Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
Type of Medium
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2011, Vol.262(2), pp.105-114
    Description: ► Competition for N between young and adult beech is reduced by seasonal timing. ► Beech seedlings favour N uptake in spring, adult beech trees in autumn. ► Removal of vegetation components does not play a role in this competition. ► Competition between plants and soil microorganisms is, therefore, not avoided. Plant growth, reproduction, and biomass allocation may be affected differently by nitrogen availability depending on tree size and age. In this context, competition for limited N may be avoided by different strategies of N acquisition between different vegetation components (i.e., seedlings, mature trees, other woody and herbaceous understorey). This study investigated in a field experiment whether the competition for N between different vegetation components in beech forests was prevented via seasonal timing of N uptake and affected by microbial N use. For this purpose, a removal approach was used to study the seasonal effects on N uptake and N metabolites in adult beech trees and beech natural regeneration, as well as soil microbial processes of inorganic N production and utilisation. We found that the competition for N between beech natural regeneration and mature beech trees was reduced by seasonal avoidance strategies (“good parenting”) of N uptake regardless of the N sources used. In spring, organic and inorganic N uptake capacity was significantly higher in beech seedlings compared to adult beech trees, whereas in autumn mature beech trees showed the highest N uptake rates. Removal of vegetation components did not result in changes in soil microbial N processes in the course of the growing season. Thus, N resources released by the removal of vegetation components were marginal. This consistency in soil microbial N processes indicates that competition between plants and soil microorganisms for N was not avoided by timing of acquisition during the vegetation period, but existed during the entire growing season. In conclusion, N nutrition in the studied forest ecosystem seems to be optimally attuned to European beech.
    Keywords: Fagus Sylvatica ; N Uptake ; N Metabolites ; Soil Microorganisms ; Soil N Processes ; Removal Approach ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.368(1), pp.519-534
    Description: Background and aims: Litter decomposition is regulated by e.g. substrate quality and environmental factors, particularly water availability. The partitioning of nutrients released from litter between vegetation and soil microorganisms may, therefore, be affected by changing climate. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of litter type and drought on the fate of litter-derived N in beech seedlings and soil microbes. Methods: We quantified super(15)N recovery rates in plant and soil N pools by adding super(15)N-labelled leaf and/or root litter under controlled conditions. Results: Root litter was favoured over leaf litter for N acquisition by beech seedlings and soil microorganisms. Drought reduced super(15)N recovery from litter in seedlings thereby affecting root N nutrition. super(15)N accumulated in seedlings in different sinks depending on litter type. Conclusions: Root turnover appears to influence (a) N availability in the soil for plants and soil microbes and (b) N acquisition and retention despite a presumably extremely dynamic turnover of microbial biomass. Compared to soil microorganisms, beech seedlings represent a very minor short-term N sink, despite a potentially high N residence time. Furthermore, soil microbes constitute a significant N pool that can be released in the long term and, thus, may become available for N nutrition of plants.
    Keywords: Litter types ; Root litter ; Leaf litter ; Decomposition ; Microbial biomass ; Plant N metabolism ; Soil N pools ; N recovery
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, Oct, 2011, Vol.159(10), p.2467(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.025 Byline: Xing Wu (a)(b), Nicolas Bruggemann (c), Rainer Gasche (a), Hans Papen (a), Georg Willibald (a), Klaus Butterbach-Bahl (a) Abstract: Based on multi-year measurements of CH.sub.4 exchange in sub-daily resolution we show that clear-cutting of a forest in Southern Germany increased soil temperature and moisture and decreased CH.sub.4 uptake. CH.sub.4 uptake in the first year after clear-cutting (-4.5 [+ or -] 0.2 [mu]g C m.sup.-2 h.sup.-1) was three times lower than during the pre-harvest period (-14.2 [+ or -] 1.3 [mu]g C m.sup.-2 h.sup.-1). In contrast, selective cutting did not significantly reduce CH.sub.4 uptake. Annual mean uptake rates were -1.18 kg C ha.sup.-1 yr.sup.-1 (spruce control), -1.16 kg C ha.sup.-1 yr.sup.-1 (selective cut site) and -0.44 kg C ha.sup.-1 yr.sup.-1 (clear-cut site), respectively. Substantial seasonal and inter-annual variations in CH.sub.4 fluxes were observed as a result of significant variability of weather conditions, demonstrating the need for long-term measurements. Our findings imply that a stepwise selective cutting instead of clear-cutting may contribute to mitigating global warming by maintaining a high CH.sub.4 uptake capacity of the soil. Author Affiliation: (a) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU), Kreuzeckbahnstrasse 19, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (b) State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 100085 Beijing, China (c) Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Agrosphere Institute (IBG-3), Leo-Brandt-Strasse, 52425 Julich, Germany Article History: Received 14 February 2011; Revised 10 June 2011; Accepted 19 June 2011
    Keywords: Weather ; Global Warming ; Methane
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 18736424
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.369(1), pp.657-668
    Description: Aims: Our aims were to characterize the fate of leaf-litter-derived nitrogen in the plant-soil-microbe system of a temperate beech forest of Southern Germany and to identify its importance for N nutrition of beech seedlings. Methods: super(15)N-labelled leaf litter was traced in situ into abiotic and biotic N pools in mineral soil as well as into beech seedlings and mycorrhizal root tips over three growing seasons. Results: There was a rapid transfer of super(15)N into the mineral soil already 21 days after tracer application with soil microbial biomass initially representing the dominant litter-N sink. However, super(15)N recovery in non-extractable soil N pools strongly increased over time and subsequently became the dominant super(15)N sink. Recovery in plant biomass accounted for only 0.025 % of super(15)N excess after 876 days. After three growing seasons, super(15)N excess recovery was characterized by the following sequence: non-extractable soil N〉〉extractable soil N including microbial biomass〉〉plant biomass〉ectomycorrhizal root tips. Conclusions: After quick vertical dislocation and cycling through microbial N pools, there was a rapid stabilization of leaf-litter-derived N in non-extractable N pools of the mineral soil. Very low super(15)N recovery in beech seedlings suggests a high importance of other N sources such as root litter for N nutrition of beech understorey.
    Keywords: Nitrogen cycling ; Beech ; 15N-labelled leaf litter ; 15N tracing ; Microbial biomass ; Ectomycorrhiza
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 January 2017, Vol.575, pp.1150-1155
    Description: Forest ecosystems may act as sinks or sources of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) compounds, such as the climate relevant trace gases nitrous oxide (N O), nitric oxide (NO) and methane (CH ). Forest edges, which catch more atmospheric deposition, have become important features in European landscapes and elsewhere. Here, we implemented a fully automated measuring system, comprising static and dynamic measuring chambers determining N O, NO and CH fluxes along an edge-to-interior transect in an oak ( ) and a pine ( ) forest in northern Belgium. Each forest was monitored during a 2-week measurement campaign with continuous measurements every 2 h. NO emissions were 9-fold higher than N O emissions. The fluxes of NO and CH differed between forest edge and interior, but not for N O. This edge effect was more pronounced in the oak than in the pine forest. In the oak forest, edges emitted less NO (on average 60%) and took up more CH (on average 177%). This suggests that landscape structure can play a role in the atmospheric budgets of these climate relevant trace gases. Soil moisture variation between forest edge and interior was a key variable explaining the magnitude of NO and CH fluxes in our measurement campaign. To better understand the environmental impact of N and C trace gas fluxes from forest edges, additional and long-term measurements in other forest edges are required.
    Keywords: Forest Edge ; Nitrogen Deposition ; Nitrous Oxide ; Nitric Oxide ; Methane ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Environment, July 2016, Vol.137, pp.113-126
    Description: NO fluxes from soils are a significant source for tropospheric NO , though global and regional estimates of the soil source strength are constrained by the paucity of measurements. In a continuous 18 month effort (2012–2014) soil NO fluxes from an intensively managed arable site in the black soil region of the Southern Ukraine (Odessa region) were measured using an automated dynamic chamber system. Measurements revealed three periods of peak NO emissions (fertigation, re-wetting of soils, and to a lower extend during winter), with a pulse emission peak during soil re-wetting in summer of 88.4 μg N m  h . The mean annual NO flux was 5.1 ± 8.9 μg N m  h and total annual NO emissions were 0.44 ± 0.78 kg N ha  yr . The fertilizer induced emission factor for NO was 0.63% under beetroot. The combined effect of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil DIN (NH and NO ) concentrations were identified as drivers of the temporal and spatial variability of soil NO fluxes. This work shows that long-term measurements are needed for estimating annual fluxes and the importance of soils as a source for tropospheric NO as the contribution of different seasons and crop growing periods to the annual budget differed markedly.
    Keywords: Nitric Oxide ; Nitrogen Dioxide ; Black Soil ; No Budget ; Fertigation ; Rewetting ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    E-ISSN: 1873-2844
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, October 2017, Vol.229, pp.119-131
    Description: In this study water balance components as well as nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon leaching were quantified by means of large weighable grassland lysimeters at three sites (860, 770 and 600 m a.s.l.) for both intensive and extensive management. Our results show that at E600, the site with highest air temperature (8.6 °C) and lowest precipitation (981.9 mm), evapotranspiration losses were 100.7 mm higher as at the site (E860) with lowest mean annual air temperature (6.5 °C) and highest precipitation (1359.3 mm). Seepage water formation was substantially lower at E600 (−440.9 mm) as compared to E860. Compared to climate, impacts of management on water balance components were negligible. However, intensive management significantly increased total nitrogen leaching rates across sites as compared to extensive management from 2.6 kg N ha year (range: 0.5–6.0 kg N ha year ) to 4.8 kg N ha year (range: 0.9–12.9 kg N ha year ). N leaching losses were dominated by nitrate (64.7%) and less by ammonium (14.6%) and DON (20.7%). The low rates of N leaching (0.8–6.9% of total applied N) suggest a highly efficient nitrogen uptake by plants as measured by plant total N content at harvest. Moreover, plant uptake was often exceeding slurry application rates, suggesting further supply of N due to soil organic matter decomposition. The low risk of nitrate losses via leaching and surface runoff of cut grassland on non-sandy soils with vigorous grass growth may call for a careful site and region specific re-evaluation of fixed limits of N fertilization rates as defined by e.g. the German Fertilizer Ordinance following requirements set by the European Water Framework and Nitrates Directive. Due to vigorous plant N uptake nitrogen leaching - dominated by nitrate - was low and far below IPCC default estimates, calculated as fraction from N input.
    Keywords: Grassland Soils ; Nitrogen Leaching ; Plant N Uptake ; Manure ; Water Balance ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, October 2011, Vol.159(10), pp.2467-2475
    Description: Based on multi-year measurements of CH exchange in sub-daily resolution we show that clear-cutting of a forest in Southern Germany increased soil temperature and moisture and decreased CH uptake. CH uptake in the first year after clear-cutting (−4.5 ± 0.2 μg C m  h ) was three times lower than during the pre-harvest period (−14.2 ± 1.3 μg C m  h ). In contrast, selective cutting did not significantly reduce CH uptake. Annual mean uptake rates were −1.18 kg C ha  yr (spruce control), −1.16 kg C ha  yr (selective cut site) and −0.44 kg C ha  yr (clear-cut site), respectively. Substantial seasonal and inter-annual variations in CH fluxes were observed as a result of significant variability of weather conditions, demonstrating the need for long-term measurements. Our findings imply that a stepwise selective cutting instead of clear-cutting may contribute to mitigating global warming by maintaining a high CH uptake capacity of the soil. ► Long-term, sub-daily measurements of CH exchange at differently managed forest sites. ► Inter-annual variability in CH uptake is affected by annual precipitation. ► Clear-cutting reduces the CH sink strength of forest soils, whereas thinning has no significant effect. ► Sink strength changes due to clear cutting are long-term and were still present approx. nine years following forest harvest. Forest management affects the soil CH sink strength, with clear-cutting reducing uptake rates for at least eight years.
    Keywords: Methane ; Clear-Cutting ; Selective Cutting ; Soil Temperature ; Wfps ; Inter-Annual Variability ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    In: Global Change Biology, September 2016, Vol.22(9), pp.2963-2978
    Description: The carbon‐ and nitrogen‐rich soils of montane grasslands are exposed to above‐average warming and to altered precipitation patterns as a result of global change. To investigate the consequences of climatic change for soil nitrogen turnover, we translocated intact plant–soil mesocosms along an elevational gradient, resulting in an increase of the mean annual temperature by approx. 2 °C while decreasing precipitation from approx. 1500 to 1000 mm. Following three years of equilibration, we monitored the dynamics of gross nitrogen turnover and ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria () and archaea () in soils over an entire year. Gross nitrogen turnover and gene levels of and showed pronounced seasonal dynamics. Both summer and winter periods equally contributed to cumulative annual N turnover. However, highest gross N turnover and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were observed in frozen soil of the climate change site, likely due to physical liberation of organic substrates and their rapid turnover in the unfrozen soil water film. This effect was not observed at the control site, where soil freezing did not occur due to a significant insulating snowpack. Climate change conditions accelerated gross nitrogen mineralization by 250% on average. Increased N mineralization significantly stimulated gross nitrification by rather than by . However, climate change impacts were restricted to the 2–6 cm topsoil and rarely occurred at 12–16 cm depth, where generally much lower N turnover was observed. Our study shows that significant mineralization pulses occur under changing climate, which is likely to result in soil organic matter losses with their associated negative impacts on key soil functions. We also show that N cycling processes in frozen soil can be hot moments for N turnover and thus are of paramount importance for understanding seasonal patterns, annual sum of N turnover and possible climate change feedbacks.
    Keywords: Ammonia‐Oxidizing Archaea ; Ammonia‐Oxidizing Bacteria ; Freeze‐Thaw ; Frozen Soil ; Gross N Mineralization ; Gross Nitrification ; Montane Grassland
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2006, Vol.287(1), pp.279-300
    Description: The effects of forest management (thinning) on gross and net N conversion, the balance of inorganic N production and consumption, inorganic N concentrations and on soil microbial biomass in the Ah layer were studied in situ during eight intensive field measuring campaigns in the years 2002–2004 at three beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forest sites. At all sites adjacent thinning plots (“T”) and untreated control plots (“C”) were established. Since the sites are characterized either by cool-moist microclimate (NE site and NW site) or by warm-dry microclimate (SW site) and thinning took place in the year 1999 at the NE and SW sites and in the year 2003 at the NW site the experimental design allowed to evaluate (1) short-term effects (years 1–2) of thinning at the NW site and (2) medium-term effects (years 4–6) of thinning under different microclimate at the SW and NE site. Microbial biomass N was consistently higher at the thinning plots of all sites during most of the field campaigns and was overall significantly higher at the SWT and NWT plots as compared to the corresponding untreated control plots. The size of the microbial biomass N pool was found to correlate positively with both gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as with extractable soil NO 3 − concentrations. At the SW site neither gross ammonification, gross nitrification, gross ammonium (NH 4 + ) immobilization and gross nitrate (NO 3 − ) immobilization nor net ammonification, net nitrification and extractable NH 4 + and NO 3 − contents were significantly different between control and thinning plot. At the NET plot lower gross ammonification and gross NH 4 + immobilization in conjunction with constant nitrification rates coincided with higher net nitrification and significantly higher extractable NO 3 − concentrations. Thus, the medium-term effects of thinning varied with different microclimate. The most striking thinning effects were found at the newly thinned NW site, where gross ammonification and gross NH 4 + immobilization were dramatically higher immediately after thinning. However, they subsequently tended to decrease in favor of gross nitrification, which was significantly higher at the NWT plot as compared to␣the␣NWC plot during all field campaigns after␣thinning except for April 2004. This increase␣in␣gross nitrification at the NWT plot (1.73 mg N kg −1  sdw day −1 versus 0.48 mg N kg −1 sdw day −1 at the NWC plot) coincided with significantly higher extractable NO 3 − concentrations (4.59 mg N kg −1 sdw at the NWT plot versus 0.96 mg N kg −1  sdw at the NWC plot). Pronounced differences in relative N retention (the ratio of gross NH 4 + immobilization + gross NO 3 − immobilization to gross ammonification + gross nitrification) were found across the six research plots investigated and could be positively correlated to the soil C/N ratio ( R  = 0.94; p  = 0.005). In sum, the results obtained in this study show that (1) thinning can lead to a shift in the balance of microbial inorganic N production and consumption causing a clear decrease in the N retention capacity in the monitored forest soils especially in the first two years after thinning, (2)␣the resistance of the investigated forest ecosystems to disturbances of N cycling by thinning may vary with different soil C contents and C/N ratios, e. g. caused by differences in microclimate, (3) thinning effects tend to decline with the growth of understorey vegetation in the years 4–6 after thinning.
    Keywords: Beech ; Immobilization ; Microbial biomass N ; Nitrification ; N mineralization ; Thinning ; C/N ratio
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages