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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Cancer Forum, Jun 2014, Vol.38(1), p.71-72
    Description: The Tom Reeve Award for Outstanding Contributions to Cancer Care, offered annually by the Clinical Oncology Society of Australia, formally recognises a national leader who has made a significant contribution to cancer care. Since its inception in 2005, where the inaugural award was presented to Professor Tom Reeve himself, there have been eight recipients of this prestigious award. In 2013, the winner of the Tom Reeve Award was Professor Ian Frazer AC. Best known for his work on the HPV vaccine, Professor Frazer is currently CEO and Director of Research at the Translational Research Institute, Queensland (and a good friend of COSA). Professor Frazer accepted the award and delivered his oration at the COSA Annual Scientific Meeting in Adelaide on 13 November 2013, where he spoke about some of the progress in cancer research over the last 40 years and offered some suggestions for the future.
    Keywords: Cancer--Patients--Medical care ; Medical care--Standards ; Outcome assessment (Medical care)
    ISSN: 0311-306X
    Source: Informit (RMIT Publishing)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cell, 08 March 2018, Vol.172(6), pp.1163-1167
    Description: Evidence of the safety and protective benefits of human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines as an anti-cancer measure is overwhelming. However, vaccine uptake varies widely across countries and falls short of levels needed to achieve population immunity. We highlight policy measures that would help ensure greater worldwide coverage and save lives. Author Affiliation: (1) RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2-2-3 Minatojima Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Japan (2) Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan (3) Keio Global Research Institute, 2 Chome-15-45 Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan (4) RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project, Nihonbashi 1-chome Mitsui Building, 15th floor, 1-4-1 Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0027, Japan (5) Professor / Head, Cancer Immunology Program, UQDI, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Level 6, East Wing, Translational Research Institute (TRI), 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba QLD 4102, Australia (6) Gene & Stem Cell Therapy Program, Centenary Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown 2050, Australia (7) Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia (8) Cell and Molecular Therapies, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050, Australia * Corresponding author Byline: Douglas Sipp (1,2,3,4), Ian H. Frazer (5), John E.J. Rasko [j.rasko@centenary.org.au] (6,7,8,*)
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0092-8674
    E-ISSN: 1097-4172
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(5), p.e95248
    Description: Cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) have been reported to show a range of motility patterns from rapid long-range tracking to complete arrest, but how and whether these kinematics affect their ability to kill target cells is not known. Many in vitro killing assays utilize cell lines and tumour-derived cells as targets, which may be of limited relevance to the kinetics of CTL-mediated killing of somatic cells. Here, live-cell microscopy is used to examine the interactions of CTL and primary murine skin cells presenting antigens. We developed a qualitative and quantitative killing assay using extended-duration fluorescence time-lapse microscopy coupled with large-volume objective software-based data analysis to obtain population data of cell-to-cell interactions, motility and apoptosis. In vivo and ex vivo activated antigen-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes were added to primary keratinocyte targets in culture with fluorometric detection of caspase-3 activation in targets as an objective determinant of apoptosis. We found that activated CTL achieved contact-dependent apoptosis of non-tumour targets after a period of prolonged attachment - on average 21 hours - which was determined by target cell type, amount of antigen, and activation status of CTL. Activation of CTL even without engagement of the T cell receptor was sufficient to mobilise cells significantly above baseline, while the addition of cognate antigen further enhanced their motility. Highly activated CTL showed markedly increased vector displacement, and velocity, and lead to increased antigen-specific target cell death. These data show that the inherent kinematics of CTL correlate directly with their ability to kill non-tumour cells presenting cognate antigen.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 01/01/2013, Vol.73(1 Supplement), pp.A47-A47
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 5
    In: Australian Journal of Politics & History, March 2018, Vol.64(1), pp.153-155
    Description: . By Clive Moore (Canberra: ANU Press (Pacific Series), 2017), pp. xxvii + 550. Seventeen Maps. AU$68.00 (pb).
    Keywords: Solomon Islands ; Malaita ; Islands;
    ISSN: 0004-9522
    E-ISSN: 1467-8497
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Sexually Transmitted Infections, 09/2015, Vol.91(Suppl 2), pp.A1.1-A1
    Description: STIs are an increasing global challenge for public health. Infections with HSV and with drug resistant gonococci are endemic, and chlamydial infection contributes extensively to reproductive problems, while immunosuppression from HIV infection has resulted in epidemic spread of XDR Tuberculosis. Antivirals have converted HIV to a chronic disease, and have helped to control HSV. However, the underlying infections are no less frequent. Immunisation is the single most effective public health measure after safe food and water, and has resulted in control of many previously epidemic viral infections, and eradication of smallpox. The universal HPV prophylactic immunisation program in Australia, has over eight years dramatically reduced the incidence of genital warts, and of cervical pre-cancer, amongst immunised and unimmunized young Australians. However, 60 years of effort have failed to produce an effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against herpes viruses, despite genetic stability and multiple immunogenic viral protein antigens. Similarly, 20 years of efforts have produced vaccines with only limited impact on prevention of HIV infection. Recent successes with vaccines effective against systemic bacterial infections offer some prospects of success for bacterial STIs, while novel vaccine technologies offer similar promise for viral STIs, though the value proposition for industry will need to be developed. The health community will need to accept vaccine programs that are not so much for individual protection as strategies to reduce the community burden of disease, and to develop effective education strategies to encourage uptake of new vaccines as they are developed.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 1368-4973
    E-ISSN: 1472-3263
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2016, Vol.11(3), p.e0152886
    Description: Antigen presenting cells (APCs) in skin can promote either antigen-specific effector functions or antigen tolerance, and thus determine clearance or persistence of cutaneous viral infections. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections can persist in squamous epithelium in immunocompetent individuals, and some persisting HPV infections, particularly with HPV16, promote malignant epithelial transformation. Here, we investigate whether local expression of the HPV16 protein most associated with malignant transformation, HPV16-E7, affects the phenotype and function of APC subsets in the skin. We demonstrate an expanded population of Langerhans cells in HPV16-E7 transgenic skin with distinct cell surface markers which express immune-modulatory enzymes and cytokines not expressed by cells from non transgenic skin. Furthermore, HPV16-E7 transgene expression in keratinocytes attracts new APC subsets to the epidermis. In vivo migration and transport of antigen to the draining lymph node by these APCs is markedly enhanced in HPV16-E7 expressing skin, whereas antigen-processing, as measured by proteolytic cleavage of DQ-OVA and activation of T cells in vivo by APCs, is significantly impaired. These data suggest that local expression of HPV16-E7 in keratinocytes can contribute to persisting infection with this oncogenic virus, by altering the phenotype and function of local APCs.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Actinic Keratosis, 2015, Vol.46, p.28-35
    Description: Abstract Squamous skin cancer, which is commonly called squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), represents an immunological puzzle. The major skin cancers (SCC, basal cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and melanoma) and actinic keratosis (AK), as a potential precursor lesion of SCC, are common in immune-suppressed patients. The increased risk of a particular cancer in chronically immune-suppressed patients is a feature of those cancers for which a virus contributes to the aetiology. However, amongst the skin cancers mentioned, a causal virus (Merkel polyomavirus) has been identified only for Merkel tumours. It is therefore reasonable to determine whether a virus or viruses contribute to the risk of the development of AK and SCC. This chapter will first consider the limitations of the methodologies available for determining the roles of viruses in the aetiologies of AK and SCC and review current evidence of the contribution of a virus to the risk of developing these diseases. It will then consider why there might be an increased risk of AK in chronically immune-suppressed patients although no relevant virus can be identified. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel
    Keywords: Cancer Vaccines -- Therapeutic Use ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell -- Virology ; Keratosis, Actinic -- Virology ; Papillomavirus Infections -- Complications ; Retroviridae Infections -- Complications ; Skin Neoplasms -- Virology ; Viral Vaccines -- Therapeutic Use;
    ISBN: 978-3-318-02762-4
    ISSN: 1421-5721
    E-ISSN: 1662-2944
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Sexual Health, 2010, Vol.7(3), p.230-234
    Description: Cervical cancer is initiated by infection of cervical epithelium with human papillomavirus. Vaccines have been developed, incorporating papillomavirus viral capsids and alum based adjuvants. In extensive clinical trials these vaccines have been shown safe and effective in preventing infection with, and disease caused by, the papillomavirus genotypes they incorporate, in women not already infected. These vaccines have the potential to reduce the global burden of cervical cancer by up to 70%.
    Keywords: human papillomavirus; papillomaviruses; virus-like particles.
    ISSN: 1448-5028
    E-ISSN: 1449-8987
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Viral immunology, March 2018, Vol.31(2), pp.80-85
    Description: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important causal agent of premalignant cervical epithelial changes and cervical cancers. These cancers account for ∼5% of all cancers globally and kill more than a quarter million women annually. HPV infections also associate with certain anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Events leading to the development of HPV vaccines to prevent associated cancers are described, with a further discussion of goals that must be met to achieve full virus eradication.
    Keywords: Cervical Cancer ; Papillomaviruses ; Vaccines ; Drug Discovery -- Methods ; Papillomaviridae -- Immunology ; Papillomavirus Infections -- Complications ; Papillomavirus Vaccines -- Immunology ; Uterine Cervical Neoplasms -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 08828245
    E-ISSN: 1557-8976
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