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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.367(1), pp.285-299
    Description: Issue Title: Pedogenesis, nutrient dynamics, and ecosystem development: the legacy of T.W. Walker and J.K. Syers The water storage properties of plant residues play an important role in the regulation of water retention and water transport in no-till agricultural soils. The objective of this work was to understand how the characteristics of crop residues determine their water absorption and retention properties. A range of eleven undecomposed crop residues and maize stem residue of different particle sizes at three stages of decomposition were characterized regarding their physical and chemical features. Water immersion for varying periods of time was used to determine the kinetics of water absorption and the maximal water storage for each type of residue. The immersion time required to reach an equilibrium moisture content varied greatly according to the residue type, ranging from 6 to 30 h at 20 °C. The maximal water content ranged from 1.28 to 3.81 g H2O g^sup -1^ dry residue for undecomposed residues and increased with increasing decomposition. The proportions of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the plant cell walls did not explain the water storage capacities. Differences in porosity, resulting from different tissue densities and the creation of pores during decomposition, were highly correlated with differences in water storage properties. The tissue density of plant residues, which can be inferred from simple characteristics of residue mass and volume, is a relevant criterion for explaining the maximal water storage capacity of plant residues.[PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Chemical composition ; Decomposition ; Mulch ; Moisture content ; Porosity
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, June 2013, Vol.91(11), pp.1447-1455
    Description: ► The degree of mulch decomposition enhanced the adsorption of non-ionic pesticides. ► Desorption of glyphosate increased with maize mulch decomposition. ► Desorption of s-metolachlor and epoxiconazole decreased with mulch decomposition. ► Sorption of non-ionic pesticides was predicted using compositional information of mulch. Assessing pesticide fate in conservation agricultural systems requires a detailed understanding of their interaction with decomposing surface crop residues (mulch). Adsorption and desorption behavior of glyphosate, s-metolachlor and epoxiconazole was investigated on maize mulch residues decomposed under laboratory and field conditions. Our conceptual approach included characterization of chemical composition and hydrophobicity of mulch residues in order to generate parameters to predict sorption behavior. Adsorption of s-metolachlor and epoxiconazole greatly increased with mulch decomposition, whereas glyphosate adsorption was less affected but its desorption was increased. Mulch characteristics including aromaticity, hydrophobicity and polarity indices were strongly correlated to of the non-ionic pesticides. A predictive model based on compositional data (CoDa) analysis revealed that the sorption capacity of decomposing mulch can be predicted from descriptors such as aromatic and alkyl C corresponding respectively to lignin and NDF biochemical fractions. The decomposition degree of mulch residues should be taken into account while predicting the fate of pesticides.
    Keywords: Maize Mulch ; Adsorption–Desorption ; Glyphosate ; S-Metolachlor ; Epoxiconazole ; Compositional Analysis ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2015, Vol.88, p.90(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.05.008 Byline: Marc Pinheiro, Patricia Garnier, Jeremy Beguet, Fabrice Martin Laurent, Laure Vieuble Gonod Abstract: The biodegradation of organic compounds in soil is a key process that has major implications for different ecosystem services such as soil fertility, air and water quality, and climate regulation. Due to the complexity of soil, the distributions of organic compounds and microorganisms are heterogeneous on sub-cm scales, and biodegradation is therefore partly controlled by the respective localizations of organic substrates and degraders. If they are not co-localized, transfer processes become crucial for the accessibility and availability of the substrate to degraders. This spatial interaction is still poorly understood, leading to poor predictions of organic compound dynamics in soils. The objectives of this work were to better understand how the mm-scale distribution of a model pesticide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and its degraders drives the fate of 2,4-D at the cm soil core scale. We constructed cm-scale soil cores combining sterilized and "natural" soil aggregates in which we controlled the initial distributions of 2,4-D and soil microorganisms with the following spatial distributions: i) a homogeneous distribution of microorganisms and 2,4-D at the core-scale, ii) a co-localized distribution of microorganisms and 2,4-D in a single spot (360 mm.sup.3) and iii) a disjoint localization of microorganisms and 2,4-D in 2 soil spots (360 mm.sup.3) separated by 2 cm. Two sets of experiments were performed: one used radiolabeled.sup.14C-2,4-D to study the fate of 2,4-D, and the other used.sup.12C-2,4-D to follow the dynamics of degraders. Microcosms were incubated at 20 [degrees]C and at field capacity (-31.6 kPa). At the core scale, we followed 2,4-D mineralization over time. On three dates, soil cores with microorganisms and 2,4-D localized in soil spots, were cut out in slices and then in 360 mm.sup.3 soil cubes. The individual soil cubes were then independently analysed for extractable and non-extractable.sup.14C and for degraders (quantitative PCR of tfdA genes). Knowing the initial position of each soil cube allowed us to establish 3D maps of 2,4-D residues and degraders in soil. The results indicated that microorganisms and pesticide localizations in soil are major driving factors of i) pesticide biodegradation, by regulating the accessibility of 2,4-D to degrading microorganisms (by diffusion); and ii) the formation of non-extractable residues (NER). These results also emphasized the dominant role of microorganisms in the formation and localization of biogenic NER at a mm-scale. To conclude, these results demonstrate the importance of considering micro-scale processes to better understand the fate of pesticides and more generally of soil organic substrates at upper scales in soil and suggest that such spatial heterogeneity should not be neglected when predicting the fate of organic compounds in soils. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UMR Environment et Grandes Cultures, Av. L. Bretignieres, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (b) INRA, UMR Agroecologie, 17 rue Sully, BP 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France (c) AgroParisTech, UMR Environment et Grandes Cultures, Av. L. Bretignieres, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France Article History: Received 23 September 2014; Revised 6 May 2015; Accepted 8 May 2015
    Keywords: Herbicides – Analysis ; Soil Microbiology – Analysis ; Biodegradation – Analysis ; Growth Regulators – Analysis ; Soil Structure – Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Oct, 2013, Vol.65, p.144(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.05.023 Byline: Maha Chalhoub, Patricia Garnier, Yves Coquet, Bruno Mary, Francois Lafolie, Sabine Houot Abstract: Regular application of composts on cropped soils has been shown to restore soil organic matter contents. The effect of repeated applications of three urban composts on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in a cropped loamy soil was compared to farmyard manure application and a control receiving no amendment. Each amendment application brought on average 250-400 kg ha.sup.-1 of total N. After five applications, total organic N increased in amended soils from 9 to 27% compared to control and the increase of soil organic N corresponded to 32-79% of total N brought by the amendments. The PASTIS model was used to describe the N balance in the soil-plant system during the 2 years after a sixth amendment application and provided correct predictions of N dynamics in cropped plots. The N availability increased in all treatments receiving organic amendments. The N availability in the soils amended with urban composts or manure was predominantly driven by the biodegradability of the organic amendments, their mineral N content and by the cropping conditions. Composts with high biodegradability exhibited higher proportion of N recovery by plants (21% for the municipal solid waste compost) during the year following their application, while more stabilised composts (biowaste compost, co-compost of sludge and green wastes) increased the N availability mainly through the increase of soil organic N content and mineralisation after several compost applications (6-8% of the soil organic N increase). Mature composts behaved comparably to FYM, except that for FYM very little N from the last application was available. Regular compost applications equivalent to 200 kg N ha.sup.-1 every other year could increase N availability for crops of 50-70 kg N ha.sup.-1 over the 2 years of the crop rotation. However, the most stabilised composts led to a higher crop N recovery but also to potential higher amounts of leached N compared to less mature composts. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UMR 1091 INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (b) AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (c) INRA, US 1158 Agro-Impact, F-02000 Barenton Bugny, France (d) INRA, UMR1114 INRA-UAPV EMMAH, F-84914 Avignon, France Article History: Received 17 October 2012; Revised 19 May 2013; Accepted 20 May 2013
    Keywords: Loams -- Technology Application ; Cropping Systems -- Technology Application ; Municipal Solid Wastes -- Usage ; Municipal Solid Wastes -- Technology Application
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 April 2018, Vol.619-620, pp.239-248
    Description: Management and remediation actions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated sites require an accurate knowledge of the dynamics of these chemicals in situ under real conditions. Here we developed, under the Virtual Soil Platform, a global model for PAH that describes the principal physical and biological processes controlling the dynamics of PAH in soil under real climatic conditions. The model was applied first to simulate the observed dynamics of phenanthrene in situ field experimental plots of industrial contaminated soil. In a second step, different long-term scenarios of climate change or bioavailability increase were applied. Our results show that the model can adequately predict the fate of phenanthrene and can contribute to clarify some of unexplored aspects regarding the behavior of phenanthrene in soil like its degradation mechanism and stabilization. Tested prospective scenarios showed that bioavailability increase (through the addition of solvent or surfactants) resulted in significant increase in substrate transfer rate, hence reducing remediation time. Regarding climate change effect, the model indicated that phenanthrene concentration decreased by 54% during 40 years with a natural attenuation and both scenarios chosen for climatic boundaries provided very similar results.
    Keywords: Virtual Soil Platform ; Pah Reactivity ; Industrial Contaminated Soil ; Future Climate Change ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, March 2018, Vol.616-617, pp.658-668
    Description: A new model that was able to simulate the behaviours of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during composting and after the addition of the composts to agricultural soil is presented here. This model associates modules that describe the physical, biological and biochemical processes involved in PAH dynamics in soils, along with a module describing the compost degradation resulting in PAH release. The model was calibrated from laboratory incubations using three C-PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and three different composts consisting of two mature and one non-mature composts. First, the labelled PAHs were added to the compost over 28 days, and spiked composts were then added to the soil over 55 days. The model calculates the proportion of biogenic and physically bound residues in the non-extractable compartment of PAHs at the end of the compost incubation to feed the initial conditions of the model for soil amended with composts. For most of the treatments, a single parameter set enabled to simulate the observed dynamics of PAHs adequately for all the amended soil treatments using a Bayesian approach. However, for fluoranthene, different parameters that were able to simulate the growth of a specific microbial biomass had to be considered for mature compost. Processes that occurred before the compost application to the soil strongly influenced the fate of PAHs in the soil. Our results showed that the PAH dissipation during compost incubation was higher in mature composts because of the higher specific microbial activity, while the PAH dissipation in amended soil was higher in the non-mature compost because of the higher availability of PAHs and the higher co-metabolic microbial activity.
    Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon ; Model ; Soil ; Compost ; Bounded Residue ; Bayesian Approach ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, December 2017, Vol.555, pp.253-256
    Description: In the last decade, X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become widely used to characterize the geometry and topology of the pore space of soils and natural porous media. Regardless of the resolution of CT images, a fundamental problem associated with their use, for example as a starting point in simulation efforts, is that sub-resolution pores are not detected. Over the last few years, a particular type of modeling method, known as "Grey" or "Partial Bounce Back" Lattice-Boltzmann (LB), has been adopted by increasing numbers of researchers to try to account for sub-resolution pores in the modeling of water and solute transport in natural porous media. In this short paper, we assess the extent to which Grey LB methods indeed offer a workable solution to the problem at hand. We conclude that, in spite of significant computational advances, a major experimental hurdle related to the evaluation of the penetrability of sub-resolution pores, is blocking the way ahead. This hurdle will need to be cleared before Grey LB can become a credible option in the microscale modeling of soils and sediments. A necessarily interdisciplinary effort, involving both modelers and experimentalists, is needed to clear the path forward.
    Keywords: Computer Modeling ; Transport Processes ; Image Resolution ; Measurement ; Interdisciplinary Research ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Schizophrenia Research, April 2012, Vol.136, pp.S159-S159
    ISSN: 0920-9964
    E-ISSN: 1573-2509
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 01 January 2016, Vol.88, pp.156-163
    Description: Acetyl Sulfamethoxazole (AC-SMX) and acetaminophen (ACM) can be found in municipal sewage sludge, and their content and availability may be influenced by sludge treatments, such as drying and liming. A sludge similarly centrifuged with/without a flocculant was spiked with C-labelled AC-SMX or ACM. Then, it was either limed (20% CaO) or/and dried under different laboratory conditions (1 week at ambient temperature; and 48 h at 40 or 80 °C). The total amount and distribution of the C-compounds among several chemical fractions, based on the sludge floc definition, were assessed at the end of the treatments. All the C-activity brought initially was recovered in the limed and/or dried sludges for AC-SMX but only between 44.4 and 84.9% for ACM, with the highest rate obtained for the limed sludge. Drying at 80 °C or liming increased the percentage of the sludge total organic carbon recovered in the extracts containing soluble extracellular polymeric substances (S-EPS) and the percentage of the total C-activity extracted simultaneously. The non-extractable residues represented only 3.9–11.6% of the total C-activity measured in the treated sludges for AC-SMX and 16.9–21.8% for ACM. The presence of AC-SMX and ACM residues in the treated sludges, after liming and drying under different conditions, was shown using some C-labelled molecules. At this time scale and according to the extraction method selected, most of the C-residues remained soluble and easily extractable for both compounds. This result implies that certain precautions should be taken when storing sludges before being spread on the field. Sludge piles, particularly the limed sludge, should be protected from rain to limit the production of lixiviates, which may contain residues of AC-SMX and ACM.
    Keywords: Activated Sludge ; Sewage Sludge Treatment ; Sulfonamide Antibiotics ; Paracetamol ; Extracellular Polymeric Substances ; Humic Substances ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, March 2018, Vol.194, pp.828-836
    Description: Sludge recycled in agriculture may bring antibiotics into cropped soils. The nature, total amount, and availability of the antibiotics in soil partly depend on the sludge treatments. Our paper compares the fate of N-acetyl sulfamethoxazole (AC-SMX) residues between soils incubated with the same sludge but submitted to different processes before being added in soil. The fate of C-AC-SMX residues was studied in mixtures of soil and sludges at different treatment levels: 1) activated and 2) centrifuged sludges, both enriched with C-AC-SMX, and 3) limed and 4) heat-dried sludges obtained by treating the previously contaminated centrifuged sludge. The evolution of the extractability of C residues (CaCl , methanol) and their mineralization were followed during 119 days. More than 80% of the initial C-activity was no longer extractable after 14 days, except in soil with limed sludge. Liming and drying the centrifuged sludge decreased the mineralized C fraction from 5.7-6.4% to 1.2–1.8% and consequently, the corresponding soils contained more C residues after 119 days. Although C residues were more CaCl -extractable in soil with limed sludge, they seemed to be poorly bioavailable for biodegradation. For all solid sludges, the mineralization rate of C-AC-SMX residues was strongly correlated to that of sludge organic carbon, with a coefficient three times lower for the limed and dried sludges than for the centrifuged sludge after 14 days.
    Keywords: Sulfonamide ; Availability ; Sorption ; Sludge Organic Matter ; Lime Addition ; Thermal Drying ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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