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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Age and Ageing, 2011, Vol. 40(5), pp.641-644
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    E-ISSN: 1468-2834
    Source: Oxford University Press
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 08 December 2009, Vol.106(49), pp.20984-8
    Description: The growing apices of plants contain stem cells that continually produce tissues, which, in the shoot, include the germline. These stem cell populations remain active throughout the plant's life, which can last for centuries, and are particularly exposed to environmental hazards that cause DNA damage and mutations. It is not known whether plants have mechanisms to safeguard the genome specifically in these crucial cell populations. Here, we show that root and shoot stem cells and their early descendants are selectively killed by mild treatment with radiomimetic drugs, x-rays, or mutations that disrupt DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining. Stem cell death required transduction of DNA damage signals by the ATAXIA-TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) kinase and, specifically in the root, also the ATM/RAD3-RELATED (ATR) kinase. Consistent with the absence of p53 and the core apoptotic machinery in plants, death of the stem cells did not show apoptotic but autolytic features as seen in other cases of plant developmentally programmed cell death. We propose that plants have independently evolved selective death as a stringent mechanism to safeguard genome integrity in their stem cell populations.
    Keywords: DNA Damage ; Plant Roots -- Cytology ; Plant Shoots -- Cytology ; Stem Cell Niche -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(8), p.e71316
    Description: Human Rhinovirus (HRV) infection results in shut down of essential cellular processes, in part through disruption of nucleocytoplasmic transport by cleavage of the nucleoporin proteins (Nups) that make up the host cell nuclear pore. Although the HRV genome encodes two proteases (2A and 3C) able to cleave host proteins such as Nup62, little is known regarding the specific contribution of each. Here we use transfected as well as HRV-infected cells to establish for the first time that 3C protease is most likely the mediator of cleavage of Nup153 during HRV infection, while Nup62 and Nup98 are likely to be targets of HRV2A protease. HRV16 3C protease was also able to elicit changes in the appearance and distribution of the nuclear speckle protein SC35 in transfected cells, implicating it as a key mediator of the mislocalisation of SC35 in HRV16-infected cells. In addition, 3C protease activity led to the redistribution of the nucleolin protein out of the nucleolus, but did not affect nuclear localisation of hnRNP proteins, implying that complete disruption of nucleocytoplasmic transport leading to relocalisation of hnRNP proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in HRV-infected cells almost certainly requires 2A in addition to 3C protease. Thus, a specific role for HRV 3C protease in cleavage and mislocalisation of host cell nuclear proteins, in concert with 2A, is implicated for the first time in HRV pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 4
    In: Age and Ageing, 2006, Vol.35(4), pp.399-403
    Description: Introduction: how the National Service Framework (NSF) for older people in England might be associated with changes in clinically relevant stroke outcome has not been investigated. We looked for changes in computerised tomography (CT) scan rate, inpatient case-fatality rate (CFR), length of acute hospital stay and discharge destination for older people with stroke, compared with their younger counterparts, for a period before, and after, the introduction of the NSF. Methods: two periods, 4 years before and 2 years after the publication of the NSF, were selected to compare the above outcomes between three age categories: 65, 6584 and 85 years of age. Annual summary data for these periods were compared for the magnitude of changes in all age categories for all outcomes measured between pre- and post-NSF periods. Results: n = 5,219. Utilisation of CT imaging had increased in all age groups post-NSF, with the most significant improvement in the oldest group. This change was associated with a greater proportion of people who had CT in this age group being discharged home in the post-NSF period. There was no change in the mortality from stroke in any age group during the study. Although the length of acute hospital stay increased, this was associated with a higher percentage of home discharges particularly in 65-year olds, suggesting better clinical outcome in those who survived. Conclusions: in this single-centre analysis, the post-NSF period appeared to be associated with improvement in outcome in older people with stroke. Continual monitoring using stroke registry data may help to assess whether these effects are sustained in the longer term.
    Keywords: Nsf; Stroke; Older People; Elderly
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    E-ISSN: 1468-2834
    Source: Oxford University Press
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Description: Reinforce learning and practice key concepts with "Workbook for Pharmacology: Principles and Applications: A Worktext for Allied Health Professionals, 3rd Edition...
    Keywords: Pharmacology
    ISBN: 145570640X
    ISBN: 9781455706402
    Source: Dawsonera
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  • 6
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 1995, Vol.73(3), pp.359-373
    Description: The present paper is an aalysis of 138 5- or 7-d diet diaries collected from a free-living population of people aged 68???90 years in Norwich. Men had higher intakes than women of energy and most nutrients, but patterns of variation across the week were similar for both sexes. Intakes of meat, meat products, fish and vegetables varied across the week both in frequency and amount eaten, but the other main food groups showed no significant variation. Alcohol was taken more frequently at weekends but the amount did not vary significantly. Intakes of energy, protein and many micronutrients varied significantly with day of the week, with increased intake at weekends, especially of vegetable-derived micronutrients on Sundays, and generally decreased intake on Mondays and Fridays. Nutrient densities of carotene, retinol equivalents, folate, vitamin C, pantothenate and Zn Were all highest on Sundays, providing further evidence of variation of diet quality on different days of the week.
    Keywords: Dietary Intake; Intra-subject Variation; Elderly
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
    Source: Cambridge University Press
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  • 7
    In: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, November 2009, Vol.57(11), pp.2101-2106
    Description: To examine the effect of dysphasia and dysphagia on stroke outcome. Retrospective database study. Norfolk, United Kingdom. Two thousand nine hundred eighty‐three men and women with stroke admitted to the hospital between 1997 and 2001. Inpatient mortality and likelihood of longer length of hospital stay, defined as longer than median length of stay (LOS). Dysphagia was defined as difficulty swallowing any liquid (including saliva) or solid material. Dysphasia was defined as speech disorders in which there was impairment of the power of expression by speech, writing, or signs or impairment of the power of comprehension of spoken or written language. An experienced team assessed dysphagia and dysphasia using explicit criteria. Two thousand nine hundred eighty‐three patients (1,330 (44.6%) male), median age 78 (range 17–105), were included, of whom 77.7% had ischemic, 10.5% had hemorrhagic, and 11.8% had undetermined stroke types. Dysphasia was present in 41.2% (1,230) and dysphagia in 50.5% (1,506), and 27.7% (827) had both conditions. Having either or both conditions was associated with greater mortality and longer LOS (〈.001 for all). Using multiple logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, premorbid Rankin score, previous disabling stroke, and stroke type, corresponding odds ratios for death and longer LOS were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.8–2.7) and 1.4 (95% CI=1.2–1.6) for dysphasia; 12.5 (95% CI=8.9–17.3) and 3.9 (95% CI=3.3–4.6) for dysphagia, 5.5 (95% CI=3.7–8.2), 1.9 (95% CI=1.6–2.3) for either, and 13.8 (95% CI=9.4–20.4) and 3.7 (95% CI=3.1–4.6) if they had both, versus having no dysphasia, no dysphagia, or none of these conditions, respectively. Patients with dysphagia have worse outcome in terms of inpatient mortality and length of hospital stay than those with dysphasia. When both conditions are present, the presence of dysphagia appears to determine the likelihood of poor outcome. Whether this effect is related just to stroke severity or results from problems related directly to dysphagia is unclear.
    Keywords: Stroke ; Inpatient Mortality ; Length Of Stay ; Dysphasia ; Dysphagia ; Outcome
    ISSN: 0002-8614
    E-ISSN: 1532-5415
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Description: Written for pharmacy technicians, and addressing the competencies developed by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), "Math Calculations for Pharmacy...
    Keywords: Pharmaceutical arithmetic
    ISBN: 1437723667
    ISBN: 9781437723663
    Source: Dawsonera
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  • 9
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 1997, Vol.77(2), pp.225-242
    Description: Nutritional assessments are frequently based on amounts of nutrients consumed. In the present paper the usefulness of nutrient intake data for assessing nutrient adequacy is examined in an elderly British population. Subjects were ‘free-living’ elderly aged 68-90 years (sixty men, eighty-five women) in Norwich. Forty-two of forty-nine surviving males and sixty-seven of seventy-nine surviving females were reassessed after 2 years. With few exceptions, estimated micronutrient intake was not statistically predictive of biochemical measures of nutrient adequacy. Initial biochemical measures of nutritional adequacy were compared with those found 2 years later in an attempt to assess whether initial biochemical assessment was predictive of the ‘longer term’situation. Biochemical measurements at the start of the study were correlated to the same measurements made 2 years later for: serum ferritin, haemoglobin and erythrocyte count, whole-blood Se-glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9; males only), plasma Cu, alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1), ascorbic acid, vitamin B 6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate), folate and vitamin B 12 , total erythrocyte thiamin (males only), riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.1) activation coefficient): but not for: erythrocyte Cu-superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) or plasma Zn. Either only small changes, or no changes, in mean values were seen over the 2 years for most of the biochemical measures. One exception was a large increase in plasma folate. The only important ‘negative’ features seen at 2-year follow up were a large fall in serum ferritin concentration and a large increase in the activity of two antioxidant defence enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. As judged by currently accepted biochemical deficiency threshold values, asmall proportion of subjects were possibly at risk of Fe (3% men; 1% women), folate (7%, 3%), thiamin (12%;3%) and vitamin C (15%; 17%) deficiency. Many more appeared to be at risk of vitamin B 6 (42%; 47%) and riboflavin (77%; 79%) deficiency. It was concluded that the requirements of the elderly for vitamins B 1 , B 2 and C, and the biochemical deficiency threshold vahes used to indicate vitamin B 6 deficiency, need review
    Keywords: Micronutrients; Dietary Survey; Nutrient Status; Elderly
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
    Source: Cambridge University Press
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Exceptional Children, October 2009, Vol.76(1), pp.95-109
    Description: This journal analysis identifies types of articles published in 11 highly visible journals relevant to special education from 1988 through 2006 paying particular attention to intervention research. It was concluded that (a) research articles represent the largest category of articles published across all journals, (b) the proportion of intervention research studies published (15.9%) is disappointingly small, (c) academic intervention research is conducted more frequently than social intervention research, (d) reading intervention research represents the largest area of academic intervention research, and (e) intervention research employing preschool and elementary students with disabilities is published more frequently than research with middle and secondary students. Findings are discussed with respect to implications for research, practice, and policy in special education.
    Keywords: Education ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0014-4029
    E-ISSN: 2163-5560
    Source: Sage Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE HSS (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Education (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Journals (Sage Publications)
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