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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Physiology, 2011, Vol.168(9), pp.911-919
    Description: The sucrose transporter functions in phloem loading of photoassimilates in solanaceous plant species. In the present study, wildtype and transgenic potato plants with either constitutive overexpression or inhibition of were grown under high or low phosphorus (P) fertilization levels in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus . At a low soil P fertilization level, the extent of AM fungal root colonization was not different among the genotypes. In all plants, the AM symbiosis contributed significantly to P uptake under these conditions. In response to a high soil P fertilization level, all genotypes showed a decrease in AM fungal root colonization, indicating that the expression level of does not constitute a major mechanism of control over AM development in response to the soil P availability. However, plants with overexpression of showed a higher extent of AM fungal root colonization compared with the other genotypes when the soil P availability was high. Whether an increased symbiotic C supply, alterations in the phytohormonal balance, or a decreased synthesis of antimicrobial compounds was the major cause for this effect requires further investigation. In plants with impaired phloem loading, a low C status of plant sink tissues did apparently not negatively affect plant C supply to the AM symbiosis. It is possible that, at least during vegetative and early generative growth, source rather than sink tissues exert control over amounts of C supplied to AM fungi.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Carbohydrate Partitioning ; Phloem Loading ; Phosphorus Nutrition ; Sucrose Transporter Sut1 ; Botany
    ISSN: 0176-1617
    E-ISSN: 16181328
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.364(1), pp.341-355
    Description: Aims: The aim was to quantify the nitrogen (N) transferred via the extra-radical mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices from both a dead host and a dead non-host donor root to a receiver tomato plant. The effect of a physical disruption of the soil containing donor plant roots and fungal mycelium on the effectiveness of N transfer was also examined. Methods: The root systems of the donor (wild type tomato plants or the mycorrhiza-defective rmc mutant tomato) and the receiver plants were separated by a 30 mu m mesh, penetrable by hyphae but not by the roots. Both donor genotypes produced a similar quantity of biomass and had a similar nutrient status. Two weeks after the supply of super(15)N to a split-root part of donor plants, the shoots were removed to kill the plants. The quantity of N transferred from the dead roots into the receiver plants was measured after a further 2 weeks. Results: Up to 10.6 % of donor-root super(15)N was recovered in the receiver plants when inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF). The quantity of super(15)N derived from the mycorrhizal wild type roots clearly exceeded that from the only weakly surface-colonised rmc roots. Hyphal length in the donor rmc root compartments was only about half that in the wild type compartments. The disruption of the soil led to a significantly increased AMF-mediated transfer of N to the receiver plants. Conclusions: The transfer of N from dead roots can be enhanced by AMF, especially when the donor roots have been formerly colonised by AMF. The transfer can be further increased with higher hyphae length densities, and the present data also suggest that a direct link between receiver mycelium and internal fungal structures in dead roots may in addition facilitate N transfer. The mechanical disruption of soil containing dead roots may increase the subsequent availability of nutrients, thus promoting mycorrhizal N uptake. When associated with a living plant, the external mycelium of G. intraradices is readily able to re-establish itself in the soil following disruption and functions as a transfer vessel.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Reduced mycorrhizal colonisation (rmc) mutant ; Extra-radical mycelium ; Root turnover ; Solanum lycopersicum
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.372(1), pp.361-374
    Description: Issue Title: In Memory of Horst Marschner This study aimed to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and phosphorus (P) supply levels on [beta]-carotene concentrations in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) tubers. Two commercial AM fungal isolates of Glomus intraradices (IFP Glintra) and Glomus mosseae (IFP Glm) which differ in their life cycles were used. Sweet potato plants were grown in a horizontal split-root system that consisted of two root compartments. A root-free fungal compartment that allowed the quantification of mycelial development was inserted into each root compartment. The two root compartments were inoculated either with the same or with different AM isolates, or remained free of mycorrhizal propagules. Each fungal treatment was carried out in two P supply levels. In the low P supply level, mycorrhizal colonization significantly increased [beta]-carotene concentrations in sweet potato tubers compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. Glomus intraradices appeared to be more efficient in increasing [beta]-carotene concentrations than G. mosseae. Dual inoculation of the root system with the two mycorrhizal fungi did not result in a higher increase in tuber [beta]-carotene concentrations than inoculation with the single isolates. Improved P nutrition led to higher plant tuber biomass but was not associated with increased [beta]-carotene concentrations. The results indicate a remarkable potential of mycorrhizal fungi to improve [beta]-carotene concentrations in sweet potato tubers in low P fertilized soils. These results also suggest that [beta]-carotene metabolism in sweet potato tubers might be specifically activated by root mycorrhizal colonization.[PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: β-carotene ; Glomus intraradices ; Glomus mosseae ; Phosphorus ; Sweet potato
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 June 2014, Vol.152, pp.190-196
    Description: The decrease of water availability is leading to an urgent demand to reduce the plants’ water supply. This study evaluates the effect of topsoil drying, combined with varying sulfur (S) supply on glucosinolates in in order to reveal whether a partial root drying may already lead to a drought-induced glucosinolate increase promoted by an enhanced S supply. Without decreasing biomass, topsoil drying initiated an increase in aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and in topsoil dried roots supported by increased S supply. Simultaneously, abscisic acid was determined, particularly in dehydrated roots, associated with an increased abscisic acid concentration in leaves under topsoil drying. This indicates that the dehydrated roots were the direct interface for the plants’ stress response and that the drought-induced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates is related to abscisic acid formation. Indole and aromatic glucosinolates decreased, suggesting that these glucosinolates are less involved in the plants’ response to drought.
    Keywords: 2-Propenyl Glucosinolate ; Topsoil Drying ; Abscisic Acid ; N:S Ratio ; Vegetable Mustard ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental and Experimental Botany, 2015, Vol.109, p.288(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2014.06.008 Byline: Yu Tong, Elke Gabriel-Neumann, Angelika Krumbein, Benard Ngwene, Eckhard George, Monika Schreiner Abstract: * AM inoculation and intercropping induced a systemic increase of indole GSL in broccoli plant. * AM inoculation and intercropping caused an increase of 3-indolylmethyl GSL in broccoli leaves. * The dry matter of broccoli and sesame were increased by AM inoculation and intercropping. * Concentration of the aromatic 2-phenylethyl GSL was less affected by inoculation with AM fungi. Author Affiliation: (a) Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Grossbeeren and Erfurt e.V., Theodor-Echtermeyer-Weg 1, 14979 Grossbeeren, Germany (b) Department of Crop Sciences, Humboldt University, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany (c) Faculty of Food and Agriculture, Department of Aridland Agriculture, UAE University, P.O. Box 17555, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates Article History: Received 28 January 2014; Revised 26 April 2014; Accepted 8 June 2014
    Keywords: Fungi ; Cropping Systems
    ISSN: 0098-8472
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental and Experimental Botany, January 2015, Vol.109, pp.288-295
    Description: This study determined interactive effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and sesame ( ) intercropping on glucosinolate concentrations in broccoli ( var. Italica) plants. An experimental intercropping model of a horizontal three-compartment split-root system was used. It comprised the middle (combi) compartment shared by one part of the root system of the two intercropped plants, and two outer (solo) compartments with the other part of each root system. Broccoli was intercropped either with an AM host plant (sesame) or an AM non-host plant (broccoli). All intercropping combinations were cultivated in soil that was either mycorrhiza free [−M] or inoculated with [+M]. Although broccoli roots were not internally colonised by mycorrhiza, AM inoculation of broccoli intercropped with sesame induced a systemic increase of indole glucosinolates in broccoli roots and leaves. This increase differed in the individual indole glucosinolate: in particular, 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate was enhanced in leaves and its methoxylated derivative 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate was raised in roots. These interactive effects suggest that the activity of AM fungi in the (combi) compartment was stimulated by the AM host plant sesame, leading to a persistent invasion of AM fungi of the broccoli root surface. This may lead to a constant defence response in broccoli. The broccoli biomass was not negatively affected by AM fungal inoculation. When intercropped with sesame, the dry matter of broccoli shoots was increased.
    Keywords: Glucosinolate ; Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi ; Am Non-Host ; Intercropping ; Broccoli ; Sesame ; Environmental Sciences ; Botany
    ISSN: 0098-8472
    E-ISSN: 1873-7307
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