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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Ageing and Society, 2012, Vol.32(4), p.634(21)
    Description: A desire to 'return' or 'pay back' past care has been identified as a potential motivator of support provided by adult children to their aging parents. The purpose of this study is to examine whether, how and in what ways adult children interpret and apply the concept of delayed reciprocity in filial relationships. Twenty-eight men and women supporting one or both aging parent(s) in a Western Canadian city participated in a qualitative study of filial responsibility. Data were analyzed interpretively, using thematic coding, contextualized reflection and guiding questions. Findings suggest delayed reciprocity is limited as an interpretive framework for describing parent support. Overall, comments reflected qualification or rejection of 'paying back' in the sense of a filial contract. Delayed reciprocity appears for most participants to symbolize imbalance, expectedness or obligation, and a lack of affection. In response, participants tended to reject delayed reciprocity in favor of interpretations emphasizing mutuality, family role duties and reciprocated love. Findings are discussed in relation to interpretive purposes, symbolic meanings of parent support, participant characteristics and cultural contexts. KEY WORDS--delayed reciprocity, filial responsibility, social support, interpretive research. doi: 10.1017/S044686X11000523
    Keywords: Elderly – Care and Treatment ; Filial Piety – Research ; Parent-Child Relations – Methods
    ISSN: 0144-686X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2011, Vol.108(52), pp.21046-21051
    Description: Essential for DNA biosynthesis and repair, ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) convert ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides via radical-based chemistry. Although long known that allosteric regulation of RNR activity is vital for cell health, the molecular basis of this regulation has been enigmatic, largely due to a lack of structural information about how the catalytic subunit (α2) and the radical-generation subunit (β2) interact. Here we present the first structure of a complex between α2 and β2 subunits for the prototypic RNR from Escherichia coli. Using four techniques (small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and analytical ultracentrifugation), we describe an unprecedented α4β4 ring-like structure in the presence of the negative activity effector dATP and provide structural support for an active α2β2 configuration. We demonstrate that, under physiological conditions, E. coli RNR exists as a mixture of transient α2β2 and α4β4 species whose distributions are modulated by allosteric effectors. We further show that this interconversion between α2β2 and α4β4 entails dramatic subunit rearrangements, providing a stunning molecular explanation for the allosteric regulation of RNR activity in E. coli. ; p. 21046-21051.
    Keywords: Ultracentrifugation ; Ribonucleotides ; Dna ; Escherichia Coli ; Ribonucleotide Reductase ; X-Ray Diffraction ; Biosynthesis ; Electron Microscopy ; Protein Subunits ; X-Radiation
    ISSN: 0027-8424
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biodiversity and Conservation, 2014, Vol.23(12), pp.3101-3112
    Description: Recent analyses of Internet search behaviour conclude that the public’s interest in environmental issues is falling (McCallum and Bury, Biodiv Conserv 22:1355–1367, 2013). Ficetola (Biodiv Conserv 22:2983–2988, 2013) argued that the nature of the underpinning data processing may create an artificially declining trend, even when the absolute number of searches increases and public interest is growing. These findings are highly relevant for applied conservation strategies and the public media have quickly picked the message of the alarming fading interest worldwide , the possibility of devastating repercussions and calls for rapid responses in conservation communication. We challenge both analysis by evaluating Internet searches of English and non-English speaking users. The inclusion of information on the linguistic background reveals a much more differentiated picture, with some cultures displaying an increasing interest and others a decreasing interest. These analyses allow a better understanding of the importance of global—local viewpoints, cultural knowledge and cultural differences on the interpretation of underpinning human interest from Internet search patterns. Despite methodological problems limiting the utility of summary data provided by search engines, they can offer powerful information when applied spatially and temporally restricted and analysed alongside suitable benchmark indicators. We discuss that due consideration of methodological caveats is essential to inform the general public about the relevance for conservation without triggering sensationalist or over-generalizing conclusions. Conservation communication needs considering that Internet search engines do not necessarily mirror the interest of many people who are essential for the conservation of biodiversity.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Communication ; Conservation ; Google trends ; Public opinion ; Time series analysis
    ISSN: 0960-3115
    E-ISSN: 1572-9710
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  • 4
    In: Sociology of Health & Illness, September 2012, Vol.34(7), pp.1010-1024
    Description: While there is a fair amount of knowledge regarding substantive features of end of life care that family members desire and appreciate, we lack full understanding of the process whereby family members formulate care evaluations. In this article we draw on an analysis of interview data from 24 bereaved family members to explicate how they interpret their experiences and formulate evaluations of end of life care services. Most participants wove between expressing and legitimising dissatisfaction, and qualifying or diffusing it. This occurred through processes of comparisons against prior care experiences and expectations, personalising (drawing on personal situations and knowledge), collectivising (drawing on conversations with and observations of others) and attempting to understand causes for their negative care experiences and to attribute responsibility. The findings suggest that dissatisfaction might be diffused even where care is experienced negatively, primarily through the acknowledgement of mitigating circumstances. To a lesser extent, some participants attributed responsibility to the ‘system’ (policy and decision‐makers) and individual staff members. The findings are discussed in relation to the theoretical understanding of satisfaction and evaluation processes and how satisfaction data might inform improvements to care quality.
    Keywords: Healthcare Satisfaction ; End Of Life Care ; Qualitative Interviewing ; Interpretive Methods
    ISSN: 0141-9889
    E-ISSN: 1467-9566
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 15 July 2014, Vol.111(28)
    Description: Anaerobic degradation of the environmental pollutant toluene is initiated by the glycyl radical enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), which catalyzes the radical addition of toluene to fumarate, forming benzylsuccinate. We have determined crystal structures of the catalytic [alpha]-subunit of BSS with its accessory subunits [beta] and [gamma], which both bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster and are essential for BSS activity in vivo. We find that BSS[alpha] has the common glycyl radical enzyme fold, a 10-stranded [beta]/[alpha]-barrel that surrounds the glycyl radical cofactor and active site. Both accessory subunits [beta] and [gamma] display folds related to high potential iron-sulfur proteins but differ substantially from each other in how they interact with the [alpha]-subunit. BSS[gamma] binds distally to the active site, burying a hydrophobic region of BSS[alpha], whereas BSS[beta] binds to a hydrophilic surface of BSS[alpha] that is proximal to the active site. To further investigate the function of BSS[beta], we determined the structure of a BSS[alpha][gamma] complex. Remarkably, we find that the barrel partially opens, allowing the C-terminal region of BSS[alpha] that houses the glycyl radical to shift within the barrel toward an exit pathway. The structural changes that we observe in the BSS[alpha][gamma] complex center around the crucial glycyl radical domain, thus suggesting a role for BSS[beta] in modulating the conformational dynamics required for enzyme activity. Accompanying proteolysis experiments support these structural observations. microbial metabolism | bioremediation | radical chemistry | iron-sulfur cluster | crystallography www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1405983111
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 09/09/2014, Vol.111(36), pp.E3756-E3765
    Description: The class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied to date couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides with the oxidation of formate to CO2. Here we report the cloning and heterologous expression of the Neisseria bacilliformis class III RNR and show that it can catalyze nucleotide reduction using the ubiquitous thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH system. We present a structural model based on a crystal structure of the homologous Thermotoga maritima class III RNR, showing its architecture and the position of conserved residues in the active site. Phylogenetic studies suggest that this form of class III RNR is present in bacteria and archaea that carry out diverse types of anaerobic metabolism.
    Keywords: Oxidation ; Metabolism ; Phylogenetics ; Enzymes ; Bacteria ; Cloning;
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 15 July 2013, Vol.103(3)
    Description: Plasma generated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) in diffusion plasma excited by a microwave surface wave has been studied by using dielectric-based VUV sensors. Evolution of plasma VUV in the diffusion plasma as a function of the distance from the power coupling surface is investigated. Experimental results have indicated that the energy and spatial distributions of plasma VUV are mainly controlled by the energy distribution functions of the plasma electrons, i.e., electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs). The study implies that by designing EEDF of plasma, one could be able to tailor plasma VUV in different applications such as in dielectric etching or photo resist smoothing.
    Keywords: Semiconductors
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 December 2011, Vol.108(52), pp.21046-51
    Description: Essential for DNA biosynthesis and repair, ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) convert ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides via radical-based chemistry. Although long known that allosteric regulation of RNR activity is vital for cell health, the molecular basis of this regulation has been enigmatic, largely due to a lack of structural information about how the catalytic subunit (α(2)) and the radical-generation subunit (β(2)) interact. Here we present the first structure of a complex between α(2) and β(2) subunits for the prototypic RNR from Escherichia coli. Using four techniques (small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and analytical ultracentrifugation), we describe an unprecedented α(4)β(4) ring-like structure in the presence of the negative activity effector dATP and provide structural support for an active α(2)β(2) configuration. We demonstrate that, under physiological conditions, E. coli RNR exists as a mixture of transient α(2)β(2) and α(4)β(4) species whose distributions are modulated by allosteric effectors. We further show that this interconversion between α(2)β(2) and α(4)β(4) entails dramatic subunit rearrangements, providing a stunning molecular explanation for the allosteric regulation of RNR activity in E. coli.
    Keywords: Models, Molecular ; Protein Conformation ; Escherichia Coli -- Enzymology ; Protein Subunits -- Chemistry ; Ribonucleotide Reductases -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(1), p.e8923
    Description: In the face of accelerating species extinctions, map-based prioritization systems are increasingly useful to decide where to pursue conservation action most effectively. However, a number of seemingly inconsistent schemes have emerged, mostly focussing on endemism. Here we use global vertebrate distributions in terrestrial ecoregions to evaluate how continuous and categorical ranking schemes target and accumulate endangered taxa within the IUCN Red List, Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE), and EDGE of Existence programme. We employed total, endemic and threatened species richness and an estimator for richness-adjusted endemism as metrics in continuous prioritization, and WWF's Global200 and Conservation International's (CI) Hotspots in categorical prioritization. Our results demonstrate that all metrics target endangerment more efficiently than by chance, but each selects unique sets of top-ranking ecoregions, which overlap only partially, and include different sets of threatened species. Using the top 100 ecoregions as defined by continuous prioritization metrics, we develop an inclusive map for global vertebrate conservation that incorporates important areas for endemism, richness, and threat. Finally, we assess human footprint and protection levels within these areas to reveal that endemism sites are more impacted but have more protection, in contrast to high richness and threat ones. Given such contrasts, major efforts to protect global biodiversity must involve complementary conservation approaches in areas of unique species as well as those with highest diversity and threat.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Ecology -- Community Ecology And Biodiversity ; Ecology -- Global Change Ecology ; Ecology -- Spatial And Landscape Ecology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Critical Care, 05/01/2011, Vol.20(3), pp.192-192
    ISSN: 1062-3264
    E-ISSN: 1937-710X
    Source: CrossRef
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