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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 05 February 2013, Vol.110(6), pp.2047-51
    Description: The phenomenon of thermal fluctuation of a biomembrane within a stack of like membranes was introduced in a pioneering paper [Helfrich W (1978) Z Naturforsch A 33(3):305-315]. Internal energy arises in a representative membrane through elastic resistance to bending deformation, and membrane motion is further restrained through steric interaction with adjacent membranes. Due to reflective symmetry within the stack, analysis of behavior can be reduced to study of a single membrane fluctuating between parallel rigid planes. The phenomenon is reexamined here from several viewpoints to quantify the dependence of system free energy on the size of the gap between membranes. This analysis is based on essentially the same formulation that was used in the original study, and it is found that analysis based on enforcement of the underlying principles can lead to an exact mathematical solution. On this basis, a self-consistent picture of behavior emerges showing a dependence of free energy on the width of the confining gap that is weaker than has been thought to prevail.
    Keywords: Membranes -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2011, Vol.473(7348), p.452
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Psychological Bulletin, 2012, Vol.138(2), pp.296-321
    Description: Individuals' perceptions of their own level of cognitive ability are expressed through self-estimates. They play an important role in a person's self-concept because they facilitate an understanding of how one's own abilities relate to those of others. People evaluate their own and other persons' abilities all the time, but self-estimates are also used in formal settings, such as, for instance, career counseling. We examine the relationship between self-estimated and psychometrically measured cognitive ability by conducting a random-effects, multilevel meta-analysis including a total of 154 effect sizes reported in 41 published studies. Moderator variables are specified in a mixed-effects model both at the level of the individual effect size and at the study level. The overall relationship is estimated at r = .33. There is significant heterogeneity at both levels (i.e., the true effect sizes vary within and between studies), and the results of the moderator analysis show that the validity of self-estimates is especially enhanced when relative scales with clearly specified comparison groups are used and when numerical ability is assessed rather than general cognitive ability. The assessment of less frequently considered dimensions of cognitive ability (e.g., reasoning speed) significantly decreases the magnitude of the relationship. From a theoretical perspective, Festinger's (1954) theory of social comparison and Lecky's (1945) theory of self-consistency receive empirical support. For practitioners, the assessment of self-estimates appears to provide diagnostic information about a person's self-concept that goes beyond a simple “test-and-tell” approach. This information is potentially relevant for career counselors, personnel recruiters, and teachers.
    Keywords: Self-Estimates ; Self-Concept ; Cognitive Ability ; Meta-Analysis
    ISSN: 0033-2909
    E-ISSN: 1939-1455
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 08 February 2012, Vol.134(5), pp.2532-4
    Description: Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we have investigated how the doping of CaO thin films affects the growth behavior of gold. Whereas 3D deposits develop on pristine films, 2D islands form after inserting 4% of Mo into the CaO lattice. Adding small amounts of Li to the Mo-doped CaO reinstalls the initial 3D growth regime. We assign this morphology crossover to charge transfer processes between the dopants and the ad-metal. Whereas Mo acts as an electron donor and provides excess charges to be transferred into the gold, Li creates electron traps in the oxide lattice that interrupt the charge flow toward the metal. The different Au charge states in the presence of the dopants are derived from different growth morphologies with anionic gold favoring a 2D mode due to an enhanced interface adhesion. Our work demonstrates how oxide doping can be exploited to tailor the equilibrium geometry of ad-particles on supported metal catalysts.
    Keywords: Membranes, Artificial ; Calcium Compounds -- Chemistry ; Gold -- Chemistry ; Lithium -- Chemistry ; Molybdenum -- Chemistry ; Oxides -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of general internal medicine, February 2011, Vol.26(2), pp.110-2
    Description: There is a great need for effective interventions to address health disparities for vulnerable populations, which may be defined by low education, low literacy, low income, inadequate health insurance, or minority racial / ethnic status. Many efforts have focused on the social determinants of health, resting on the notion that the magnitude of health outcome disparities affecting so many different racial and ethnic groups argues against biologic differences, but is rather due to social and cultural influences on how patients use or receive care. This implies that personalized medicine to address genetic risk alone will not eliminate health disparities, but rather systems interventions to improve access and the process of care delivery are critical to improving the health of the entire nation.
    Keywords: Urban Population ; Breast Neoplasms -- Diagnosis ; Continuity of Patient Care -- Standards ; Mammography -- Psychology ; Patient Care -- Psychology ; Patient Satisfaction -- Ethnology ; Women -- Psychology
    ISSN: 08848734
    E-ISSN: 1525-1497
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 06 August 2013, Vol.110(32), pp.E2945
    Description: Author contributions: L.B.F. wrote the paper.
    Keywords: Membranes -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 10 May 2013, Vol.340(6133), pp.756-9
    Description: Brain plasticity as a neurobiological reflection of individuality is difficult to capture in animal models. Inspired by behavioral-genetic investigations of human monozygotic twins reared together, we obtained dense longitudinal activity data on 40 inbred mice living in one large enriched environment. The exploratory activity of the mice diverged over time, resulting in increasing individual differences with advancing age. Individual differences in cumulative roaming entropy, indicating the active coverage of territory, correlated positively with individual differences in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results show that factors unfolding or emerging during development contribute to individual differences in structural brain plasticity and behavior. The paradigm introduced here serves as an animal model for identifying mechanisms of plasticity underlying nonshared environmental contributions to individual differences in behavior.
    Keywords: Behavior, Animal ; Individuality ; Neurogenesis ; Hippocampus -- Embryology ; Neuronal Plasticity -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, April 11, 2012, Vol.134(14), p.6140-6142
    Description: The application of the unprecedented acetyl bromide mediated Nazarov reaction for the formal synthesis of the methyl rocaglate compounds is discussed.
    Keywords: Chemical Synthesis -- Analysis ; Cyclization (Chemistry) -- Analysis ; Methyl Compounds -- Chemical Properties ; Methyl Compounds -- Thermal Properties
    ISSN: 0002-7863
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 27 July 2016, Vol.138(29), pp.8985-96
    Description: Surface science has had a major influence on the understanding of processes at surfaces relevant to catalysis. Real catalysts are complex materials, and in order to approach an understanding at the atomic level, it is necessary in a first step to drastically reduce complexity and then systematically increase it again in order to capture the various structural and electronic factors important for the function of the real catalytic material. The use of thin oxide films as templates to mimic three-dimensional supports as such or for metal particles as well as to model charge barriers turns out to be appropriate to approach an understanding of metal-support interactions. Thin oxide films also exhibit properties in their own right that turn out to be relevant in catalysis. Thin oxide film formation may also be used to create unique two-dimensional materials. The present perspective introduces the subject using case studies and indicates possible routes to further apply this approach successfully.
    Keywords: Katalyse ; Dünnfilm ; Oxidschicht ; Beteiligungsrecht ; Oberflächeneigenschaft ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Individual Differences, 2011, Vol.51(5), pp.629-634
    Description: ► We investigate the psychometric properties of the (QCM) using Latin Squarae Tasks and derive a short form. ► We find evidence for measurement invariance of QCM scores with respect to gender, although full intercept invariance could not be obtained. ► Females show a higher latent mean for anxiety, while males have a higher latent mean for probability of success. ► Interest significantly predicts test performance. This article explores the measurement properties of the (QCM; ), which measures four factors of current achievement motivation (anxiety, challenge, interest, and probability of success) in the context of taking an abstract reasoning test. Two studies were conducted. In study 1, the measurement model of the QCM was tested, and a short form consisting of 12 of the original 18 QCM items was derived. Data were obtained from = 350 students completing the QCM in anticipation of working on a test of Latin Square Tasks. In study 2, the measurement properties of the short form were replicated with data from a sample of = 509 students. Measurement invariance with respect to gender was investigated using multigroup CFA models. The results showed that the assumptions of equal numbers of factors, factor loadings, and residual variances could be confirmed, but evidence for full intercept invariance was not obtained. There were significant differences in the latent means for anxiety and probability of success between female and male test takers, but none of these two factors had an influence on actual test performance, which was instead significantly predicted by interest in the task.
    Keywords: Achievement Motivation ; Latin Square Task ; Measurement Invariance ; Multigroup Analysis ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0191-8869
    E-ISSN: 1873-3549
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