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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(4), p.e0195345
    Description: Fungal communities in agricultural soils are assumed to be affected by soil and crop management. Our intention was to investigate the impact of different tillage and fertilization practices on fungal communities in a long-term crop rotation field trial established in 1992 in Central Germany. Two winter wheat fields in replicated strip-tillage design, comprising conventional vs. conservation tillage, intensive vs. extensive fertilization and different pre-crops (maize vs. rapeseed) were analyzed by a metabarcoding approach applying Illumina paired-end sequencing of amplicons generated by two recently developed primer pairs targeting the two fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer regions (ITS1, ITS2). Analysis of 5.1 million high-quality sequence reads uncovered a diverse fungal community in the two fields, composed of 296 fungal genera including 3,398 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) at the 97% sequence similarity threshold. Both primer pairs detected the same fungal phyla (Basidio-, Asco-, Zygo-, Glomero- and Chytridiomycota), but in different relative abundances. OTU richness was higher in the ITS1 dataset, while ITS2 data were more diverse and of higher evenness. Effects of farming practice on fungal community structures were revealed. Almost two-thirds of the fungal genera were represented in all different soil treatments, whereas the remaining genera clearly responded to farming practice. Principal Component Analysis revealed four distinct clusters according to tillage practice and pre-crop. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) substantiated the results and proved significant influences of tillage and pre-crop, while fertilization had the smallest and non-significant effect. In-depth analysis of putative phytopathogenic and plant beneficial fungal groups indicated distinct responses; for example Fusarium was significantly enriched in the intensively fertilized conservation tillage variants with the pre-crop maize, while Phoma displayed significant association with conventional tillage and pre-crop rapeseed. Many putative plant beneficial fungi also reacted differentially to farming practice with the most distinct responders identified among the Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF).
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Acta Mycologica, 01 December 2014, Vol.49(2), pp.305-318
    Description: The purpose of this article is to research and retrieve patent information regarding the therapeutic use of truffles. Truffles have a unique value as a foodstuff and impact positively on human health and well-being. They are applied in such industries as the pharmaceutical industry and the cosmetic industry. Patent documentation available in the Espacenet network and the Patentscope service were analyzed by key word and patent specifications were examined to describe state of the art and to identify scientific research trends in therapeutic applications of truffles. Medicinal properties of truffles such as the anticancer or cardiovascular effect, a reduction in blood lipids, immunological resistance and increased energy were identified. Other therapeutic benefits include sedative action, prevention of hormonal imbalances in women, pre-menopause symptom relief, senile urethritis and prostate disorders, sleep disorders and increased absorption of calcium from milk. Truffles can also be used to alleviate symptoms of milk intolerance such as diarrhoea or bloating, to ease rheumatic pains and to treat and prevent further development or recurrence of senile cataract.
    Keywords: Truffle Fungi ; Tuber ; Therapeutic Potential of Truffles ; Patent Survey
    ISSN: 0001625X
    E-ISSN: 2353-074X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Diversity, 01 November 2015, Vol.7(4), pp.360-384
    Description: Using biological fertilizers and pesticides based on beneficial soil microbes in order to reduce mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides in conventional agriculture is still a matter of debate. In this regard, a European research project seeks to elucidate the role of root-endophytic fungi and to develop molecular tools to trace and quantify these fungi in the rhizosphere and root tissue. To do this, the draft genome sequence of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens (T. virens) was screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and primers were developed for 12 distinct loci. Primers were evaluated using a global collection of ten isolates where an average of 7.42 alleles per locus was detected. Nei’s standard genetic distance ranged from 0.18 to 0.27 among the isolates, and the grand mean of haploid diversity in AMOVA analysis was 0.693 ± 0.019. Roots of tomato plants were inoculated with different strains and harvested six weeks later. Subsequent PCR amplification identified root-endophytic strains and co-colonization of roots by different strains. Markers were applied to qPCR to quantify T. virens strains in root tissue and to determine their identity using allele-specific melting curve analysis. Thus, the root-endophytic lifestyle of T. virens was confirmed, strains in roots were quantified and simultaneous colonization of roots by different strains was observed.
    Keywords: Hypocrea Virens ; Simple Sequence Repeat ; Microsatellite ; Molecular Marker ; Fragment Analysis ; Root Endophyte ; Biocontrol ; Strain Identification ; Qpcr ; Monitoring ; Biology
    E-ISSN: 1424-2818
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Agronomy, 01 October 2018, Vol.8(10), p.213
    Description: The use of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) as bio-effectors (BEs) to improve the nutrient acquisition of crops has a long history. However, limited reproducibility of the expected effects still remains a major challenge for practical applications. Based on the hypothesis that the expression of PGPM effects depends on soil type and the properties of the applied fertilizers, in this study, the performance of selected microbial inoculants was investigated for two contrasting low-fertility soils supplied with different organic and inorganic fertilizers. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with tomato on an alkaline sandy loam of pH 7.8 and an acidic loamy sand of pH 5.6 with limited phosphate (P) availability. Municipal waste compost, with and without poultry manure (PM), rock phosphate (RP), stabilized ammonium, and mineral nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization were tested as fertilizer variants. Selected strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Priest et al. 1987) Borriss et al. 2011 (FZB42) and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (OMG16) with proven plant growth-promoting potential were used as inoculants. On both soils, P was identified as a major limiting nutrient. Microbial inoculation selectively increased the P utilization in the PM-compost variants by 116% and 56% on the alkaline and acidic soil, while RP utilization was increased by 24%. This was associated with significantly increased shoot biomass production by 37–42%. Plant growth promotion coincided with a corresponding stimulation of root growth, suggesting improved spatial acquisition of soluble soil P fractions, associated also with improved acquisition of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca). There was no indication for mobilization of sparingly soluble Ca phosphates via rhizosphere acidification on the alkaline soil, and only mineral NPK fertilization reached a sufficient P status and maximum biomass production. However, on the moderately acidic soil, FZB42 significantly stimulated plant growth of the variants supplied with Ca–P in the form of RP + stabilized ammonium and PM compost, which was equivalent to NPK fertilization; however, the P nutritional status was sufficient only in the RP and NPK variants. The results suggest that successful application of microbial biofertilizers requires more targeted application strategies, considering the soil properties and compatible fertilizer combinations.
    Keywords: Bio-Effector (Be) ; Compost ; Tomato ; Phosphate Mobilization ; Phosphorus Recovery Efficiency (Pre) ; Poultry Manure (Pm) ; Biofertilizer ; Nitrogen ; Trichoderma Harzianum ; Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Fzb42 ; Agriculture
    E-ISSN: 2073-4395
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2019, Vol.129, pp.17-28
    Description: The profound intensification of agricultural practices by increased application of agro-chemicals, short crop rotations and ploughing resulted in loss of soil fertility, erosion and accumulation of soil-borne plant pathogens. Soil microbial communities are key players in ecosystem processes and are intimately linked to crop productivity and health. Thus a better understanding of how farming practices affect soil microbiota is needed in order to promote sustainable agriculture. The long-term field trial in Bernburg (Germany) established in 1992 provides a unique opportunity to assess the effects of i) the crop (maize rapeseed) preceding the actual winter wheat culture, ii) tillage practice (mouldboard plough cultivator tillage) and iii) standard nitrogen (N)-fertilization intensity with application of growth regulators and fungicides (intensive) compared to reduced N-fertilization without growth regulators and fungicides (extensive). We hypothesized that these different farming practices affect the soil prokaryotic community structures with consequences for their functional potential. Total community-DNA was extracted directly from soils sampled at wheat harvest. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from total community-DNA revealed a significant effect of tillage practice and the preceding crop on prokaryotic community structures, whereas the influence of N-fertilization intensity was marginal. A number of differentially abundant prokaryotic genera and their predicted functions between mouldboard plough cultivator tillage as well as between different preceding crops were identified. Compared to extensive N-fertilization, intensive N-fertilization resulted in higher abundances of bacterial but not of archaeal genes, that are involved in ammonia oxidation. Our data suggest that long-term farming strategies differently shape the soil prokaryotic community structure and functions, which should be considered when evaluating agricultural management strategies regarding their sustainability, soil health and crop performance.
    Keywords: Bacterial Community Composition ; Tillage ; Fertilization ; Crop Rotation ; 16s Rrna Gene Amplicon Sequencing ; Soil Microbiome ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant disease, July 2019, Vol.103(7), pp.1674-1684
    Description: A growing world population requires an increase in the quality and quantity of food production. However, field losses due to biotic stresses are currently estimated to be between 10 and 20% worldwide. The risk of resistance and strict pesticide legislation necessitate innovative agronomical practices to adequately protect crops in the future, such as the identification of new substances with novel modes of action. In the present study, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to characterize root extracts that were primarily composed of the stilbenes rhaponticin, desoxyrhaponticin, and resveratrol. Minor components were the flavonoids catechin, epicatechin gallate, and procyanidin B1. Specific polyphenolic mixtures inhibited mycelial growth of several phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Foliar spray applications with fractions containing stilbenes and flavonoids inhibited spore germination of powdery mildew in with indications of synergistic interactions. Formulated extracts led to a significant reduction in the incidence of brown rust in under field conditions. mutant and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction studies suggested that the stilbenes induce salicylic acid-mediated resistance. Thus, the identified substances of roots represent an excellent source of antifungal agents that can be used in horticulture and agriculture.
    Keywords: Antifungal Compound ; Cereals and Grains ; Cultural and Biological Practices ; Disease Management ; Flavonoid ; Phytopathogenic Fungi ; Plant Defense ; Powdery Mildew ; Salicylic Acid ; Stilbene
    ISSN: 0191-2917
    E-ISSN: 19437692
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Microorganisms, 01 January 2019, Vol.7(2), p.38
    Description: Phosphate-(P)-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) are important drivers of P cycling in natural and agro-ecosystems. Their use as plant inoculants to improve P acquisition of crops has been investigated for decades. However, limited reproducibility of the expected effects, particularly under field conditions, remains a major challenge. This study demonstrates that the form of nitrogen fertilization has a significant impact on the performance of various fungal and bacterial PSM inoculants in maize grown on neutral to alkaline soils with limited P availability. Under these conditions, a high soil pH-buffering capacity frequently limits the efficiency of nutrient mobilization, mediated by plant roots and microorganisms via rhizosphere acidification. In a soil pH range between 7.0 and 8.0, nitrate fertilization promoting rhizosphere alkalinisation further aggravates this problem. Accordingly, in greenhouse experiments, six strains of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Streptomyces, and Penicillium with proven P-solubilizing potential, completely failed to promote P acquisition in maize grown on a calcareous Loess sub-soil pH 7.6 with nitrate fertilization and rock phosphate (Rock-P) as a sparingly soluble P source. However, after replacement of nitrate fertilization by ammonium, stabilized with the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole-phosphate (DMPP), five out of seven investigated PSM inoculants (comprising 12 fungal and bacterial PSM strains) exerted beneficial effects on plant growth and reached up to 88% of the shoot biomass production of a control supplied with soluble triple-superphosphate (TSP). Stabilized ammonium combined with PSM-inoculants improved P acquisition (Trichoderma harzianum T22, Pseudomonas sp. DMSZ 13134), while other strains particularly stimulated root growth (T. harzianum OMG16, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42), which promoted the acquisition also of other mineral nutrients, such as N, K, and Mn. A similar effect was recorded under field conditions on an alkaline clay-loam soil pH 8.6. The combination of stabilized ammonium with a range of consortium products based on T. harzianum OMG16, B. amyloliquefaciens, micronutrients, and humic acids completely compensated the effect of a TSP fertilization on field establishment, nutrient acquisition, and yield formation in maize, while non-stabilized urea-di-ammonium phosphate fertilization was largely ineffective. These findings suggest that the efficiency of PSM-plant interactions can be influenced by the form of N fertilization, offering promising perspectives for synergistic effects with stabilized ammonium fertilizers.
    Keywords: Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms (Pgpm) ; P-Solubilizing Microorganisms (Psm) ; Maize ; Nitrogen ; Stabilized Ammonium ; N-Form, 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole-Phosphate (Dmpp) ; Phosphate Mobilization ; Biology
    E-ISSN: 2076-2607
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  • 8
    In: Environmental Microbiology, July 2019, Vol.21(7), pp.2426-2439
    Description: Long‐term agricultural fertilization strategies gradually change soil properties including the associated microbial communities. Cultivated crops recruit beneficial microbes from the surrounding soil environment root exudates. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of long‐term fertilization strategies across field sites on the rhizosphere prokaryotic ( and ) community composition and plant performance. We conducted growth chamber experiments with lettuce ( L.) cultivated in soils from two long‐term field experiments, each of which compared organic versus mineral fertilization strategies. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed the assemblage of a rhizosphere core microbiota shared in all lettuce plants across soils, going beyond differences in community composition depending on field site and fertilization strategies. The enhanced expression of several plant genes with roles in oxidative and biotic stress signalling pathways in lettuce grown in soils with organic indicates an induced physiological status in plants. Lettuce plants grown in soils with different fertilization histories were visibly free of stress symptoms and achieved comparable biomass. This suggests a positive aboveground plant response to belowground plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Besides effects of fertilization strategy and field site, our results demonstrate the crucial role of the plant in driving rhizosphere microbiota assemblage.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology – Physiological Aspects ; Soil Microbiology – Analysis ; Plant Genetics – Physiological Aspects ; Plant Genetics – Analysis ; Plants (Organisms) – Physiological Aspects ; Plants (Organisms) – Analysis ; Soil Ecology – Physiological Aspects ; Soil Ecology – Analysis ; Microbiota (Symbiotic Organisms) – Physiological Aspects ; Microbiota (Symbiotic Organisms) – Analysis ; RNA – Physiological Aspects ; RNA – Analysis;
    ISSN: 1462-2912
    E-ISSN: 1462-2920
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Current Genetics, 1994, Vol.26(3), pp.191-197
    Description: Fifty isolates of Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr. were hierarchically sampled from four well-separated locations of a single chickpea field in Beja (Tunisia), and single-spored. DNA was isolated from in-vitro-grown mycelia, digested with Hin fI or Rsa I, and hybridized to a set of synthetic oligonucleotides complementary to simple repetitive sequences. According to the fingerprint patterns derived from the probes (CA) 8 , (CAA) 5 , (CAT) 5 and (GATA) 4 , 12 different fungal haplotypes were found at various frequencies within the investigated field. Seven haplotypes were confined to one location only, four occurred at two, one at three, and none at all four locations. Most of the genetic variability originated from diversity within, rather than between, locations. In some cases, more than one haplotype was isolated from the same lesion of a single host plant. Genetic distances between isolates, as calculated from band-sharing data, varied between 0.05 and 0.22. Relatedness between the different haplotypes was evaluated by cluster analysis using UPGMA.
    Keywords: Ascochyta rabiei ; DNA fingerprinting ; Simple repetitive sequences ; Genetic diversity
    ISSN: 0172-8083
    E-ISSN: 1432-0983
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Transport in Porous Media, 2016, Vol.112(1), pp.207-227
    Description: According to experimental observations, capillary trapping is strongly dependent on the roughness of the pore–solid interface. We performed imbibition experiments in the range of capillary numbers ( Ca ) from $$10^{-6}$$ 10 - 6 to $$5\times 10^{-5}$$ 5 × 10 - 5 using 2D-micromodels, which exhibit a rough surface. The microstructure comprises a double-porosity structure with pronounced macropores. The dynamics of precursor thin-film flow and its importance for capillary trapping are studied. The experimental data for thin-film flow advancement show a square-root time dependence. Based on the experimental data, we conducted inverse modeling to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the dynamic contact angle of precursor thin-film flow. Our experimental results show that trapped gas saturation decreases logarithmically with an increasing capillary number. Cluster analysis shows that the morphology and number of trapped clusters change with capillary number. We demonstrate that capillary trapping shows significant differences for vertical flow and horizontal flow. We found that our experimental results agree with theoretical results of percolation theory for $$Ca =10^{-6}$$ C a = 10 - 6 : (i) a universal power-like cluster size distribution, (ii) the linear surface–volume relationship of trapped clusters, and (iii) the existence of the cutoff correlation length for the maximal cluster height. The good agreement is a strong argument that the experimental cluster size distribution is caused by a percolation-like trapping process (ordinary percolation). For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that the transition zone model proposed by Wilkinson (Phys Rev A 30:520–531, 1984) can be applied to 2D-micromodels, if bicontinuity is generalized such that it holds for the thin-film water phase and the bulk gas phase.
    Keywords: 2D-micromodel with rough surface ; Precursor thin-film flow ; Snap-off trapping ; Universal power law ; Ordinary bond percolation
    ISSN: 0169-3913
    E-ISSN: 1573-1634
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