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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Gesunde Pflanzen, 2011, Vol.63(1), pp.49-49
    Description: The intensity of thrips and wheat blossom midges (WBM) infestations in twelve wheat cultivars was evaluated at the Plant Breeding Station, Silstedt, central Germany in 2008 & 2009 growing crop seasons. The research aimed at selecting the least infested cultivar to be profitably used in the forthcoming cultivation. Infestation levels were studied in flowering and milky stages (GS 65 and 73) of each cultivar in every single-spikelet in sample of 10 ears in both years.
    Keywords: Agriculture;
    ISSN: 0367-4223
    E-ISSN: 1439-0345
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Gesunde Pflanzen, 2011, Vol.62(3), pp.107-115
    Description: The intensity of thrips and wheat blossom midges (WBM) infestations in twelve wheat cultivars was evaluated at the Plant Breeding Station, Silstedt, central Germany in 2008 & 2009 growing crop seasons. The research aimed at selecting the least infested cultivar to be profitably used in the forthcoming cultivation. Infestation levels were studied in flowering and milky stages (GS 65 and 73) of each cultivar in every single-spikelet in sample of 10 ears in both years. There were significant differences in thrips and (WBM) densities among different cultivars in both years. Thrips numbers were the highest in Türkis, Global and Esket cultivars, while the lowest values were recorded in Robigus, Brompton and Carenius. The results showed that the highest WBM infestation was observed in Türkis, Tommi and Potenzial; on the other hand the lowest WBM infestation was found in some insect resistant cultivars (Brompton, Skalmeje, Robigus, Welford and Glasgow). The infested ears were positively correlated with the numbers of WBM among cultivars. The obtained results would give a good guide for choosing the proper cultivars which proved highly resistant to their specific pests. Die Weizengallmücken (Géhin) und (Kirby) sowie die Thripsarten (Halieus) und (Halieus) zählen zu den wichtigsten Schadinsekten am Getreide. Das mitteldeutsche Trockengebiet wurde durch die Zuchtstation der RAGT 2n Silstedt (12 Sorten) repräsentiert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden in den Jahren 2008 und 2009 in Freilandversuchen untersucht, welchen Einfluss die Koinzidenz (Zusammentreffen der Mücken mit dem sensiblen Entwicklungsstadium des Weizens) auf das Schadausmaß nimmt. Zum Einsatz kam die Methode der Ährenuntersuchung. Der Befall wurde in der Blüte und Milchreife des Getreides (BBCH 65 und 73) untersucht. Von jeder Prüfsorte wurden in jedem Jahr 10 Ähren auf Befall mit Weizengallmückenlarven und Thripsen untersucht. Es zeigten sich signifikante Unterschiede bei den Befallswerten von Weizengallmücken und Thripsen zwischen den Prüfsorten in beiden Jahren. Die Sorten Türkis, Global und Esket waren am stärksten mit Thripsen besiedelt (4.5, 4.3 und 4.1 Thripse/Ähreteil), während die Sorten Robigus und Carenius geringe Befallswerte aufwiesen (2.0 und 1.9 Thripse/Ähreteil). Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der höchste Befall mit Weizengallmückenlarven in der Sorte Türkis, (5.3 Larvae/Ähreteil) zu beobachten war. Die niedrigsten Befallswerte zeigten die resistenten Sorten (Brompton, Skalmeje, Robigus, Welford und Glasgow). Die Resultate belegen eine positive Korrelation zwischen den befallenen Ähren und den Zahlen der Weizengallmückenlarven pro Ähre. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit konnten Sorten ermittelt werden, die geringe Befallswerte zeigen und somit geeignet sind in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis dazu beizutragen Ertragsverluste zu vermindern und den Einsatz von Pflanzenschutzmitteln auf ein notwendiges Maß zu beschränken.
    Keywords: Winter wheat cultivars ; Insect resistance ; Wheat blossom midge ; Thrips ; Silstedt
    ISSN: 0367-4223
    E-ISSN: 1439-0345
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  • 3
    Language: German
    In: Gesunde Pflanzen, 2014, Vol.66(3), pp.121-128
    Description: Im Sommer 2012 wurde das Auftreten von Weizenschädlingen und ihrer natürlichen Gegenspielern mit der Methode des Kescherfangs auf einem Winterweizenfeld in der Feldflur Bad Lausick im Freistaat Sachen untersucht. Das Auftreten wurde durch den Einsatz der Insektizide Karate (Pyrethroid), Biscaya (Neonicotinoid) und NeemAzal T/S reguliert. Die Insektizide kamen zum Schossen (BBCH 32) und zum Ährenschieben (BBCH 55) zum Einsatz. Die Wirkungsgrade der Präparate (Abbott %) auf Schädlinge und Nichtzielorganismen wurden über einen Zeitraum von vier und acht Wochen erfasst. Aussagen zu den direkten Wirkungen auf Blattläuse, Zikaden, Thripse und Getreidehähnchen wurden getroffen. Für die Gruppe der Nichtzielorganismen können Aussagen zu Marienkäfern, Schwebfliegen, Florfliegen, Tanzfliegen, Spinnen und parasitische Wespen gemacht werden. Die Resultate zeigen, dass Karate über alle Schädlinge gemittelt einen Wirkungsgrad von knapp 80 % erreichte. Die Nichtzielorganismen wurden im Bereich von 30–60 % reduziert. Die Präparate Biscaya und NeemAzal T/S zeigten Wirkungsgrade im Bereich 50–65 % und die Gegenspielerpopulation wurden um Werte zwischen 10–40 % reduziert. Wheat insect pests and the beneficial arthropod populations were assessed using sweep net across a large scale winter wheat field in Bad Lausick (Free State of Saxony, Germany) before and after insecticide applications. The insecticides used were Karate (pyrethroid), Biscaya (neonicotinoid) and NeemAzal T/S (botanical insecticide). The tested compounds were sprayed twice during the early season growth stage (Elongation- GS 32) and at the heading stage (GS 55), and their effects were evaluated on wheat insect pests. The side effects of these insecticides on associated natural enemies were also studied. Monitoring was conducted for 4 weeks after each treatment. Cereal aphids, thrips, leafhoppers, cereal leaf beetles, cereal bugs and also many natural enemies such as predators (lady beetles, lacewings, syrphids, dance flies and spiders) and parasitoids (parasitic wasps) were surveyed. The dose of these insecticides resulted in reductions of wheat insect and natural enemy populations and this reduction was corrected based on Abbott equation. The results showed that Karate is correlated with the highest percentage reduction (79.5 %) to wheat insect pests. Karate use also resulted in a percentage reduction to natural enemies (30–60 %). Biscaya and NeemAzal T/S is correlated with an equivalent mortality percents (50–65 %) to wheat insect pests and resulted in a smaller percentage reduction of natural enemies (10–40 %) compared to Karate. Thrips and cereal bugs were more affected than leafhoppers. Lacewings and dance flies were more susceptible; while spider, syrphids and parasitoid wasps were more tolerant. Compatibility between natural insecticides and natural enemies is highly required to keep the environment clean.
    Keywords: Aphids ; Leafhoppers ; Thrips ; Parasitic wasps ; Predatory insects ; Spiders ; Sweep net ; Insecticides
    ISSN: 0367-4223
    E-ISSN: 1439-0345
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Gesunde Pflanzen, 2016, Vol.68(3), pp.163-171
    Description: Chamomile Matricaria recutita (L.) is an ancient healing plant; it is used for a sore stomach, a mild laxative, anti-inflammatory and a gentle sleep aid. Chamomile plants are infested by chamomile stem-weevil Microplontus rugulosus (Col., Curculionidae) and chamomile smooth beetle Olibrus aeneus (Col., Phalacridae), and can lead to a high reduction in chamomile yield. This work aimed to survey M. rugulosus and O. aeneus by different monitoring methods as well as to manage them by using entomopathogenic nematodes. Sweep nets, water traps, and dissecting the chamomile stems and flowers were used to monitor for M. rugulosus and O. aeneus . Chamomile insects were collected from naturally infested plants moved from the field to the greenhouse. Management of chamomile insects was conducted using three strains of entomopathogenic nematodes; while the control plants were sprayed only with water. Each strain was replicated three times and each replicate included 50 chamomile plants (combined total was 150 for each strain). Three treatment dates were carried out in May, June and July; the first one was mainly for controlling stem weevil, while the other two dates were for smooth beetle. The results showed that 70–80 % of stems had damage and symptoms of stem weevils. Thirty percents from the investigated plants were larvae free of smooth beetle; whiles 70 % was infested with different classifications (e. g. 1, 2, 3, 4 or more than 4 larvae/blooms). The results confirm that smooth beetle infestation and larval numbers were higher in May and June than July. Steinernema carpocapsae had more efficiency than S. feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in controlling both insects . Entomopathogenic nematodes could be one of the effective management strategies to control these insects in the chamomile fields. Kamille Matricaria recutita (L) ist eine alte Heilpflanze und wird als ein mildes Abführmittel, entzündungshemmendes Mittel und sanfte Einschlafhilfe verwendet. Kamille- pflanzen werden von vielen Insektenschädlingen befallen. Die Blütenköpfe werden vom Kamilleglattkäfer Olibrus aeneus (Fabricius 1792) geschädigt. Einen Stängelbefall verursacht der Rüsselkäfer Microplontus rugulosus (Herbst 1795). Die Arbeit verfolgte das Ziel, den Feldbefall und das Schadausmaß unter Produktionsbedingungen zu erfassen und Hinweise zur biologischen Bekämpfung der Schädlinge unter Laborbedingungen zu erarbeiten. Weiterhin sollten unter den aktuellen Bedingungen des Klimawandels das Gefährdungspotenzial dieser Schaderreger für den Kamilleanbau in Mitteldeutschland eingeschätzt werden, um Hinweise zum integrierten Pflanzenschutz zu formulieren. Die Untersuchungen wurden 2014 im Unternehmen Agrarprodukte Ludwigshof eG durchgeführt. Die Studiendaten wurden im Rahmen einer Kooperationsvereinbarung realisiert. Als Überwachungsmethoden zur Ermittlung der Populationsdynamik der Schädlinge ( M. rugulosus und O. aeneus) wurden der Kescher und Wasserfallen verwendet. Die Stängel- und Blütenbonitur diente der Ermittlung des Larvenbefalls. Der Laborversuch zur Bekämpfung wurde mit 3 Stämme von entomopathogenen Nematoden durchgeführt, während die Kontrollpflanzen nur mit Wasser besprüht wurden. Der Versuch erfolgte in dreifacher Wiederholung mit jeweils 50 Kamillepflanzen (total 150 Proben für jeden Nematoden Stamm). Drei Behandlungsdaten wurden im Mai, Juni und Juli realisiert; der erste Termin diente der Rüsselkäferbekämpfung, während an den anderen die Bekämpfung der Glattkäfer erfolgte. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass 70–80 % der Stängelproben eine Pflanzenschädigung aufwiesen oder Symptome der Rüsselkäferlarven zeigten. Dreißig Prozent der untersuchten Pflanzen waren frei von Käferlarven; aber 70 % waren in verschiedenen Schadklassen (1, 2, 3, 4 oder mehr als 4 Larven/Blüten) befallen. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen, dass der Käferbefall und die Larvenzahlen im Mai und Juni höher waren als im Juli. Der entomophage Nematode Steinernema carpocapsae hatte mehr Effizienz als die Arten S. feltiae und Heterorhabditis bacteriophora . Die Überlebensrate der Larven war am höchsten in der unbehandelten Kontrolle. Die Studie zeigt, dass der Einsatz entomopathogener Nematoden (EPNS) eine effektive Managementstrategie sein könnte, um Schadinsekten in Kamille beständig zu regulieren und es wäre eine geeignete Regelstrategie im Rahmen des integrierten Pflanzenschutzes.
    Keywords: Chamomile plants ; Entomopathogenic nematodes ; Sweep net ; Water traps
    ISSN: 0367-4223
    E-ISSN: 1439-0345
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural Sciences, 2010-08-01, 1卷2期 (Vol.1, Issue 2), pp.68-75
    Description: Wheat ear insects in large scale winter wheat field in Salzmünde (Saxsony-Anhalt) central Germany were evaluated. The present study aimed at studying the abundance of wheat blossom midges WBM, Sitodoplosis mosellana (Géhin), Contarinia tritici (Kirby) and thrips, Limothrips cerealium (Haliday) and Haplothrips tritici (Kurdjumov). Infestation in winter wheat during the growing seasons 2007, 2008 and 2009 was evaluated. Three methods were used to determine population densities and damage of wheat midges and thrips; pheromone traps, inspection of ear insects and water traps. A strong correlation between midge's catches and weather conditions was obtained in field observations. A positive correlation between pheromone catches and ear infestation levels was recorded; it was higher in 2008 than in 2009. On the other hand, in 2007 there was no synchronization; S. mosellana hibernated emerged too late to coincide with the susceptible wheat growth stages. The chemical treatment applied at 2008 for highly infestation; there were significant differences in thrips and midge numbers between treated and untreated. Thrips and midge numbers were lower in the treated than in control. The high midge populations in water traps were recorded at growth stages 77-79 and 83 and the low populations were recorded at GS 75 and 75-77. This gives a reliable base for decision making to midges control.
    Keywords: Winter Wheat ; Thrips ; Wheat Midges ; Population Densities
    ISSN: 2156-8553
    E-ISSN: 21568561
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 2010, Vol.117(6), pp.261-267
    Description: Susceptibility of spring wheat to infestation with wheat blossom midges (WBM) and thrips was studied in Central Germany in the two seasons, 2008 and 2009. WBM Sitodiplosis mosellana, Contarinia tritici and the thrips species Limothrips denticornis and L. cerealium are among the major pests of wheat ears. Pheromone traps were used for surveying S. mosellana adults. Ear-infestations in the wheat varieties Triso (high quality in Germany) and Sakha 93 (resistant to drought in Egypt) were evaluated by counting insects at flowering stage (GS 65) and the milk-ripe stage (GS 73). Migrating WBM larvae were evaluated using water traps. In the pheromone traps, density of S. mosellana adults started high and then the population steadily declined until the end of the season. There was no significant difference in the total number of thrips and WBM larvae between varieties at GS 65 in either year, while differences between varieties at GS 73 were significant. Thrips and WBM larvae numbers were significantly higher in Triso than Sakha 93 in 2008 and 2009. The infested ears were positively correlated with WBM counts in both varieties. Numbers of migrated yellow midge larvae were higher in 2008, but lower in 2009 than orange midge. Yield was higher in Triso than Sakha 93 in both seasons.
    Keywords: Contarinia tritici ; Limothrips denticornis ; Sitodiplosis mosellana ; thrips ; varieties ; yield
    ISSN: 1861-3829
    E-ISSN: 1861-3837
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of pest science, 2011, Vol.84(1), pp.49-59
    Description: Population densities of wheat ear insects infesting different winter wheat varieties (n = 50) were estimated during 2008 and 2009 seasons near Halle, central Germany. The research was aimed at identifying wheat varieties most resistant to wheat ear insect pests. Two methods were used to evaluate the degree of insect infestations in different wheat ear varieties. Wheat ears were dissected when kernels were in Zadoks stage 73 and examined using a binocular microscope to count the number of spikelets and infested kernels, and to identify the insect pests present. In addition, white water traps were placed on the soil underneath each variety to collect mature larvae of wheat blossom midges (WBMs) as an indicator of potential crop risk for the next year. There were significant differences in the number of thrips and WBM infesting wheat ears among varieties in both years. Thrips numbers were the highest in Akratos, Limes and Ritmo varieties in 2008 and in Michigan Amber, Elegant and Kontrast in 2009. Thrips were the lowest in Thuareg in 2008 and Robigus varieties in 2009. The results showed that the highest WBM infestation level was observed in Michigan Amber in both years. The lowest WBM infestations were found in Türkis, Cubus, Capo, Welford and Robigus in both years. The number of infested kernels was positively correlated with WBM among varieties. In the water traps, the highest numbers of WBM larvae were recorded in Saladin and Bussard in 2008 and Orlando, Julius and Glasgow varieties in 2009. The lowest values were recorded in Victo, Enorm, Robigus and Welford varieties in both years. The results provide a guide for selecting winter wheat varieties with resistance to these wheat ear pests. ; Includes references ; p. 49-59.
    Keywords: Pest Management ; Wheat Blossom Midge ; Resistance ; Thrips ; Winter Wheat Varieties
    ISSN: 1612-4758
    E-ISSN: 16124766
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pest Science, 2011, Vol.84(1), pp.49-59
    Description: Population densities of wheat ear insects infesting different winter wheat varieties ( n  = 50) were estimated during 2008 and 2009 seasons near Halle, central Germany. The research was aimed at identifying wheat varieties most resistant to wheat ear insect pests. Two methods were used to evaluate the degree of insect infestations in different wheat ear varieties. Wheat ears were dissected when kernels were in Zadoks stage 73 and examined using a binocular microscope to count the number of spikelets and infested kernels, and to identify the insect pests present. In addition, white water traps were placed on the soil underneath each variety to collect mature larvae of wheat blossom midges (WBMs) as an indicator of potential crop risk for the next year. There were significant differences in the number of thrips and WBM infesting wheat ears among varieties in both years. Thrips numbers were the highest in Akratos, Limes and Ritmo varieties in 2008 and in Michigan Amber, Elegant and Kontrast in 2009. Thrips were the lowest in Thuareg in 2008 and Robigus varieties in 2009. The results showed that the highest WBM infestation level was observed in Michigan Amber in both years. The lowest WBM infestations were found in Türkis, Cubus, Capo, Welford and Robigus in both years. The number of infested kernels was positively correlated with WBM among varieties. In the water traps, the highest numbers of WBM larvae were recorded in Saladin and Bussard in 2008 and Orlando, Julius and Glasgow varieties in 2009. The lowest values were recorded in Victo, Enorm, Robigus and Welford varieties in both years. The results provide a guide for selecting winter wheat varieties with resistance to these wheat ear pests.
    Keywords: Winter wheat varieties ; Resistance ; Wheat blossom midge ; Thrips ; Pest management
    ISSN: 1612-4758
    E-ISSN: 1612-4766
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Gesunde Pflanzen, 2013, Vol.65(1), pp.7-13
    Description: Orange wheat blossom midge damage can impart serious loss of quantity and quality of winter wheat. Wheat midges were evaluated in large scale field in winter wheat in Bad Lausick (Leipzig, Saxsony) central Germany. The present study aimed at studying the activity of wheat blossom midges WBM, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) and Contarinia tritici (Kirby) using pheromone, sticky traps and two types of water traps. Management of midges with different treatments was studied; Karate (pyrethroid), Biscaya (neonicotinoid) and NeemAzal T/S (botanical insecticide) were sprayed on wheat at heading stage (GS 55). Monitoring was conducted before the treatment and continued for 4 weeks after the treatment. Pheromone traps were used for forecasting midge adult population and determine the control date. Water traps were used to assess midge larvae, while midge adults were surveyed using sticky traps. A strong correlation between midge catches and weather conditions was obtained; as well a coincidence between pheromone catches and wheat midge infestation in the susceptible growth stages (GS 47–65) was recorded. Insecticide applications to fields of midge-infested winter wheat significantly reduced the wheat midge damage. There were significant differences in wheat midge numbers between treated and untreated; wheat midge numbers were lower in the treated than in control. The results proved that both Karate and Biscaya caused more mortality to wheat midges than NeemAzal T/S. Weizengallmücken sind ökonomisch bedeutsame Schädlinge im Winterweizen und können in Abhängigkeit vom Befallsbeginn in der Weizenähre verschiedene Schadsymptome (z. B. Kümmerkörner) verursachen. Zur Etablierung einer Bekämpfungsstrategie wurde im Jahre 2012 in der Leipziger Tieflandsbucht ein Insektizidversuch auf einem Praxisschlag durchgeführt. Die Zielstellung des sogenannten „On–Farm-Experiment“ war es, eine Bewertung direkt im Produktionsfeld vorzunehmen und Hinweise zur Entscheidungsunterstützung der Landwirte zu formulieren. Der methodische Ansatz berücksichtigte den Einsatz von Pheromonfallen, Gelbtafeln und Wasserschalen zur Überwachung der Flugaktivität der Mücken und zur Erfassung des Abwanderungsverhaltens der Larven. Die Bekämpfungsstrategie orientierte sich am derzeitigen Wissensstand und terminierte einen Spritztermin zum Ährenschieben. Es wurden zugelassene Insektizide hinsichtlich ihrer Effektivität gegenüber Weizengallmücken in einem Zeitfenster von fünf Wochen getestet. Die Ergebnisse 2012 zeigen eine gute Korrelation zwischen Mückenaktivität und den Wetterbedingungen. Die Pheromonfallenfänge signalisieren unter den Feldbedingungen eine enge Koinzidenz zwischen dem Flughöhepunkt und dem kritischen Pflanzenstadium (BBCH 55–65). Der Bekämpfungstermin war somit optimal auf die Schädlingsaktivität abgestimmt. Die Feldstudie belegt signifikante Unterschiede zwischen den Varianten. Die höchsten Wirkungsgrade erzielte der Einsatz von Karate Zeon, gefolgt von Biscaya und NeemAzal T/S. Die Datenanalyse des Experiments zeigt ein hohes Schadpotential von Weizengallmücken auf dem Kontrollschlag und unterstreicht die Notwendigkeit diese versteckt lebenden Ährenschädlinge exakt zu überwachen.
    Keywords: Wheat blossom midges ; Pheromone traps ; Insecticides ; Water traps ; Winter wheat
    ISSN: 0367-4223
    E-ISSN: 1439-0345
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 1 December 2013, Vol.120(5/6), pp.238-244
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology -- Wheat ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences -- Wheat ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology -- Wheat ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Developmental biology -- Wheat ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Biological taxonomies -- Wheat ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany -- Wheat ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Wheat ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Animal ecology -- Wheat ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- Wheat ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Farming -- Wheat
    ISSN: 18613829
    E-ISSN: 18613837
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