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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 11 October 2016, Vol.113(41), pp.11591-11596
    Description: The functional annotation of transcriptomes and identification of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) classes has been greatly facilitated by the advent of next-generation RNA sequencing which, by reading the nucleotide order of transcripts, theoretically allows the rapid profiling of all transcripts in a cell. However, primary sequence per se is a poor predictor of function, as ncRNAs dramatically vary in length and structure and often lack identifiable motifs. Therefore, to visualize an informative RNA landscape of organisms with potentially new RNA biology that are emerging from microbiome and environmental studies requires the use of more functionally relevant criteria. One such criterion is the association of RNAs with functionally important cognate RNA-binding proteins. Here we analyze the full ensemble of cellular RNAs using gradient profiling by sequencing (Grad-seq) in the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica, partitioning its coding and noncoding transcripts based on their network of RNA-protein interactions. In addition to capturing established RNA classes based on their biochemical profiles, the Grad-seq approach enabled the discovery of an overlooked large collective of structured small RNAs that form stable complexes with the conserved protein ProQ. We show that ProQ is an abundant RNA-binding protein with a wide range of ligands and a global influence on Salmonella gene expression. Given its generic ability to chart a functional RNA landscape irrespective of transcript length and sequence diversity, Grad-seq promises to define functional RNA classes and major RNA-binding proteins in both model species and genetically intractable organisms.
    Keywords: Hfq ; Proq ; RNA–Protein Interaction ; Noncoding RNA ; Small RNA ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing -- Methods ; RNA, Bacterial -- Metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins -- Metabolism ; Salmonella Enterica -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 06 April 2018, Vol.293(14), pp.5064-5078
    Description: The -secreted effector SseK3 translocates into host cells, targeting innate immune responses, including NF-κB activation. SseK3 is a glycosyltransferase that transfers an -acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moiety onto the guanidino group of a target arginine, modulating host cell function. However, a lack of structural information has precluded elucidation of the molecular mechanisms in arginine and GlcNAc selection. We report here the crystal structure of SseK3 in its apo form and in complex with hydrolyzed UDP-GlcNAc. SseK3 possesses the typical glycosyltransferase type-A (GT-A)-family fold and the metal-coordinating DD motif essential for ligand binding and enzymatic activity. Several conserved residues were essential for arginine GlcNAcylation and SseK3-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activation. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed SseK3's preference for manganese coordination. The pattern of interactions in the substrate-bound SseK3 structure explained the selection of the primary ligand. Structural rearrangement of the C-terminal residues upon ligand binding was crucial for SseK3's catalytic activity, and NMR analysis indicated that SseK3 has limited UDP-GlcNAc hydrolysis activity. The release of free -acetyl α-d-glucosamine, and the presence of the same molecule in the SseK3 active site, classified it as a retaining glycosyltransferase. A glutamate residue in the active site suggested a double-inversion mechanism for the arginine -glycosylation reaction. Homology models of SseK1, SseK2, and the orthologue NleB1 reveal differences in the surface electrostatic charge distribution, possibly accounting for their diverse activities. This first structure of a retaining GT-A arginine -glycosyltransferase provides an important step toward a better understanding of this enzyme class and their roles as bacterial effectors.
    Keywords: Gt-A Family ; Salmonella Enterica ; Ssek3 ; Udp-Glcnac ; X-Ray Crystallography ; Arginine Modification ; Bacterial Effectors ; Bacterial Toxin ; Enzyme Mechanism ; Glycosyltransferase ; Glycosyltransferase Type-A ; Protein Structure ; Structural Analysis
    ISSN: 00219258
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, June 2017, Vol.85(6)
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, March 2017, Vol.85(3)
    Description: Within host cells such as macrophages, translocates virulence (effector) proteins across its vacuolar membrane via the SPI-2 type III secretion system. Previously, it was shown that when expressed ectopically, the effectors SseK1 and SseK3 inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activation. In this study, we show that ectopically expressed SseK1, SseK2, and SseK3 suppress TNF-α-induced, but not Toll-like receptor 4- or interleukin-induced, NF-κB activation. Inhibition required a DXD motif in SseK1 and SseK3, which is essential for the transfer of -acetylglucosamine to arginine residues (arginine-GlcNAcylation). During macrophage infection, SseK1 and SseK3 inhibited NF-κB activity in an additive manner. SseK3-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activation did not require the only known host-binding partner of this effector, the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32. SseK proteins also inhibited TNF-α-induced cell death during macrophage infection. Despite SseK1 and SseK3 inhibiting TNF-α-induced apoptosis upon ectopic expression in HeLa cells, the percentage of infected macrophages undergoing apoptosis was SseK independent. Instead, SseK proteins inhibited necroptotic cell death during macrophage infection. SseK1 and SseK3 caused GlcNAcylation of different proteins in infected macrophages, suggesting that these effectors have distinct substrate specificities. Indeed, SseK1 caused the GlcNAcylation of the death domain-containing proteins FADD and TRADD, whereas SseK3 expression resulted in weak GlcNAcylation of TRADD but not FADD. Additional, as-yet-unidentified substrates are likely to explain the additive phenotype of a strain lacking both SseK1 and SseK3.
    Keywords: Nf-Κb Signaling ; Salmonella ; Cell Death ; Necroptosis ; Signal Transduction ; Type III Secretion Systems ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Macrophages -- Metabolism ; Nf-Kappa B -- Metabolism ; Salmonella -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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