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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 16 June 2005, Vol.435(7044), pp.901
    Description: Coelacanths were discovered in the Comoros archipelago to the northwest of Madagascar in 1952. Since then, these rare, ancient fish have been found to the south off Mozambique, Madagascar and South Africa, and to the north off Kenya and Tanzania -- but it was unclear whether these are separate populations or even subspecies. Here we show that the genetic variation between individuals from these different locations is unexpectedly low. Combined with earlier results from submersible and oceanographic observations, our findings indicate that a separate African metapopulation is unlikely to have existed and that locations distant from the Comoros were probably inhabited relatively recently by either dead-end drifters or founders that originated in the Comoros.
    Keywords: Phylogeny ; Fishes -- Classification
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: World Development, Feb, 2014, Vol.54, p.114(25)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.007 Byline: Hans Fricke Abstract: Against the backdrop of high macroeconomic instability and the need to meet the demands of public spending, we analyze the trade-off between growth and volatility of tax revenues in Latin America. Short-run and long-run elasticities for a sample of 11 economies are estimated accounting for state-dependent asymmetric reactions. Controlling for composition of revenue sources and other idiosyncrasies, we find revenues above (below) its long-run equilibrium to react stronger (weaker) to business cycle dynamics. Our detailed elasticity estimates can give some orientation on how to stably reach higher tax levels on the way to develop an adequate internal tax system. Article History: Accepted 23 July 2013
    ISSN: 0305-750X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: World Development, Feb, 2014, Vol.54, p.114(25)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.007 Byline: Hans Fricke Abstract: Against the backdrop of high macroeconomic instability and the need to meet the demands of public spending, we analyze the trade-off between growth and volatility of tax revenues in Latin America. Short-run and long-run elasticities for a sample of 11 economies are estimated accounting for state-dependent asymmetric reactions. Controlling for composition of revenue sources and other idiosyncrasies, we find revenues above (below) its long-run equilibrium to react stronger (weaker) to business cycle dynamics. Our detailed elasticity estimates can give some orientation on how to stably reach higher tax levels on the way to develop an adequate internal tax system. Article History: Accepted 23 July 2013
    ISSN: 0305-750X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Economics of Education Review, October 2018, Vol.66, pp.14-39
    Description: What are the effects of on-campus recreational sports and exercise on educational outcomes of university students? We randomize financial incentives to encourage students’ participation in on-campus sports and exercise in two cohorts of college freshmen. Incentives increased participation frequency by 47% and improved grades by 0.14 standard deviations in the first cohort. The incentives were less effective in promoting participation and did not improve grades in the second cohort. In the first cohort, students primarily substituted off-campus with on-campus physical activities and seemed more able to integrate exercising with studying. The incentives appear to have improved grades by enhancing the effectiveness of studying and encouraging students to spend more time in class.
    Keywords: Sports ; Physical Activity ; Human Capital ; Student Achievement ; Randomized Experiment ; Education
    ISSN: 0272-7757
    E-ISSN: 1873-7382
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Economics of Education Review, June 2018, Vol.64, pp.199-213
    Description: This study investigates how exposure to a field of study influences students’ major choices. If students have incomplete information, exposure potentially helps them to learn about the scope of a field as well as how well the field matches their interest and abilities. We exploit a natural experiment where university students have to write a research paper in business, economics, or law during their first year before they choose a major. Due to oversubscription of business papers, the field of the paper is assigned quasi-randomly. We find that writing in economics raises the probability of majoring in economics by 2.7 percentage points. We show further that this effect varies across subfields: the effect is driven by assignment to topics less typical of the public's perception of the field of economics, suggesting students learn through exposure that the field is broader than they thought.
    Keywords: Major Choice ; Business ; Economics ; Law ; Higher Education ; Education ; Business ; Law ; Economics
    ISSN: 0272-7757
    E-ISSN: 1873-7382
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  • 6
    In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, June 2017, Vol.79(3), pp.426-433
    Description: This paper discusses identification based on difference‐in‐differences (DiD) approaches with multiple treatments. It shows that an appropriate adaptation of the common trend assumption underlying the DiD strategy for the comparison of two treatments restricts the possibility of effect heterogeneity for at least one of the treatments. The required assumption of effect homogeneity is likely to be violated because of non‐random assignment to treatment based on both observables and unobservables. However, this paper shows that, under certain conditions, the DiD estimate comparing two treatments identifies a lower bound in absolute values on the average treatment effect on the treated compared to the unobserved non‐treatment state, even if effect homogeneity is violated. This is possible if the treatments have ordered treatment effects, that is, in expectation, the effects of both treatments compared to no treatment have the same sign, and one treatment has a stronger effect than the other treatment on the respective recipients. Such assumptions are plausible if treatments are ordered or vary in intensity.
    Keywords: Statistics ; Economics;
    ISSN: 0305-9049
    E-ISSN: 1468-0084
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Human Capital, 01 September 2018, Vol.12(3), pp.504-541
    Description: This study analyzes the effects of an increase in the cost of going to college on student finances and achievement. It exploits a unique policy change at a Swiss university whereby students faced an unexpected increase in tuition fees. This increase differed across students. The study uses this variation in a difference-in-differences strategy to identify and estimate the causal effect of the differential increase in fees. Results based on survey data suggest that students compensate for the increase in fees with a reduction in consumption spending. In line with this finding, the estimated effects on on-time graduation, credits earned, and grades, based on data from administrative student records, are close to zero and insignificant.
    Keywords: Studienfinanzierung ; Studierende ; Bildungsverhalten ; Privater Konsum ; Schweiz ; 2003-2011;
    ISSN: 19328575
    E-ISSN: 19328664
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 10/1998, Vol.395(6701), pp.454-455
    Description: "The Diversity of Fishes" by G. S. Helfman, B. B. Collette and D. E. Facey is reviewed.
    Keywords: Fish ; General and Nonclassified (MD) ; General and Nonclassified (EC) ; General and Nonclassified (Ed) ; General and Nonclassified (Ep) ; Surveying, Theory, and Analysis (CE) ; Design Principles, Theory, and Analysis (Mt) ; Computing Milieux (General) (Ci) ; Electronics and Communications Milieux (General) (Ea) ; Solid State Milieux (General) (So) ; Article;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    In: Nature, 1992, Vol.357(6374), p.105
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Economics Letters, December 2018, Vol.173, pp.39-43
    Description: Text-message programs are increasingly popular as low-cost interventions aimed at improving a variety of health and education outcomes. This study analyzes participant opt out decisions from a set of text messaging programs aimed at fostering parent–child interactions and improving school readiness. Exploiting random assignment of parents of young children to programs and rich data on text messages and recipients, we examine how program design and text and recipient characteristics predict program opt out. The results provide evidence that the text messaging programs reach the parents of traditionally less-resourced children and show that program design affects parent opt out. Programs that provide context and encouragement along with activities reduce opt out compared to programs that send activities alone. A high quantity of texts and more complex texts lead recipients to opt out at greater rates.
    Keywords: Education ; Experiments ; Study Attrition ; Education ; Economics
    ISSN: 0165-1765
    E-ISSN: 1873-7374
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