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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Virological Methods, Feb, 2014, Vol.196, p.185(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2013.10.042 Byline: Caroline Fossum, Bernt Hjertner, Tanja Lovgren, Lisbeth Fuxler, Wasin Charerntantanakul, Per Wallgren Abstract: acents PCV2 secreting mononuclear blood cells can be detected as filter spots. acents qPCR assays, specific for genogroups PCV2a and PCV2b, respectively, are established. acents Combining the methods makes it possible to quantitate full PCV2 particles and PCV2a/PCV2b DNA copy numbers in a sample. Author Affiliation: (a) Section of Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 588, BMC, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden (b) Research Laboratory for Immunity Enhancement in Humans and Domestic Animals, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand (c) National Veterinary Institute, SVA, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden Article History: Received 18 July 2013; Revised 26 October 2013; Accepted 30 October 2013
    ISSN: 0166-0934
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(12)
    Description: The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed the possibility to investigate and characterise the entire microbiome of individuals, providing better insight to the complex interaction between different microorganisms. This will help to understand how the microbiome influence...
    Keywords: Other Veterinary Science ; Annan Veterinärmedicin
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, September 2012, Vol.38(1), pp.17-26
    Description: ► ISCOM-Matrix elicit a type 1 interferon-associated response. ► Several pattern-recognition receptors are modulated by ISCOM-Matrix. ► ISCOM-Matrix induce a chemokine profile of neutrophil and dendritic cell migration. ISCOM vaccines induce a balanced Th1/Th2 response, long-lasting antibody responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The mode of action for the adjuvant component, the ISCOM-Matrix, is known to some extent but questions remain regarding its mechanism of action. The Affymetrix GeneChip® Porcine Genome Array was applied to study the global transcriptional response to ISCOM-Matrix in pigs at the injection site and in the draining lymph node 24 h after i.m. injection. Gene enrichment analysis revealed inflammation, innate immunity and antigen processing to be central in the ISCOM-Matrix response. At the injection site, 594 genes were differentially expressed, including up-regulation of the cytokines osteopontin (SPP1), IL-10 and IL-18 and the chemokines CCL2, CCL19 and CXCL16. Of the 362 genes differentially expressed in the lymph node, IL-1β and CXCL11 were up-regulated whereas IL18, CCL15 and CXCL12 were down-regulated. ISCOM-Matrix also modulated genes for pattern recognition receptors at the injection site (TLR2, TLR4, MRC1, PTX3, LGALS3) and in the lymph node (TLR4, RIG-I, MDA5, OAS1, EIF2AK2, LGALS3). A high proportion of up-regulated interferon-regulated genes indicated an interferon response. Thus, several genes, genetic pathways and biological processes were identified that are likely to shape the early immune response elicited by ISCOM-based vaccines.
    Keywords: Adjuvant ; Gene Expression ; Innate Immunity ; Iscom-Matrix ; Microarray ; Porcine ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 0145-305X
    E-ISSN: 1879-0089
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Virology Journal, Jan 24, 2011, Vol.8, p.37
    Description: Background In this study we utilized padlock probes and rolling circle amplification as a mean to detect and study the replication of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in cultured cells and in infected tissue. Porcine circovirus type 2 is a single-stranded circular DNA virus associated with several severe diseases, porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD) in pigs, such as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. The exact reason and mechanisms behind the trigger of PCV2 replication that is associated with these diseases is not well-known. The virus replicates with rolling circle replication and thus also exists as a double-stranded replicative form. Results By applying padlock probes and rolling circle amplification we could not only visualise the viral genome but also discriminate between the genomic and the replicative strand in situ. The genomic strand existed in higher numbers than the replicative strand. The virus accumulated in certain nuclei but also spread into the cytoplasm of cells in the surrounding tissue. In cultured cells the average number of signals increased with time after infection. Conclusions We have developed a method for detection of both strands of PCV2 in situ that can be useful for studies of replication and in situ detection of PCV2 as well as of DNA viruses in general.
    Keywords: Dna -- Physiological Aspects ; Dna -- Research ; Dna Viruses -- Health Aspects ; Dna Viruses -- Genetic Aspects ; Dna Viruses -- Research ; Virus Replication -- Research
    ISSN: 1743-422X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Virology Journal, Jan 24, 2011, Vol.8, p.37
    Description: Background In this study we utilized padlock probes and rolling circle amplification as a mean to detect and study the replication of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in cultured cells and in infected tissue. Porcine circovirus type 2 is a single-stranded circular DNA virus associated with several severe diseases, porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD) in pigs, such as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. The exact reason and mechanisms behind the trigger of PCV2 replication that is associated with these diseases is not well-known. The virus replicates with rolling circle replication and thus also exists as a double-stranded replicative form. Results By applying padlock probes and rolling circle amplification we could not only visualise the viral genome but also discriminate between the genomic and the replicative strand in situ. The genomic strand existed in higher numbers than the replicative strand. The virus accumulated in certain nuclei but also spread into the cytoplasm of cells in the surrounding tissue. In cultured cells the average number of signals increased with time after infection. Conclusions We have developed a method for detection of both strands of PCV2 in situ that can be useful for studies of replication and in situ detection of PCV2 as well as of DNA viruses in general.
    Keywords: Dna -- Physiological Aspects ; Dna -- Research ; Dna Viruses -- Health Aspects ; Dna Viruses -- Genetic Aspects ; Dna Viruses -- Research ; Virus Replication -- Research
    ISSN: 1743-422X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Research, 01 October 2018, Vol.49(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Abstract The immunomodulatory effect of a new particulate adjuvant, G3, alone or in combination with agonists to TLR2/1 or TLR5 was evaluated in cultures of equine PBMC. Exposure to the G3 adjuvant up-regulated genes encoding IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6,...
    Keywords: Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 09284249
    E-ISSN: 1297-9716
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Veterinary Journal, 2013, Vol.197(3), pp.817-823
    Description: There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with a T helper 17 response in intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans. The involvement of interleukin (IL)-17 or IL-23 in equine IBD has not been studied and most gene expression studies in the equine intestine have been limited to the use of a single non-validated reference gene. In this study, expression of the reference gene candidates β₂ microglobulin (β2M), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), histone H2A type 1, hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), 60S ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) and transferrin receptor 1 protein coding (TFRC)in the equine intestine was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Three to four reference genes were adequate for normalisation of gene expression in the healthy duodenum, mid-jejunum, colon and rectum, although each segment required a unique combination of reference genes. No combination of the evaluated genes was optimal for the caecum and ileum. Another combination of reference genes (GAPDH, HPRT, RPL32 and SDHA) was optimal for normalisation of rectal samples from healthy and IBD-affected horses, indicating that reference genes should be re-evaluated if material from diseased specimens is analysed. Basal expression of IL-12p40, IL-17A and IL-23p19 was detected in each segment, which will enable gene expression studies of these cytokines by relative quantification. ; p. 817-823.
    Keywords: Transferrin ; Horses ; Cd4-Positive T-Lymphocytes ; Succinate Dehydrogenase ; Genes ; Inflammatory Bowel Disease ; Rectum ; Colon ; Humans ; Interleukin-23 ; Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase ; Ileum ; Interleukin-17 ; Cecum ; Histones ; Duodenum ; Gene Expression ; Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction
    ISSN: 1090-0233
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Virology Journal, 2011, Vol.8
    Description: Conclusions: We have developed a method for detection of both strands of PCV2 in situ that can be useful for studies of replication and in situ detection of PCV2 as well as of DNA viruses in general.
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Medicine ; Medicin ; Veterinary Science ; Veterinärmedicin ; Animal And Dairy Science ; Husdjursvetenskap
    ISSN: 1743-422X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Veterinary Journal, October 2015, Vol.206(1), pp.97-104
    Description: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in horses is an idiopathic disorder, encompassing different types of chronic intestinal inflammation. The pathogenesis of the disease remains to be established, but it has been suggested that an imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper 17 (Th17)-associated cytokines and altered toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression is associated with intestinal inflammation in other species. The aim of the present study was to quantify Tregs in rectal biopsies from horses affected with IBD by immunohistochemistry and to evaluate expression of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-17A, IL-23p19 and TLR4 by real-time quantitative PCR. Rectal biopsies from 11 healthy horses and 11 horses with clinical signs of IBD, showing inflammation classified as chronic simple proctitis (CSP) or chronic active simple proctitis (CASP), were evaluated. Expression of IL-17A mRNA was greater in horses affected with CASP compared with horses with CSP or healthy horses. In contrast, expression of IL-12p40 was lower in horses with CSP compared with horses with CASP or healthy horses. TLR4 expression was greater in horses with CASP compared with healthy horses. A positive correlation was seen between the numbers of Tregs and expression of IL-17A and IL-23p19. An association was demonstrated between the histopathological pattern of inflammation, cytokine profile and number of infiltrating Tregs. The research findings suggest that Th17 cells are involved in active IBD, possibly through recruitment of neutrophils via IL-17A, in combination with inadequate suppression of the inflammatory response by Tregs.
    Keywords: Cytokine ; Horse ; Inflammatory Bowel Disease ; Intestine ; Rectal Biopsy ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 1090-0233
    E-ISSN: 1532-2971
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 31 May 2018, Vol.36(23), pp.3340-3344
    Description: A preferred adjuvant should promote both Th1 and Th2 responses. However, most adjuvants in common use are biased towards a Th2-driven response. Therefore, the ability of a novel saponin-based adjuvant G3 to inducing balanced Th1 and Th2 responses in BALB/c mice immunized with a split trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine was evaluated in comparison to that of the adjuvant Al(OH) . Clear differences in the IgG profiles induced by G3, Al(OH) or non-adjuvanted vaccine were recorded. Both adjuvants enhanced high and similar levels of the Th2 associated IgG1 subtype compared to mice given vaccine alone. Only G3 enhanced the IgG2a subclass reflecting a Th1 response, whereas Al(OH) even abrogated the IgG2a production. Accordingly, G3 enhanced the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ and also of IL-2/IFN-γ double secreting cells, emphasizing the strong Th1 driving effect of G3. Only Al(OH) increased splenocyte production of IL-17. Taken together, the results indicate a strong propensity for G3 to induce both Th1 and Th2 driven immune responses.
    Keywords: Adjuvant ; Th1/Th2 ; Cytokine Production ; Influenza ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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