The journal of physical chemistry. B, 15 January 2015, Vol.119(2), pp.456-64
Xanthorhodopsin (xR) is a retinal protein that contains, in addition to the retinal moiety, a salinixanthin chromophore absorbing at 456, 486, and 520 nm [Balashov, S. P.; Science 2005, 309, 2061]. The CD spectrum of xR is very unique with a "conservative" character, containing negative and positive lobes and resembling the first derivative of the absorption spectrum [Balashov, S. P.; Biochemistry 2006, 45, 10998]. It was suggested that the CD spectrum is likely to be composed of several components and that the salinixanthin interacts closely with the retinal chromophore [Balashov, S. P.; Biochemistry 2006, 45, 10998; Imasheva, E. S.; Photochem. Photobiol. 2008, 84, 977; Lanyi, J. K.; Acta Bioenerg. 2008, 1777, 684; Smolensky, E.; Biochemistry 2009, 48, 8179; Smolensky Koganov, E.; Biochemistry 2013, 52, 1290]. In this work, we aim to further explore the nature and origin of the unique CD spectrum of xR. We follow the absorption and CD spectra at different pHs of wild-type (wt) xR and of artificial xR pigments, characterized by a shifted absorption maximum of the retinal chromophore, as well as their corresponding reduced retinal protonated Schiff base pigments. Our results revealed a protein residue (other than the protonated Schiff base counterion), for which protonation affects the CD spectrum by decreasing the negative lobe at ∼530 nm and the positive lobes at 478 and 455 nm, which might be due to elimination of excitonic coupling between the salinixanthin chromophores, although other possibilities cannot be completely excluded. This spectrum change occurs by the pH decreasing, even in artificial pigment where the absorption of the retinal pigment is significantly shifted from 570 to about 450 nm. The possible excitonic coupling between the salinixanthin chromophores and its contribution to the CD spectrum of xR were supported by a good fitting of the CD spectrum to conservative (excitonic) bands [Zsila, F.; Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 2001, 12, 3125; Zsila, F.; Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 2002, 13, 273]. We propose that the CD spectrum of xR consists of contributions from an excitonic coupling interaction between the salinixanthins chromophores located in different subunits of the 3D structure of xR, the chiral conformation of the salinixanthin within its binding site, and the contribution of the retinal chromophore to the negative lobe at around 550 nm.
Circular Dichroism ; Bacterial Proteins -- Chemistry ; Retinaldehyde -- Chemistry ; Rhodopsins, Microbial -- Chemistry
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