamir and Sarin, Navin and Engel, Florian and Kalayda, Ganna V. and Mannewitz, Mareike and Cinatl, Jindrich and Rothweiler, Florian and Michaelis, Martin and Saafan, Hisham and Ritter, Christoph A. and Jaehde, Ulrich and Frötschl, Roland (2017) Cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells is associated with an abrogation of cisplatin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. PLOS ONE, 12 (7). e0181081.
    Description: The efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in cancer is limited by the occurrence of innate and acquired drug resistance. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying acquired cisplatin resistance, we have compared the adenocarcinoma-derived non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549 and its cisplatin-resistant sub-line A549rCDDP2000 with regard to cisplatin resistance mechanisms including cellular platinum accumulation, DNA-adduct formation, cell cycle alterations, apoptosis induction and activation of key players of DNA damage response. In A549rCDDP2000 cells, a cisplatin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was lacking and apoptosis was reduced compared to A549 cells, although equitoxic cisplatin concentrations resulted in comparable platinum-DNA adduct levels. These differences were accompanied by changes in the expression of proteins involved in DNA damage response. In A549 cells, cisplatin exposure led to a significantly higher expression of genes coding for proteins mediating G2/M arrest and apoptosis (mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC), stress inducible protein (SIP) and p21) compared to resistant cells. This was underlined by significantly higher protein levels of phosphorylated Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (pAtm) and p53 in A549 cells compared to their respective untreated control. The results were compiled in a preliminary model of resistance-associated signaling alterations. In conclusion, these findings suggest that acquired resistance of NSCLC cells against cisplatin is the consequence of altered signaling leading to reduced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: University of Kent
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Physiology, 01 July 2018, Vol.9
    Description: Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is as a time-efficient alternative to moderate- or low-intensity continuous exercise for improving variables related to endurance and anaerobic performance in young and adolescent athletes.Objectives: To assess original research about enhancement of endurance and anaerobic exercise performance in young and adolescent athletes performing HIIT.Method: Relevant articles published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved from the electronic databases PubMed and SPORTDiscus in December 2017. Inclusion criteria were: (i) controlled trials (HIIT vs. alternative training protocol) with pre-post design; (ii) healthy young athletes (≤18 years); (iii) assessing variables related to endurance and exercise performance. Hedges' g effect size (ES), and associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated for comparison of any outcome between experimental (HIIT) and alternative training protocol.Results: Twenty four studies, involving 577 athletes (mean age: 15.5 ± 2.2 years), were included in this review. HIIT exerted no or small positive mean ES on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), running performance, repeated sprint ability, jumping performance and submaximal heart rate. Although the mean ES for changes in VO2peak with HIIT is small (mean g = 0.10±0.28), the average increase in VO2peak from pre to post HIIT-interventions were 7.2 ± 6.9% vs. 4.3 ± 6.9% with any other alternative intervention. HIIT largely and positively affected running speed and oxygen consumption at various lactate- or ventilatory-based thresholds, as well as for sprint running performance. Calculations showed negative mean ES for change-of-direction ability (large), and peak blood lactate concentrations (small). Mean duration per training session for HIIT was shorter than for control interventions (28 ± 15 min vs. 38 ± 24 min).Conclusion: The present findings suggest that young athletes performing HIIT may improve certain important variables related to aerobic, as well as anaerobic, performance. With HIIT, most variables related to endurance improved to a higher extent, compared to alternative training protocols. However, based on ES, HIIT did not show clear superiority to the alternative training protocols. Nevertheless, young athletes may benefit from HIIT as it requires less time per training session leaving more time for training sport specific skills.
    Keywords: Adolescents ; Physical Fitness ; Aerobic Training ; Peak Oxygen Uptake ; Training Intensity
    E-ISSN: 1664-042X
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