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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 03 September 2010, Vol.329(5996), pp.1159-60
    Keywords: Cosmic Dust ; Fullerenes ; Stars, Celestial -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience Letters, 14 June 2012, Vol.518(1), pp.23-26
    Description: ► To investigate the effect of isolated environment effect on salivary amylase and stress. ► Salivary amylase and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores were measured. ► State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores and salivary amylase level were elevated during extravehicular activity. After the establishment of the space age physicians, human factors engineers, neurologist and psychologists and their special attention to work on people's capability to meet up the physical, psychological, neuroscience and interpersonal strains of working in space, it has been regarded as an issue that seeks urgent consideration. Not study was conducted on effect of simulated Mars analog environment on stress and salivary amylase. So, this study aimed to confirm whether salivary amylase is act as stress biomarker in crew members who took part in Mars analog mission in an isolated and stressful environment. The 18 crew members were selected who took part in Mars Analog Research Station, Utah. Salivary amylase was measured using a biosensor of salivary amylase monitor and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score at pre-extravehicular activity, post-extravehicular activity and on before mission. The state and trait anxiety scores at pre-extravehicular activity for each commander were elevated as compared to after extravehicular activity. There were significant differences in the state and trait anxiety scores between before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity of Commander and other members, also there were significant differences in values of before-extravehicular activity between commanders and other members. There were significant differences in values of salivary amylase at before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity between commander group and other members. There was significant correlation between salivary amylase and state and trait anxiety scores in all groups. Measuring salivary amylase level could be useful for stress assessment of crew members and population working in a stressful and isolated environment.
    Keywords: Salivary Amylase ; Extravehicular Activity ; Stai-S ; Stress ; Isolated ; Extreme Environments ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0304-3940
    E-ISSN: 1872-7972
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience Letters, 16 May 2012, Vol.516(2), pp.177-181
    Description: ► To investigate the effect of sleepiness and long duration working hours on cognitive performance. ► Neurobehavioral test performance, fatigue, sleepiness, and salivary cortisol levels were evaluated. ► Increased levels of salivary cortisol levels, working hours and sleepiness were not significantly affect the cognitive performance. The buoyancy of humans in exploring extreme space environments has been established during missions to the moon. Long duration missions like mission to Mars however, requires humans to adapt to systemic and complex environments beyond the human body's capacity. Astronauts will encounter both physiological and psychological extremes during this trip. Very few studies are conducted on effect of long duration work and sleepiness on cognitive performance. So, this study was planned to find out effects of leadership responsibility, sleepiness and long duration working hours on cognitive performance. The 30 members (leadership: normal; 10:20) were selected from MDRS crews (Mars Desert Research Station, USA). Neurobehavioral test performance, self-ratings of fatigue and sleepiness, and salivary cortisol levels were evaluated during first day, mid and end day of mission. The leadership group did not show any signs of reduced test performance, even in elevated fatigue and sleepiness. The leadership group had faster reaction times on end of mission as compared to first and after 7 day of mission. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher in leadership group as compared to normal group. The results suggest that long duration work and sleepiness does not affect the cognitive performance of crew member. Further study is required while taking into account all factors and large sample size to prove this fact.
    Keywords: Sleep ; Salivary Cortisol ; Working Hours ; Leadership ; Neuro-Behavioral ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0304-3940
    E-ISSN: 1872-7972
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chem, 11 January 2018, Vol.4(1), pp.14-15
    Description: Prof. Foing is an advisor to the director general of the European Space Agency (ESA), a space astrophysicist at the European Space Research & Technology Centre (ESTEC), executive director of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), and research professor at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Florida Tech. He was chief scientist, chairman of the ESTEC staff association, and lead scientist for the ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon. He is co-investigator of ESA missions SOHO, COROT, Mars Express, ExoMars, and EXPOSE experiments (FOTON capsules and International Space Station). He is manager of ILEWG ExoGeoLab and EuroMoonMars field simulations in extreme terrestrial analogs. Prof. Foing is an advisor to the director general of the European Space Agency (ESA), a space astrophysicist at the European Space Research & Technology Centre (ESTEC), executive director of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), and research professor at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Florida Tech. He was chief scientist, chairman of the ESTEC staff association, and lead scientist for the ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon. He is co-investigator of ESA missions SOHO, COROT, Mars Express, ExoMars, and EXPOSE experiments (FOTON capsules and International Space Station. He is manager of ILEWG ExoGeoLab and EuroMoonMars field simulations in extreme terrestrial analogs.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 2451-9294
    ISSN: 24519308
    E-ISSN: 2451-9294
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Eurasian Journal of Medicine, August, 2012, p.63(5)
    Description: Objective: Wound healing in an extreme environment with microgravity is not well characterized, despite the likelihood that the increasing use of manned spaceflight as a research and commercial enterprise raises the probability of traumatic injury in this state. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the impact of the isolated environment of the Mars Desert Research Station on mucosal immunity and wound healing. Materials and Methods: Two punch biopsy wounds were placed on the hard palate of two crewmembers. The first wound was made during summer vacation, whereas the second was placed on the contralateral side 3 days before the Mars analog mission began. Thus, each crewmember served as his/her own control. Two independent methods were used to assess healing. A ten-item perceived stress scale, salivary cortisol, Immunoglobulin A, IgG and IgM were measured. Results: There were significant differences in the proportion of the wound size healed between vacation and the mission. Salivary IgA, IgM, IgG and cortisol levels showed significant differences between vacation and mission. Conclusion: These data suggest that stress can have significant consequences for wound healing. The effects of stress on wound repair could have important clinical implications, including for recovery from surgery. Key Words: Cortisol, IgA, IgM, IgG, Saliva, Wound healing Amac: Arastirma ve ticari amacli olarak insanli uzay ucusu kullaniminin artmasiyla, bu durumda travmatik yaralanma ihtimalinin yukselmesine karn mikrogravite olan uc seviyede bir ortamda yara iyilesmesi iyi bir sekilde karakterize edilmemistir. Dolayisiyla, bu calisma Mars Col Arastirma istasyonunda izole bir ortamin mukozal bagisiklik ve yara iyilesmesi uzerine etkisini belirlemek amaciyla yapilmistir. Gerec ve Yontem: Iki murettebatin sert damagina iki biyopsi yarasi acildi. Ilk yara, yaz tatili sirasinda ikincisi ise Mars analog misyonu baslamadan 3 gun once kontra-lateral tarafina acildi. Boylece, ucus ekibinin her biri kendi kontrolu olarak degerlendirildi. Iyilesmelerin degerlendirilmesinde iki bagimsiz yontem kullanilmistir. On maddelik algilanan stres olcegi, tukuruk kortizol, Immunglobulin A, IgG ve IgM olculdu. Bulgular: Tatil ve misyon arasinda iyilesmis yara buyuklugu orani acisindan anlamli fark bulunmustur. Tukuruk IgA, IgM, IgG ve kortizol seviyeleri tatil ve misyon sirasinda anlamli farklilik gostermektedir. Sonuc: Bu veriler stresin yara iyilesmesi uzerinde onemli sonuclari olabilecegini dusundurmektedir. Yara tamiri uzerine cerrahi sonrasi toparlanma dahil stresin onemli klinik etkileri olabilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: IgA, IgM, IgG, Kortizol, Tukuruk, Yara iyilesmesi
    Keywords: Wound Healing -- Research ; Stress (Physiology) -- Research ; Mars Flights -- Health Aspects ; Mars Flights -- Research ; Immune Response -- Research
    ISSN: 1308-8734
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Eurasian Journal of Medicine, August, 2012, p.63(5)
    Description: Objective: Wound healing in an extreme environment with microgravity is not well characterized, despite the likelihood that the increasing use of manned spaceflight as a research and commercial enterprise raises the probability of traumatic injury in this state. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the impact of the isolated environment of the Mars Desert Research Station on mucosal immunity and wound healing. Materials and Methods: Two punch biopsy wounds were placed on the hard palate of two crewmembers. The first wound was made during summer vacation, whereas the second was placed on the contralateral side 3 days before the Mars analog mission began. Thus, each crewmember served as his/her own control. Two independent methods were used to assess healing. A ten-item perceived stress scale, salivary cortisol, Immunoglobulin A, IgG and IgM were measured. Results: There were significant differences in the proportion of the wound size healed between vacation and the mission. Salivary IgA, IgM, IgG and cortisol levels showed significant differences between vacation and mission. Conclusion: These data suggest that stress can have significant consequences for wound healing. The effects of stress on wound repair could have important clinical implications, including for recovery from surgery. Key Words: Cortisol, IgA, IgM, IgG, Saliva, Wound healing Amac: Arastirma ve ticari amacli olarak insanli uzay ucusu kullaniminin artmasiyla, bu durumda travmatik yaralanma ihtimalinin yukselmesine karn mikrogravite olan uc seviyede bir ortamda yara iyilesmesi iyi bir sekilde karakterize edilmemistir. Dolayisiyla, bu calisma Mars Col Arastirma istasyonunda izole bir ortamin mukozal bagisiklik ve yara iyilesmesi uzerine etkisini belirlemek amaciyla yapilmistir. Gerec ve Yontem: Iki murettebatin sert damagina iki biyopsi yarasi acildi. Ilk yara, yaz tatili sirasinda ikincisi ise Mars analog misyonu baslamadan 3 gun once kontra-lateral tarafina acildi. Boylece, ucus ekibinin her biri kendi kontrolu olarak degerlendirildi. Iyilesmelerin degerlendirilmesinde iki bagimsiz yontem kullanilmistir. On maddelik algilanan stres olcegi, tukuruk kortizol, Immunglobulin A, IgG ve IgM olculdu. Bulgular: Tatil ve misyon arasinda iyilesmis yara buyuklugu orani acisindan anlamli fark bulunmustur. Tukuruk IgA, IgM, IgG ve kortizol seviyeleri tatil ve misyon sirasinda anlamli farklilik gostermektedir. Sonuc: Bu veriler stresin yara iyilesmesi uzerinde onemli sonuclari olabilecegini dusundurmektedir. Yara tamiri uzerine cerrahi sonrasi toparlanma dahil stresin onemli klinik etkileri olabilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: IgA, IgM, IgG, Kortizol, Tukuruk, Yara iyilesmesi
    Keywords: Wound Healing -- Research ; Stress (Physiology) -- Research ; Mars Flights -- Health Aspects ; Mars Flights -- Research ; Immune Response -- Research
    ISSN: 1308-8734
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    In: International Journal of Astrobiology, 2012, Vol.11(3), pp.177-186
    Description: Abstract Raman spectrometry has been established as an instrument of choice for studying the structure and bond type of known molecules, and identifying the composition of unknown substances, whether geological or biological. This versatility has led to its strong consideration for planetary exploration. In the context of the ExoGeoLab and ExoHab pilot projects of ESA-ESTEC & ILEWG (International Lunar Exploration Working Group), we investigated samples of astrobiological interest using a portable Raman spectrometer lasing at 785 nm and discuss implications for planetary exploration. We find that biological samples are typically best observed at wavenumbers 〉1100 cm −1 , but their Raman signals are often affected by fluorescence effects, which lowers their signal-to-noise ratio. Raman signals of minerals are typically found at wavenumbers 〈1100 cm −1 , and tend to be less affected by fluorescence. While higher power and/or longer signal integration time improve Raman signals, such power settings are detrimental to biological samples due to sample thermal degradation. Care must be taken in selecting the laser wavelength, power level and integration time for unknown samples, particularly if Raman signatures of biological components are anticipated. We include in the Appendices tables of Raman signatures for astrobiologically relevant organic compounds and minerals.
    Keywords: Astrobiology; Instruments; Mars; Moon; Raman Spectrometry; Biomarker; Mineral; Thermal Effects; Exploration
    ISSN: 1473-5504
    E-ISSN: 1475-3006
    Source: Cambridge University Press
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Microgravity Science and Technology, 2013, Vol.25(3), pp.201-201
    Description: Byline: Balwant Rai (1,2,3), Jasdeep Kaur (2,3), Jack J. W. A. Loon (4,5,6,7), Bernard H. Foing (7,8,9) Author Affiliation: (1) Kepler Space University, Bluffton, USA (2) JBR Institute of Health Education Research & Technology, Kapurthala, India (3) Earth & Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam & ILEWG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (4) Dutch Experiment Support Center (DESC) @ ACTA, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (5) Department of Oral and Maxillofacial, Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (6) Department Oral Cell Biology, Research Institute MOVE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (7) European Space Agency (ESA), TEC-MMG, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (8) Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (9) International Lunar Exploration, Working Group (ILEWG), European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Article History: Registration Date: 01/07/2013 Received Date: 21/04/2011 Accepted Date: 10/07/2012 Online Date: 27/07/2012
    Keywords: Cells (Biology) ; Anesthesia ; Space Exploration;
    ISSN: 0938-0108
    E-ISSN: 1875-0494
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Eurasian Journal of Medicine, 01 August 2012, Vol.44(2), pp.63-67
    Description: Objective: Wound healing in an extreme environment with microgravity is not well characterized, despite the likelihood that the increasing use of manned spaceflight as a research and commercial enterprise raises the probability of traumatic injury in this state. Hence, this study was conducted...
    Keywords: Cortisol ; Iga ; Igm ; Igg ; Saliva ; Wound Healing ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1308-8734
    E-ISSN: 1308-8742
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Eurasian journal of medicine, August 2012, Vol.44(2), pp.63-7
    Description: Wound healing in an extreme environment with micro-gravity is not well characterized, despite the likelihood that the increasing use of manned spaceflight as a research and commercial enterprise raises the probability of traumatic injury in this state. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the impact of the isolated environment of the Mars Desert Research Station on mucosal immunity and wound healing. Two punch biopsy wounds were placed on the hard palate of two crewmembers. The first wound was made during summer vacation, whereas the second was placed on the contra-lateral side 3 days before the Mars analog mission began. Thus, each crewmember served as his/her own control. Two independent methods were used to assess healing. A ten-item perceived stress scale, salivary cortisol, Immunoglobulin A, IgG and IgM were measured. There were significant differences in the proportion of the wound size healed between vacation and the mission. Salivary IgA, IgM, IgG and cortisol levels showed significant differences between vacation and mission. These data suggest that stress can have significant consequences for wound healing. The effects of stress on wound repair could have important clinical implications, including for recovery from surgery.
    Keywords: Cortisol ; Iga ; Igg ; Igm ; Saliva ; Wound Healing
    ISSN: 1308-8734
    ISSN: 18575749
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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