Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The New England journal of medicine, 15 August 2013, Vol.369(7), pp.603-10
    Description: In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer but was associated with an increased risk of high-grade disease. With up to 18 years of follow-up, we analyzed rates of survival among all study participants and among those with prostate cancer. We collected data on the incidence of prostate cancer among PCPT participants for an additional year after our first report was published in 2003 and searched the Social Security Death Index to assess survival status through October 31, 2011. Among 18,880 eligible men who underwent randomization, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 989 of 9423 (10.5%) in the finasteride group and 1412 of 9457 (14.9%) in the placebo group (relative risk in the finasteride group, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.76; P〈0.001). Of the men who were evaluated, 333 (3.5%) in the finasteride group and 286 (3.0%) in the placebo group had high-grade cancer (Gleason score, 7 to 10) (relative risk, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.37; P=0.05). Of the men who died, 2538 were in the finasteride group and 2496 were in the placebo group, for 15-year survival rates of 78.0% and 78.2%, respectively. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death in the finasteride group was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.08; P=0.46). Ten-year survival rates were 83.0% in the finasteride group and 80.9% in the placebo group for men with low-grade prostate cancer and 73.0% and 73.6%, respectively, for those with high-grade prostate cancer. Finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by about one third. High-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group than in the placebo group, but after 18 years of follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in the rates of overall survival or survival after the diagnosis of prostate cancer. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute.).
    Keywords: 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors -- Therapeutic Use ; Finasteride -- Therapeutic Use ; Prostatic Neoplasms -- Prevention & Control
    ISSN: 00284793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2013, Vol.369(7), pp.603-610
    Description: Background In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer but was associated with an increased risk of high-grade disease. With up to 18 years of follow-up, we analyzed rates of survival among all study participants and among those with prostate cancer. Methods We collected data on the incidence of prostate cancer among PCPT participants for an additional year after our first report was published in 2003 and searched the Social Security Death Index to assess survival status through October 31, 2011. Results Among 18,880 eligible men who underwent randomization, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 989 of 9423 (10.5%) in the finasteride group and 1412 of 9457 (14.9%) in the placebo group (relative risk in the finasteride group, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.76; P〈0.001). Of the men who were evaluated, 333 (3.5%) in the finasteride group and 286 (3.0%) in the placebo group had high-grade cancer (Gleason score, 7 to 10) (relative risk, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.37; P=0.05). Of the men who died, 2538 were in the finasteride group and 2496 were in the placebo group, for 15-year survival rates of 78.0% and 78.2%, respectively. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death in the finasteride group was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.08; P=0.46). Ten-year survival rates were 83.0% in the finasteride group and 80.9% in the placebo group for men with low-grade prostate cancer and 73.0% and 73.6%, respectively, for those with high-grade prostate cancer. Conclusions Finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by about one third. High-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group than in the placebo group, but after 18 years of follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in the rates of overall survival or survival after the diagnosis of prostate cancer. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute.) The use of finasteride to prevent prostate cancer reduced the risk of low-grade tumors by 43%, as compared with placebo. High-grade tumors were more common in the finasteride group, but long-term follow-up did not show a significant between-group difference in survival. With the advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the late 1980s, the rate of diagnosis of prostate cancer rose dramatically. Currently, a man in the United States has a 16.5% lifetime risk of receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer.1 The timing and magnitude of the 44% reduction in prostate-cancer mortality after the widespread adoption of PSA testing suggest that both screening and treatment improvements have contributed to this decline.2 Unfortunately, treatments for prostate cancer (radiation and surgery) are associated with a substantial risk of side effects, including sexual, urinary, and bowel complications, that can dramatically affect quality of life. . . .
    Keywords: Prostate Cancer -- Prevention ; Prostate Cancer -- Patient Outcomes ; Prostate Cancer -- Research ; Finasteride -- Dosage And Administration ; Finasteride -- Research ; Clinical Trials;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011, Vol.205(6), pp.535.e1-535.e5
    Description: This study reports the gynecologic conditions in postmenopausal women (intact uterus on enrollment) in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (STAR)/P-2 trial. This study, with a median follow-up period of 81 months, evaluated the incidence rates/risks of gynecologic conditions among women who were treated with tamoxifen and raloxifene. Compared with women who received tamoxifen therapy, women who received raloxifene therapy had a lower incidence of uterine cancer (relative risk, 0.55)/endometrial hyperplasia (relative risk, 0.19), leiomyomas (relative risk, 0.55), ovarian cysts (relative risk, 0.60), and endometrial polyps (relative risk, 0.30) and had fewer procedures performed. Women receiving tamoxifen therapy had more hot flashes ( 〈 .0001), vaginal discharge ( 〈 .0001), and vaginal bleeding ( 〈 .0001). Our results suggest that tamoxifen has more of an estrogenic effect on the gynecologic reproductive organs. These effects should be considered in counseling women on options for breast cancer prevention.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer Prevention ; Gynecologic Condition ; Raloxifene ; Tamoxifen ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0002-9378
    E-ISSN: 1097-6868
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 04/15/2013, Vol.73(8 Supplement), pp.2595-2595
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    In: Journal Of The National Cancer Institute, 2015, Vol. 107(12)
    Description: Background: Over 25 years, the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention has entered some 800 agents into a chemopreventive agent testing program. Two critical steps involve: 1) in vitro/in vivo morphologic assays and 2) animal tumor assays (incidence/multiplicity reduction). We sought to determine how accurately the earlier-stage (morphologic) assays predict efficacy in the later-stage (animal tumor) assays. Methods: Focusing on 210 agents tested in both morphologic and animal tumor assays, we carried out statistical modeling of how well the six most commonly used morphologic assays predicted drug efficacy in animal tumor assays. Using multimodel inference, three statistical models were generated to evaluate the ability of these six morphologic assays to predict tumor outcomes in three different sets of animal tumor assays: 1) all tumor types, 2) mammary cancer only, and 3) colon cancer only. Using this statistical modeling approach, each morphologic assay was assigned a value reflecting how strongly it predicted outcomes in each of the three different sets of animal tumor assays. Results: We demonstrated differences in the predictive value of specific morphologic assays for positive animal tumor assay results. Some of the morphologic assays were strongly predictive of meaningful positive efficacy outcomes in animal tumor assays representing specific cancer types, particularly the aberrant crypt focus (ACF) assay for colon cancer. Moreover, less strongly predictive assays can be combined and sequenced, resulting in enhanced composite predictive ability. Conclusions: Predictive models such as these could be used to guide selection of preventive agents as well as morphologic and animal tumor assays, thereby improving the efficiency of our approach to chemopreventive agent development. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djv259
    Keywords: Cancer Prevention ; Colon Cancer;
    ISSN: 0027-8874
    E-ISSN: 1460-2105
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: JAMA, 12 October 2011, Vol.306(14), pp.1549-56
    Description: The initial report of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) found no reduction in risk of prostate cancer with either selenium or vitamin E supplements but a statistically nonsignificant increase in prostate cancer risk with vitamin E. Longer follow-up and more prostate cancer events provide further insight into the relationship of vitamin E and prostate cancer. To determine the long-term effect of vitamin E and selenium on risk of prostate cancer in relatively healthy men. A total of 35,533 men from 427 study sites in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico were randomized between August 22, 2001, and June 24, 2004. Eligibility criteria included a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 4.0 ng/mL or less, a digital rectal examination not suspicious for prostate cancer, and age 50 years or older for black men and 55 years or older for all others. The primary analysis included 34,887 men who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 8752 to receive selenium; 8737, vitamin E; 8702, both agents, and 8696, placebo. Analysis reflect the final data collected by the study sites on their participants through July 5, 2011. Oral selenium (200 μg/d from L-selenomethionine) with matched vitamin E placebo, vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) with matched selenium placebo, both agents, or both matched placebos for a planned follow-up of a minimum of 7 and maximum of 12 years. Prostate cancer incidence. This report includes 54,464 additional person-years of follow-up and 521 additional cases of prostate cancer since the primary report. Compared with the placebo (referent group) in which 529 men developed prostate cancer, 620 men in the vitamin E group developed prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 99% CI, 1.004-1.36, P = .008); as did 575 in the selenium group (HR, 1.09; 99% CI, 0.93-1.27; P = .18), and 555 in the selenium plus vitamin E group (HR, 1.05; 99% CI, 0.89-1.22, P = .46). Compared with placebo, the absolute increase in risk of prostate cancer per 1000 person-years was 1.6 for vitamin E, 0.8 for selenium, and 0.4 for the combination. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer among healthy men. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00006392.
    Keywords: Antioxidants -- Adverse Effects ; Dietary Supplements -- Adverse Effects ; Prostatic Neoplasms -- Epidemiology ; Selenium -- Administration & Dosage ; Vitamin E -- Adverse Effects
    ISSN: 00987484
    E-ISSN: 1538-3598
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    In: Cancer, July 1, 1989, Vol.64(1), p.219(4)
    Description: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has a broad spectrum of responsibilities that range from support of basic laboratory research to the clinical testing of new therapeutics and, finally, the dissemination of results of this research to the practicing physician and the public. The reduction of cancer mortality is largely dependent on the responsibility for widespread application of state-of-the-art cancer treatments. A major cancer control focus of the NCI over the last decade has been the development and implementation of programs designed to improve awareness, access and application of state-of-the-art cancer treatment. In addition to the computerized Physician Data Query system, three targeted programs, the Cooperative Group Outreach Program (CGOP), the Community Hospital Oncology Program (CHOP), and the Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) have all been aimed at establishing mechanisms to facilitate the transfer of new patient care technology; and, thereby, provide the highest quality cancer treatment in the community setting. An evaluation was conducted to determine if patterns and outcomes of cancer care management changed over time, and whether this could be related to the presence of CGOP, CHOP, and CCOP. Measurement of required program implementation was relatively straightforward. However, measurement of resultant changes in "quality of care" and the factors that influence physician performance are complex and controversial. Critical elements in the treatment of breast, colon, rectum, and small cell lung cancer were used as tracers to measure changes in the patterns of care in communities where programs were implemented. Results from this study highlight issues in state-of-the-art assessment of quality, such as the difficulty in defining quality cancer care, relationships between process and outcome indicators, and the problems of documentation and missing data. Assurance of quality cancer care requires the interaction of health care professionals with knowledge of the most up-to-date cancer research results working in a health care delivery system that encourages and rewards application of these results.
    Keywords: Medical Care Quality -- Quality Management ; Cancer Treatment
    ISSN: 0008-543X
    E-ISSN: 10970142
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.), May 2011, Vol.4(5), pp.633-7
    Description: Administration of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) decreases the incidence of breast cancer, as shown in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 10,739 postmenopausal women with a prior hysterectomy. Although paradoxical because estrogen is recognized to stimulate breast cancer growth, laboratory data support a mechanism of estrogen-induced apoptosis under the correct environmental circumstances. Long-term antiestrogen treatment or estrogen deprivation causes the eventual development and evolution of antihormone resistance. Cell populations emerge with a vulnerability, as estrogen is no longer a survival signal but is an apoptotic trigger. The antitumor effect of ERT in estrogen-deprived postmenopausal women is consistent with laboratory models.
    Keywords: Estrogen Replacement Therapy ; Apoptosis -- Drug Effects ; Breast Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Estrogens -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 19406207
    E-ISSN: 1940-6215
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Diabetologia, 2017, Vol.60(9), pp.1639-1647
    Description: Multiple epidemiological studies have documented an association between metformin, used for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and reduced cancer incidence and mortality. Cell line models may not accurately reflect the effects of metformin in the clinical setting. Moreover, findings from animal model studies have been inconsistent, whilst those from more recent epidemiological studies have tempered the overall effect size. The purpose of this review is to examine metformin’s chemopreventive potential by outlining relevant mechanisms of action, the most recent epidemiologic evidence, and recently completed and ongoing clinical trials. Although repurposing drugs with excellent safety profiles is an appealing strategy for cancer prevention and treatment in the adjuvant setting, there is no substitute for well-executed, large randomised clinical trials to define efficacy and determine the populations that are most likely to benefit from an intervention. Thus, enthusiasm remains for understanding the role of metformin in cancer through ongoing clinical research.
    Keywords: Cancer ; Cancer prevention ; Cancer recurrence ; Chemoprevention ; Metformin ; Review
    ISSN: 0012-186X
    E-ISSN: 1432-0428
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, 02/20/2013, Vol.31(6_suppl), pp.10-10
    ISSN: 0732-183X
    E-ISSN: 1527-7755
    Source: CrossRef
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages